Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

Distribution Related Abstracts

42 The Current Situation of Ang Thong Province’s Court Doll Distribution

Authors: Phutthiwat Waiyawuththanapoom

Abstract:

This research is objected to study the pattern and channel of distribution of Ang Thong’s court doll OTOP product and try to develop the quality of distribution of the court doll product. The population of this research is 50 court doll manufacturers of Ang Thong’s court doll. The data and information was collected by using the questionnaire and use percentage, mean and standard deviation as an analysis tools. The distribution channel of Ang Thong’s court doll can be separated into 3 channels which are direct distribution from the manufacturer, via the middleman and via the co-operated manufacturing group. In the direct distribution from the manufacturer channel, it was found that the manufacturer is given the highest rate of importance to how they keep the inventory. In the distribution via the middleman channel, it was found that the manufacturer is given the highest rate of importance to the distribution efficiency. But in the distribution via the co-operated manufacturing group, it was found that the manufacturer is given the highest rate of importance to the public relationship.

Keywords: Distribution, court doll, Ang Thong province, business and social sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
41 A Comparative Analysis of Conventional and Organic Dairy Supply Chain: Assessing Transport Costs and External Effects in Southern Sweden

Authors: Vivianne Aggestam

Abstract:

Purpose: Organic dairy products have steadily increased with consumer popularity in recent years in Sweden, permitting more transport activities. The main aim of this study was to compare the transport costs and the environmental emissions made by the organic and conventional dairy production in Sweden. The objective was to evaluate differences and environmental impacts of transport between the two different production systems, allowing a more transparent understanding of the real impact of transport within the supply chain. Methods: A partial attributional Life Cycle Assessment has been conducted based on a comprehensive survey of Swedish farmers, dairies and consumers regarding their transport needs and costs. Interviews addressed the farmers and dairies. Consumers were targeted through an online survey. Results: Higher transport inputs from conventional dairy transportation are mainly via feed and soil management on farm level. The regional organic milk brand illustrate less initial transport burdens on farm level, however, after leaving the farm, it had equal or higher transportation requirements. This was mainly due to the location of the dairy farm and shorter product expiry dates, which requires more frequent retail deliveries. Organic consumers tend to use public transport more than private vehicles. Consumers using private vehicles for shopping trips primarily bought conventional products for which price was the main deciding factor. Conclusions: Organic dairy products that emphasise its regional attributes do not ensure less transportation and may therefore not be a more “climate smart” option for the consumer. This suggests that the idea of localism needs to be analysed from a more systemic perspective. Fuel and regional feed efficiency can be further implemented, mainly via fuel type and the types of vehicles used for transport.

Keywords: Transportation, Distribution, Supply Chains, organic food productions, conventional food production, agricultural fossil fuel use

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
40 Species Composition of Alticinae Newman, 1834 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae): Distribution and Host Plants in Eastern Upper Plains (Setif, Algeria)

Authors: S. Bouharati, M. Bounechada, M. Fenni, S. E. Doumandji

Abstract:

The study was taken in Setif region (36° 11' 29 N and 5° 24' 34 E) located at the north-eastern of Algeria. This paper recorded and discusses zoogeography and host plant relationships of Setifian species Alticinae subfamily. A total of 50 species belonging to Alticinae subfamily of Chrysomelidae which is the economically important familty, were recorded from differentes localities of Setif region. They are included in 10 genera. Genera Longitarsus Berthold, 1827 is less species-rich than the other Alticinae genera captured. It represens about 38% of the all species collected. Cruciferae and Compositae were the mostly prefered host plant families representing Alticinae species. For each species we mentioned the collecting sites, geographical distribution and the host plants.

