Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Distribution System Related Abstracts

16 Application of Transportation Linear Programming Algorithms to Cost Reduction in Nigeria Soft Drinks Industry

Authors: Salami Akeem Olanrewaju

Abstract:

The transportation models or problems are primarily concerned with the optimal (best possible) way in which a product produced at different factories or plants (called supply origins) can be transported to a number of warehouses or customers (called demand destinations). The objective in a transportation problem is to fully satisfy the destination requirements within the operating production capacity constraints at the minimum possible cost. The objective of this study is to determine ways of minimizing transport cost in order to maximum profit. Data were gathered from the records of the Distribution Department of 7-Up Bottling Company Plc. Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. The data were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) while applying the three methods of solving a transportation problem. The three methods produced the same results; therefore, any of the method can be adopted by the company in transporting its final products to the wholesale dealers in order to minimize total production cost.

Keywords: Distribution System, Cost Minimization, resources utilization, allocation problem

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15 SPICE Modeling for Evaluation of Distribution System Reliability Indices

Authors: G. N. Srinivas, K. Raju

Abstract:

This paper presents Markov processes for determining the reliability indices of distribution system. The continuous Markov modeling is applied to a complex radial distribution system and electrical equivalent circuits are developed for the modeling. In general PSPICE is being used for electrical and electronic circuits and various applications of power system like fault analysis, transient analysis etc. In this paper, the SPICE modeling equivalent circuits which are developed are applied in a novel way to Distribution System reliability analysis. These circuits are simulated using PSPICE software to obtain the state probabilities, the basic and performance indices. Thus the basic indices and the performance indices obtained by this method are compared with those obtained by FMEA technique. The application of the concepts presented in this paper are illustrated and analyzed for IEEE-Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS).

Keywords: Distribution System, Markov Model, reliability indices, spice simulation

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14 Application of Optimization Techniques in Overcurrent Relay Coordination: A Review

Authors: Syed Auon Raza, Tahir Mahmood, Syed Basit Ali Bukhari

Abstract:

In power system properly coordinated protection scheme is designed to make sure that only the faulty part of the system will be isolated when abnormal operating condition of the system will reach. The complexity of the system as well as the increased user demand and the deregulated environment enforce the utilities to improve system reliability by using a properly coordinated protection scheme. This paper presents overview of over current relay coordination techniques. Different techniques such as Deterministic Techniques, Meta Heuristic Optimization techniques, Hybrid Optimization Techniques, and Trial and Error Optimization Techniques have been reviewed in terms of method of their implementation, operation modes, nature of distribution system, and finally their advantages as well as the disadvantages.

Keywords: Optimization, Distribution System, relay coordination, Plug Setting Multiplier (PSM)

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13 Optimization of Line Loss Minimization Using Distributed Generation

Authors: S. Sambath, P. Palanivel

Abstract:

Research conducted in the last few decades has proven that an inclusion of Distributed Genaration (DG) into distribution systems considerably lowers the level of power losses and the power quality improved. Moreover, the choice of DG is even more attractive since it provides not only benefits in power loss minimisation, but also a wide range of other advantages including environment, economic, power qualities and technical issues. This paper is an intent to quantify and analyse the impact of distributed generation (DG) in Tamil Nadu, India to examine what the benefits of decentralized generation would be for meeting rural loads. We used load flow analysis to simulate and quantify the loss reduction and power quality enhancement by having decentralized generation available line conditions for actual rural feeders in Tamil Nadu, India. Reactive and voltage profile was considered. This helps utilities to better plan their system in rural areas to meet dispersed loads, while optimizing the renewable and decentralised generation sources.

Keywords: Power Quality, Distributed Generation, Distribution System, load flow analysis, optimal location

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12 A Model for Analysis the Induced Voltage of 115 kV On-Line Acting on Neighboring 22 kV Off-Line

Authors: Sakhon Woothipatanapan, Surasit Prakobkit

Abstract:

This paper presents a model for analysis the induced voltage of transmission lines (energized) acting on neighboring distribution lines (de-energized). From environmental restrictions, 22 kV distribution lines need to be installed under 115 kV transmission lines. With the installation of the two parallel circuits like this, they make the induced voltage which can cause harm to operators. This work was performed with the ATP-EMTP modeling to analyze such phenomenon before field testing. Simulation results are used to find solutions to prevent danger to operators who are on the pole.

Keywords: Distribution System, Transmission System, induced voltage, off-line operation

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11 Evaluation of the Electric Vehicle Impact in Distribution System

Authors: Sirus Mohammadi, Sania Maghsodloo

Abstract:

Electric Vehicle (EV) technology is expected to take a major share in the light-vehicle market in the coming decades. Transportation electrification has become an important issue in recent decades and the large scale deployment of EVs has yet to be achieved. The smart coordination of EV demand addresses an improvement in the flexibility of power systems and reduces the costs of power system investment. The uncertainty in EV drivers’ behaviour is one of the main problems to solve to obtain an optimal integration of EVs into power systems Charging of EVs will put an extra burden on the distribution grid and in some cases adjustments will need to be made. The stochastic process of the driving pattern is done to make the outcome of the project more realistic. Based on the stochastic data, the optimization of charging plans is made.

Keywords: Smart Grid, Distribution System, electric vehicles (PEVs), Monticello

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10 Effects of Compensation on Distribution System Technical Losses

Authors: C. Kocatepe, O. Arikan, G. Ucar, Y. Hacialiefendioglu, B. Kekezoğlu

Abstract:

One of the significant problems of energy systems is to supply economic and efficient energy to consumers. Therefore studies has been continued to reduce technical losses in the network. In this paper, the technical losses analyzed for a portion of European side of Istanbul MV distribution network for different compensation scenarios by considering real system and load data and results are presented. Investigated system is modeled with CYME Power Engineering Software and optimal capacity placement has been proposed to minimize losses.

Keywords: Distribution System, technical losses, optimal capacitor placement, reactive power compensation

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9 Reliability Analysis in Power Distribution System

Authors: P. Chandhra Sekhar, R. A. Deshpande, V. Sankar

Abstract:

In this paper, we discussed the basic reliability evaluation techniques needed to evaluate the reliability of distribution systems which are applied in distribution system planning and operation. Basically, the reliability study can also help to predict the reliability performance of the system after quantifying the impact of adding new components to the system. The number and locations of new components needed to improve the reliability indices to certain limits are identified and studied.

Keywords: Distribution System, reliability indices, urban feeder, rural feeder

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8 Loss Analysis by Loading Conditions of Distribution Transformers

Authors: C. Kocatepe, A. Bozkurt, R. Yumurtaci, İ. C. Tastan, G. Tulun

Abstract:

Efficient use of energy, with the increase in demand of energy and also with the reduction of natural energy sources, has improved its importance in recent years. Most of the losses in the system from electricity produced until the point of consumption is mostly composed by the energy distribution system. In this study, analysis of the resulting loss in power distribution transformer and distribution power cable is realized which are most of the losses in the distribution system. Transformer losses in the real distribution system were analyzed by CYME Power Engineering Software program. These losses are disclosed for different voltage levels and different loading conditions.

Keywords: Power Cable, Distribution System, distribution transformer, technical losses

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7 Influence of Harmonics on Medium Voltage Distribution System: A Case Study for Residential Area

Authors: C. Kocatepe, O. Arikan, G. Ucar, Y. Hacialiefendioglu

Abstract:

In this paper, influence of harmonics on medium voltage distribution system of Bogazici Electricity Distribution Inc. (BEDAS) which takes place at Istanbul/Turkey is investigated. A ring network consisting of residential loads is taken into account for this study. Real system parameters and measurement results are used for simulations. Also, probable working conditions of the system are analyzed for %50, %75 and %100 loading of transformers with similar harmonic contents. Results of the study are exhibited the influence of nonlinear loads on %THDV, P.F. and technical losses of the medium voltage distribution system.