Keywords: Distribution, Species Composition, Algeria, Alticinae, Chrysomelidae, Coleoptera, host plants, Setif

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
39 Stress Study in Implants Dental

Authors: B. Serier, M. Benlebna, B. Bachir Bouiadjra, S. Khalkhal

Abstract:

This study focuses on the mechanical behavior of a dental prosthesis subjected to dynamic loads chewing. It covers a three-dimensional analysis by the finite element method, the level of distribution of equivalent stresses induced in the bone between the implants (depending on the number of implants). The studied structure, consisting of a braced, implant and mandibular bone is subjected to dynamic loading of variable amplitude in three directions corrono-apical, mesial-distal and bucco-lingual. These efforts simulate those of mastication. We show that compared to the implantation of a single implant, implantology using two implants promotes the weakening of the bones. This weakness is all the more likely that the implants are located in close proximity to one another.

Keywords: Bone, Distribution, Dynamic, Interaction, stress, prosthesis, Dental Implant, stress levels, effort

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
38 Distribution Patterns of Trace Metals in Soils of Gbongan-Odeyinka-Orileowu Area, Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: T. A. Adesiyan, J. A. Adekoya A. Akinlua, N. Torto

Abstract:

One hundred and eighty six in situ soil samples of the B–horizon were collected around Gbongan–Odeyinka-Orileowu area, southwestern Nigeria, delineated by longitude 4°15l and 4°30l and latitude 7°14l and 7°31 for a reconnaissance geochemical soil survey. The objective was to determine the distribution pattern of some trace metals in the area with a view to discovering any indication of metallic mineralization. The samples were air–dried and sieved to obtain the minus 230 µ fractions which were used for pH determinations and subjected to hot aqua regia acid digestion. The solutions obtained were analyzed for Ag, As, Au, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, and Zn using atomic absorption spectrometric methods. The resulting data were subjected to simple statistical treatment and used in preparing distribution maps of the elements. With these, the spatial distributions of the elements in the area were discussed. The pH of the soils range from 4.70 to 7.59 and this reflects the geochemical distribution patterns of trace metals in the area. The spatial distribution maps of the elements showed similarity in the distributions of Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Mn and Pb. This suggests close associations between these elements none of which showed any significant anomaly in the study. The associations might be due to the scavenging actions of Fe–Mn oxides on the elements. Only Ag, Au and Sn on one hand and Zn on the other hand showed significant anomalies, which are thought to be due to mineralization and anthropogenic activities respectively.

Keywords: Metals, Distribution, Nigeria, Gbongan, mineralization anthropogenic

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
37 Temporal Variation of Shorebirds Population in Two Different Mudflats Areas

Authors: R. Ramli, N. Norazlimi

Abstract:

A study was conducted to determine the diversity and abundance of shorebird species habituating the mudflat area of Jeram Beach and Remis Beach, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. Direct observation technique (using binoculars and video camera) was applied to record the presence of bird species in the sampling sites from August 2013 until July 2014. A total of 32 species of shorebird were recorded during both migratory and non-migratory seasons. Of these, eleven species (47.8%) are migrants, six species (26.1%) have both migrant and resident populations, four species (17.4%) are vagrants and two species (8.7%) are residents. The compositions of the birds differed significantly in all months (χ2=84.35, p<0.001). There is a significant difference in avian abundance between migratory and non-migratory seasons (Mann-Whitney, t=2.39, p=0.036). The avian abundance were differed significantly in Jeram and Remis Beaches during migratory periods (t=4.39, p=0.001) but not during non-migratory periods (t=0.78, p=0.456). Shorebird diversity was also affected by tidal cycle. There is a significance difference between high tide and low tide (Mann-Whitney, t=78.0, p<0.005). Frequency of disturbance also affected the shorebird distribution (Mann-Whitney, t=57.0, p= 0.0134). Therefore, this study concluded that tides and disturbances are two factors that affecting temporal distribution of shorebird in mudflats area.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Distribution, migratory birds, direct observation

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
36 Adaptive CFAR Analysis for Non-Gaussian Distribution

Authors: H. Maalem, Bouchemha Amel, Chachoui Takieddine

Abstract:

Automatic detection of targets in a modern communication system RADAR is based primarily on the concept of adaptive CFAR detector. To have an effective detection, we must minimize the influence of disturbances due to the clutter. The detection algorithm adapts the CFAR detection threshold which is proportional to the average power of the clutter, maintaining a constant probability of false alarm. In this article, we analyze the performance of two variants of adaptive algorithms CA-CFAR and OS-CFAR and we compare the thresholds of these detectors in the marine environment (no-Gaussian) with a Weibull distribution.