Keywords: power factor, Distribution System, harmonic, total harmonic distortion, technical losses, residential load, medium voltage

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6 Real-Time Monitoring of Drinking Water Quality Using Advanced Devices

Authors: Amani Abdallah, Isam Shahrour

Abstract:

The quality of drinking water is a major concern of public health. The control of this quality is generally performed in the laboratory, which requires a long time. This type of control is not adapted for accidental pollution from sudden events, which can have serious consequences on population health. Therefore, it is of major interest to develop real-time innovative solutions for the detection of accidental contamination in drinking water systems This paper presents researches conducted within the SunRise Demonstrator for ‘Smart and Sustainable Cities’ with a particular focus on the supervision of the water quality. This work aims at (i) implementing a smart water system in a large water network (Campus of the University Lille1) including innovative equipment for real-time detection of abnormal events, such as those related to the contamination of drinking water and (ii) develop a numerical modeling of the contamination diffusion in the water distribution system. The first step included verification of the water quality sensors and their effectiveness on a network prototype of 50m length. This part included the evaluation of the efficiency of these sensors in the detection both bacterial and chemical contamination events in drinking water distribution systems. An on-line optical sensor integral with a laboratory-scale distribution system (LDS) was shown to respond rapidly to changes in refractive index induced by injected loads of chemical (cadmium, mercury) and biological contaminations (Escherichia coli). All injected substances were detected by the sensor; the magnitude of the response depends on the type of contaminant introduced and it is proportional to the injected substance concentration.

Keywords: Sensor, Real-time, drinking water, Distribution System, refraction index

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5 Biological Treatment of Bacterial Biofilms from Drinking Water Distribution System in Lebanon

Authors: Z. Olama, H. Holail, A. Hamieh

Abstract:

Drinking Water Distribution Systems provide opportunities for microorganisms that enter the drinking water to develop into biofilms. Antimicrobial agents, mainly chlorine, are used to disinfect drinking water, however, there are not yet standardized disinfection strategies with reliable efficacy and development of novel anti-biofilm strategies is still of major concern. In the present study the ability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptomyces sp. cell free supernatants to inhibit the bacterial biofilm formation in Drinking Water Distribution System in Lebanon was investigated. Treatment with cell free supernatants of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptomyces sp. at 20% concentration resulted in average biofilm inhibition (52.89 and 39.66% respectively). A preliminary investigation about the mode of action of biofilm inhibition revealed that cell free supernatants showed no bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity against all the tested isolates. Pre-coating wells with supernatants revealed that Lactobacillus acidophilus cell free supernatant inhibited average biofilm formation (62.53%) by altering the adhesion of bacterial isolates to the surface, preventing the initial attachment step, which is important for biofilm production.

Keywords: Adhesion, Biofilm, drinking water, Distribution System, lactobacillus acidophilus, cell free supernatant, streptomyces sp

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4 Multi-Agent System Based Distributed Voltage Control in Distribution Systems

Authors: A. Arshad, M. Lehtonen. M. Humayun

Abstract:

With the increasing Distributed Generation (DG) penetration, distribution systems are advancing towards the smart grid technology for least latency in tackling voltage control problem in a distributed manner. This paper proposes a Multi-agent based distributed voltage level control. In this method a flat architecture of agents is used and agents involved in the whole controlling procedure are On Load Tap Changer Agent (OLTCA), Static VAR Compensator Agent (SVCA), and the agents associated with DGs and loads at their locations. The objectives of the proposed voltage control model are to minimize network losses and DG curtailments while maintaining voltage value within statutory limits as close as possible to the nominal. The total loss cost is the sum of network losses cost, DG curtailment costs, and voltage damage cost (which is based on penalty function implementation). The total cost is iteratively calculated for various stricter limits by plotting voltage damage cost and losses cost against varying voltage limit band. The method provides the optimal limits closer to nominal value with minimum total loss cost. In order to achieve the objective of voltage control, the whole network is divided into multiple control regions; downstream from the controlling device. The OLTCA behaves as a supervisory agent and performs all the optimizations. At first, a token is generated by OLTCA on each time step and it transfers from node to node until the node with voltage violation is detected. Upon detection of such a node, the token grants permission to Load Agent (LA) for initiation of possible remedial actions. LA will contact the respective controlling devices dependent on the vicinity of the violated node. If the violated node does not lie in the vicinity of the controller or the controlling capabilities of all the downstream control devices are at their limits then OLTC is considered as a last resort. For a realistic study, simulations are performed for a typical Finnish residential medium-voltage distribution system using Matlab ®. These simulations are executed for two cases; simple Distributed Voltage Control (DVC) and DVC with optimized loss cost (DVC + Penalty Function). A sensitivity analysis is performed based on DG penetration. The results indicate that costs of losses and DG curtailments are directly proportional to the DG penetration, while in case 2 there is a significant reduction in total loss. For lower DG penetration, losses are reduced more or less 50%, while for higher DG penetration, loss reduction is not very significant. Another observation is that the newer stricter limits calculated by cost optimization moves towards the statutory limits of ±10% of the nominal with the increasing DG penetration as for 25, 45 and 65% limits calculated are ±5, ±6.25 and 8.75% respectively. Observed results conclude that the novel voltage control algorithm proposed in case 1 is able to deal with the voltage control problem instantly but with higher losses. In contrast, case 2 make sure to reduce the network losses through proposed iterative method of loss cost optimization by OLTCA, slowly with time.