Keywords: Distribution, Detection, threshold, clutter, weibull, CFAR

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
35 Sales Patterns Clustering Analysis on Seasonal Product Sales Data

Authors: Soojin Kim, Jiwon Yang, Sungzoon Cho

Abstract:

As a seasonal product is only in demand for a short time, inventory management is critical to profits. Both markdowns and stockouts decrease the return on perishable products; therefore, researchers have been interested in the distribution of seasonal products with the aim of maximizing profits. In this study, we propose a data-driven seasonal product sales pattern analysis method for individual retail outlets based on observed sales data clustering; the proposed method helps in determining distribution strategies.

Keywords: Clustering, Distribution, sales pattern, seasonal product

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
34 Analysis of the Spatial Distribution of Public Girls’ and Boys’ Secondary Schools in Riyadh

Authors: Nasser Marshad Alzeer

Abstract:

This study examines the spatial distribution of secondary schools in Riyadh. It considers both public girls and boys sector provision and assesses the efficiency of the spatial distribution of secondary schools. Since the establishment of the Ministry of Education (MOE) in 1953 and General Presidency for Female Education, (GPFE) in 1960, there has been a great expansion of education services in Saudi Arabia, particularly during the 1980s. However, recent years have seen much slower rates of increase in the public education sector but the population continues to grow rapidly. This study investigates the spatial distribution of schools through the use of questionnaire surveys and applied GIS. Overall, the results indicate a shortage of public secondary schools, especially in the north of the city. It is clear that there is overcrowding in the majority of secondary schools. The establishment of new schools has been suggested to solve the problem of overcrowding. A number of socio-economic and demographic factors are associated with differences in the utilization of the public secondary schools. A GIS was applied in this study in order to assess the spatial distribution of secondary schools including the modification of existing catchment area boundaries and locating new schools. This modification could also reduce the pupil pressure on certain schools and further benefits could probably be gained.

Keywords: Analysis, Distribution, GIS, Schools, Saudi

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
33 Social Media as a Distribution Channel for Thailand’s Rice Berry Product

Authors: Phutthiwat Waiyawuththanapoom, Pimploi Tirastittam, Wannapong Waiyawuththanapoom

Abstract:

Nowadays, it is a globalization era which social media plays an important role to the lifestyle as an information source, tools to connect people together and etc. This research is object to find out about the significant level of the social media as a distribution channel to the agriculture product of Thailand. In this research, the agriculture product is the Rice Berry which is the cross-bred unmilled rice producing dark violet grain, is a combination of Hom Nin Rice and Thai Jasmine/ Fragrant Rice 105. Rice Berry has a very high nutrition and nice aroma so the product is in the growth stage of the product cycle. The problem for the Rice Berry product in Thailand is the production and the distribution channel. This study is to confirm that the social media is another option as the distribution channel for the product which is not a mass production product. This will be the role model for the other niche market product to select the distribution channel.

Keywords: Social Media, Distribution, rice berry, distribution channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
32 Distribution and Habitat Preference of Red Panda (Ailurus Fulgens Fulgens) in Jumla District, Nepal

Authors: Saroj Panthi, Sher Singh Thagunna

Abstract:

Reliable and sufficient information regarding status, distribution and habitat preference of red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) is lacking in Nepal. The research activities on red panda in the mid-western Nepal are very limited, so the status of red panda in the region is quite unknown. The study conducted during May, 2013 in three Village Development Committees (VDCs) namely Godhemahadev, Malikathata and Tamti of Jumla district was an important step for providing vital information including distribution and habitat preference of this species. The study included the reconnaissance, key informants survey, interviews, and consultation for the most potential area identification, opportunistic survey comprising the direct observation and indirect sign count method for the presence and distribution, habitat assessment consisting vegetation sampling and ocular estimation. The study revealed the presence of red panda in three forests namely Bahirepatan, Imilchadamar and Tyakot of Godhemahadev, Tamti and Malikathata VDCs respectively. The species was found distributed between 2880 and 3244 m with an average dropping encounter rate of 1.04 per hour of searching effort and 12 pellets per dropping. Red panda mostly preferred the habitat in the elevation range of 2900 - 3000 m with southwest facing steep slopes (36˚ - 45˚), associated with water sources at the distance of ≤100 m. Trees such as Acer spp., Betula utilis and Quercus semecarpifolia, shrub species of Elaeagnus parvifolia, Drepanostachyum spp. and Jasminum humile, and the herbs like Polygonatum cirrhifolium, Fragaria nubicola and Galium asperifolium were found to be the most preferred species by red panda. The red panda preferred the habitat with dense crown coverage ( >20% - 100%) and 31% - 50% ground cover. Fallen logs (39%) were the most preferred substrate used for defecation.

Keywords: Distribution, habitat preference, jumla, red panda

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
31 Availability and Utilization of Health Care Facilities in Jalpaiguri Town

Authors: Sharmistha Mukherjee

Abstract:

Health care is the basic requirement for all. The prime question is who gets what, where and how? The unequal distribution of basic facilities do have a adverse effect on the users. The paper tries to examine health care in terms of available facilities, the health care need and how people perceive to it in a small town of Jalpaiguri in the midst of tea gardens in North Bengal. The morbidity pattern is also minutely observed with a section describing the organizational structure of health care keeping in mind the utilization.

Keywords: Health Care, Distribution, Availability, Utilization

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
30 Prevalence and Distribution of Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (Vtec) Non-O157 Serotypes in Cattle in Abuja, Nigeria

Authors: S. I. Enem, S. I. Oboegbulem

Abstract:

Objective: The most frequently implicated E. coli serotype causing haemorrhagic colitis and haemorrhagic uraemic syndrome (HUS) is VTEC 0157. However, non-O157 VTEC is now known to be as prevalent as VETC O157 infection (or even more) in most parts of the world. The objective of the study was to establish the occurrence of non-O157 VTEC serotypes in cattle in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria. The level of significance of the infection with sex, age and season were also tested. Methods: The study was carried out in the FCT, Abuja, Nigeria which is located between latitude 8o and 90 25` North of the equator and longitude 60 45` and 7045` East of the Greenwich meridian. The cross sectional epidemiological method and multi-staged sampling technique were used in this study. Samples were collected from the freshly voided faeces of both apparently healthy and diarrhoeic cattle in selected abattoirs and cattle herds. Enriched samples were analyzed bacteriologically and biochemically after which they were characterised using commercially prepared latex agglutination test kits. Results: A total of 718 faecal samples from cattle were analyzed for the presence of VTEC non-O157. Thirty eight (5.23%) were positive for non-O157. There was no significant association (p > 0.05) between sex and infection with non-O157 VTEC in cattle. There was a significant association (P < 0.05) between age and infection with non-O157 VTEC in cattle. Calves were more associated than the adults. There was also a significant association (P < 0.05) between season and infection with non-O157 VTEC in cattle. The dry season was more associated than the wet season. Conclusion: The study established the occurrence and prevalence of non-O157 VTEC in cattle in FCT, Abuja, Nigeria. As a major food animal in Nigeria, infection in cattle provides an epidemiological causal association to the infection in humans. The result showed that warmer seasons (dry season) stimulate the presence of VTEC infection in animals and thus, as a consequence, increases the number of human cases. The prevalence was also higher in younger calves (< 6 months) probably as a result of undeveloped immune system.

Keywords: Distribution, Cattle, Prevalence, Verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli (VTEC), non-O157 serotypes

Procedia PDF Downloads 452
29 Fish Species Composition and Distribution of a Semi-Oxbow Lake in North Central Nigeria

Authors: Adeyemi, Samuel Olusegun

Abstract:

The paper reports on the result of experimental gill net assessment of the fishery of Gbedikere Lake in Kogi State between October 2006 and September 2008. Three stations A-C were sampled. Twelve species from ten families were represented in the experimental gill-net catches. These composed of families Protopteridae, Mormyridae, Clariidae, Mochokidae, Cichlidae, Cyprinidae, Malapteruridae, Osteoglossidae, Gymnarchidae, and Citharinidae. The Cichlids dominated the catches. This is made up of Oreochromis niloticus (17.90%), and Tilapia zilli (13.01%). These combined to make up 30.91% of the total number of fish caught. Also, the Cichlids formed 30.91% of the total catch by weight followed Heterotis niloticus (15.56%), Clarias gariepinus (13.16%), Gmynarchus niloticus (8.78%), Heterobranchus bidorsalis (7.14%), Synodontis nigrita (6.69%), Mormyrus rume (5.68%), Citharinus citharus (3.91%), Labeo senegalensis (2.93%), and Protopterus annectens (2.74%), respectively.

Keywords: Distribution, Species Diversity, abundance, experimental gill net, Oxbow Lake and yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
28 The Role of the State Budget: An Evaluation of Public Expenditures and Taxes in Turkey

Authors: Erdal Eroğlu, Özhan Çetinkaya

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to show how state plays a regulatory role in the relations of distribution by analyzing tax and expenditure in Turkey. This paper has two main arguments. First, state intervenes in economic and social life via budget policies and steers the relations of distribution within the scope of the reproduction of the capital accumulation and legitimacy. Secondly, a great amount of public expenditure benefits capital owners while state gains its tax income mainly from low and middle income groups.

Keywords: Distribution, Taxes, Public Expenditure, state budget

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
27 Molecular Epidemiologic Distribution of HDV Genotypes among Different Ethnic Groups in Iran: A Systematic Review

Authors: Khabat Barkhordari

Abstract:

Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a RNA virus that needs the function of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its propagation and assembly. Infection by HDV can occur spontaneously with HBV infection and cause acute hepatitis or develop as secondary infection in HBV suffering patients. Based on genome sequence analysis, HDV has several genotypes which show broad geographic and diverse clinical features. The aim of current study is determine the molecular epidemiology of hepatitis delta virus genotype in patients with positive HBsAg among different ethnic groups of Iran. This systematic review study reviews the results of different studies which examined 2000 Iranian patients with HBV infection from 2010 to 2015. Among 2000 patients in this study, 16.75 % were containing anti-HDV antibody and HDV RNA was found in just 1.75% cases. All of positive cases also have genotype I.

Keywords: Epidemiology, Distribution, genotype, HDV

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
26 Distribution of Laurencia caspica, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Cladophora glomerata along the Southern Parts of the Caspian Sea and Their Relation with Environmental Factors

Authors: Neda Mehdipour, Mohammad Hasan Gerami, Reza Rahnama, Ali Hamzehpour, Hanieh Nemati

Abstract:

Laurencia caspica (red macroalgae) Enteromorpha intestinalis and Cladophora glomerata (green macroalgae) are three major macroalgae that grow along the southern coasts of the Caspian Sea. We investigated spatial and temporal variation of these three macroalgal species on hard substrates and their relation with environmental factors in 2014. Sampling was done seasonally from spring to winter 2014 from eight sites. Results indicated that of these three species had heterogeneity distribution along southern parts of the Caspian Sea. In addition, C. glomerata was dominant taxa in all stations and had maximum contribution in dissimilarities between sampling sites. According to BIO-ENV salinity, pH and Silicate were the best subset variables for explaining changes in the abundance over time of the hard-substrates macroalgae fauna under study. However, the position of species in Redundancy Analysis (RDA) plot revealed that L. caspica associated with temperature, E. intestinalis with pH and C. glomerata associated with phosphate and silicate.