Keywords: Multi-Agent Systems, Smart Grids, Distribution System, distributed voltage control

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3 An Exploration of the Technical and Economic Feasibility of a Stand Alone Solar PV Generated DC Distribution System over AC Distribution System for Use in the Modern as Well as Future Houses of Isolated Areas

Authors: Alpesh Desai, Indrajit Mukhopadhyay

Abstract:

Standalone Photovoltaic (PV) systems are designed and sized to supply certain AC and/or DC electrical loads. In computers, consumer electronics and many small appliances as well as LED lighting the actual power consumed is DC. The DC system, which requires only voltage control, has many advantages such as feasible connection of the distributed energy sources and reduction of the conversion losses for DC-based loads. Also by using the DC power directly the cost of the size of the Inverter and Solar panel reduced hence the overall cost of the system reduced. This paper explores the technical and economic feasibility of supplying electrical power to homes/houses using DC voltage mains within the house. Theoretical calculated results are presented to demonstrate the advantage of DC system over AC system with PV on sustainable rural/isolated development.

Keywords: Sustainability, Energy Efficiency, Distribution System, off-grid, stand-alone PV system, techno-socio-economic

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2 Unbalanced Distribution Optimal Power Flow to Minimize Losses with Distributed Photovoltaic Plants

Authors: Malinwo Estone Ayikpa

Abstract:

Electric power systems are likely to operate with minimum losses and voltage meeting international standards. This is made possible generally by control actions provide by automatic voltage regulators, capacitors and transformers with on-load tap changer (OLTC). With the development of photovoltaic (PV) systems technology, their integration on distribution networks has increased over the last years to the extent of replacing the above mentioned techniques. The conventional analysis and simulation tools used for electrical networks are no longer able to take into account control actions necessary for studying distributed PV generation impact. This paper presents an unbalanced optimal power flow (OPF) model that minimizes losses with association of active power generation and reactive power control of single-phase and three-phase PV systems. Reactive power can be generated or absorbed using the available capacity and the adjustable power factor of the inverter. The unbalance OPF is formulated by current balance equations and solved by primal-dual interior point method. Several simulation cases have been carried out varying the size and location of PV systems and the results show a detailed view of the impact of PV distributed generation on distribution systems.

Keywords: Distribution System, loss, photovoltaic generation, primal-dual interior point method

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1 Evaluation of Reliability Indices Using Monte Carlo Simulation Accounting Time to Switch

Authors: Sajjad Asefi, Hossein Afrakhte

Abstract:

This paper presents the evaluation of reliability indices of an electrical distribution system using Monte Carlo simulation technique accounting Time To Switch (TTS) for each section. In this paper, the distribution system has been assumed by accounting random repair time omission. For simplicity, we have assumed the reliability analysis to be based on exponential law. Each segment has a specified rate of failure (λ) and repair time (r) which will give us the mean up time and mean down time of each section in distribution system. After calculating the modified mean up time (MUT) in years, mean down time (MDT) in hours and unavailability (U) in h/year, TTS have been added to the time which the system is not available, i.e. MDT. In this paper, we have assumed the TTS to be a random variable with Log-Normal distribution.

Keywords: Reliability, Monte Carlo Simulation, Distribution System, repair time, time to switch (TTS)

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