Keywords: Distribution, Environmental Factors, macroalgae, Caspian Sea

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
25 Distribution and Historical Trends of PAHs Deposition in Recent Sediment Cores of the Imo River, SE Nigeria

Authors: Miranda I. Dosunmu, Orok E. Oyo-Ita, Inyang O. Oyo-Ita

Abstract:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of priority listed organic pollutants due to their carcinogenicity, mutagenity, acute toxicity and persistency in the environment. The distribution and historical changes of PAHs contamination in recent sediment cores from the Imo River were investigated using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. The concentrations of total PAHs (TPAHs) ranging from 402.37 ng/g dry weight (dw) at the surface layer of the Estuary zone (ESC6; 0-5 cm) to 92,388.59 ng/g dw at the near surface layer of the Afam zone (ASC5; 5-10 cm) indicate that PAHs contamination was localized not only between sample sites but also within the same cores. Sediment-depth profiles for the four (Afam, Mangrove, Estuary and illegal Petroleum refinery) cores revealed irregular distribution patterns in the TPAH concentrations except the fact that these levels became maximized at the near surface layers (5-10 cm) corresponding to a geological time-frame of about 1996-2004. This time scale coincided with the period of intensive bunkering and oil pipeline vandalization by the Niger Delta militant groups. Also a general slight decline was found in the TPAHs levels from near the surface layers (5-10 cm) to the most recent top layers (0-5 cm) of the cores, attributable to the recent effort by the Nigerian government in clamping down the illegal activity of the economic saboteurs. Therefore, the recent amnesty period granted to the militant groups should be extended. Although mechanism of perylene formation still remains enigmatic, examination of its distributions down cores indicates natural biogenic, pyrogenic and petrogenic origins for the compound at different zones. Thus, the characteristic features of the Imo River environment provide a means of tracing diverse origins for perylene.

Keywords: Distribution, origin, perylene, historical trend, Imo River

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
24 Biomass and CPUA Estimation and Distribution Pattern of Saurida Tumbil in the Northwest of Persian Gulf

Authors: Negar Ghotbeddin, Tooraj Valinassab, Izadpanah Zeinab, Mohammad Azhir

Abstract:

It is reported on results of a trawls survey in 2011 to assess the amount of biomass and Catch Per Unit of Area (CPUA) and also to determine the distribution pattern of Synodonidae family of demersal fishes (with emphasize on great lizardfish, Saurida tumbil) as one the most important and commercial fish species in the northwest of Persian Gulf. Samples were collected at a total 65 trawl stations selected a stratified random procedure. The study area was stratified to five strata (A to E) covering the depth layers of 10-20, 20-30 and 30-50 m. The catch rates of CPUA and biomass of lizardfishes were estimated to be approximately 316.20 kg/nm2, and 2902.1 tons, respectively. The highest value of biomass of Synodontids was recorded in the east of the study area, Bordkhoon to Dayer (stratum D & E, approximately 1310.6 tonnes) and in depth layer of 30-50 m; and the lowest value was estimated for stratum A (West of Khuzestan Province) and in depth layer of 10-20 m. On the other hand, the highest CPUA was recorded in stratum D and depth layer of 20-30 m; and the lowest value for stratum A and 10-20 m depth. It was concluded that stratum D (namely from Bordkhoon to Dayer) contains the best fishing area from the point of higher density and distribution of Synodontidae in the covering area, and from the point of depth distribution, they are found in depths more than 30 m.

Keywords: biomass, Distribution, Persian Gulf, Saurida tumbil, CPUA, fishing area

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
23 Development of Macrobenthic Communities in the North Port, West Coastal Water of Malaysia

Authors: Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly Sany, Aishah Salleh, Rosli Hashim, Majid Rezayi

Abstract:

The primary objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution and composition of the macrobenthic community and their response to environmental parameters in the North Port, west coastal waters of Malaysia. A total of 25 species were identified, including 13 bivalvia, 4 gastropoda, and 3 crustacea. The other taxa were less diversified. There were no temporal changes in the macrobenthic community composition, but significant effects (p < 0.05) on the benthic community composition were found on a spatial scale. The correlation analyses and similarity tests were in good agreement, confirming the significant response of macrobenthic community composition to variations of environmental parameters.

Keywords: Diversity, Distribution, Malaysia, macrobenthic community, North Port

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
22 Selective Extraction of Couple Nickel(II) / Cobalt(II) by a Series of Schiff Bases in Sulfate Medium, in the Chloroforme-Water

Authors: M. Hadj Youcef, N. Belhadj, T. Benabdallah, Belbachir Ibtissem, N. Boceiri

Abstract:

This work deals with the synthesis, the structural elucidation and the exploration the extracting properties of a series of ortho-hydroxy Schiff base in sulfate medium. After the synthesis and characterization of their structures, the study of their behavior in solution was carried out by pH-metric titration in different media homogeneous and heterogeneous solution. This allowed to explore and to quantify in each of these media, some of their properties in solution such as, their acid-base behavior (determination and comparison of pKa), their distribution powers (determination and comparison of logKd), and their thermodynamic constants (determining ∆H°, ΔS° and ∆G°moy) by optimizing both the temperature and ionic strength. Study of the extraction of nickel (II) and cobalt(II) separately was undertaken in the aqueous-organic system, chloroform-water. Different extraction parameters have been thus optimized such, the pH, the concentration of extractant and the ionic strength, and the extraction constants established in each case. The extracted metal complexes have been isolated and their spatial configurations elucidated. The selective extraction of the couple cobalt (II)/nickel (II) was finally performed by our series of Schiff base in the chloroforme/water.

Keywords: Distribution, schiff base, nickel(II), cobalt(II), selective extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
21 Morphological and Syntactic Meaning: An Interactive Crossword Puzzle Approach

Authors: Ibrahim Garba

Abstract:

This research involved the use of word distributions and morphological knowledge by speakers of Arabic learning English connected different allomorphs in order to realize how the morphology and syntax of English gives meaning through using interactive crossword puzzles (ICP). Fifteen chapters covered with a class of nine learners over an academic year of an intensive English program were reviewed using the ICP. Learners were questioned about how the use of this gaming element enhanced and motivated their learning of English. The findings were positive indicating a successful implementation of ICP both at creational and user levels. This indicated a positive role technology had when learning and teaching English through adopting an interactive gaming element for learning English.

Keywords: Morphology, Distribution, Gaming, interactive-crossword-puzzle

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
20 A Two Phase VNS Algorithm for the Combined Production Routing Problem

Authors: Nejah Ben Mabrouk, Bassem Jarboui, Habib Chabchoub

Abstract:

Production and distribution planning is the most important part in supply chain management. In this paper, a NP-hard production-distribution problem for one product over a multi-period horizon is investigated. The aim is to minimize the sum of costs of three items: production setups, inventories and distribution, while determining, for each period, the amount produced, the inventory levels and the delivery trips. To solve this difficult problem, we propose a bi-phase approach based on a Variable Neighbourhood Search (VNS). This heuristic is tested on 90 randomly generated instances from the literature, with 20 periods and 50, 100, 200 customers. Computational results show that our approach outperforms existing solution procedures available in the literature

Keywords: Production, Distribution, Logistic, variable neighbourhood search

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
19 A Study on Solutions to Connect Distribution Power Grid up to Renewable Energy Sources at KEPCO

Authors: Seung Yoon Hyun, Hyeong Seung An, Myeong Ho Choi, Sung Hwan Bae, Yu Jong Sim

Abstract:

In 2015, the southern part of the Korean Peninsula has 8.6 million poles, 1.25 million km power lines, and 2 million transformers, etc. It is the massive amount of distribution equipments which could cover a round-trip distance from the earth to the moon and 11 turns around the earth. These distribution equipments are spread out like capillaries and supplying power to every corner of the Korean Peninsula. In order to manage these huge power facility efficiently, KEPCO use DAS (Distribution Automation System) to operate distribution power system since 1997. DAS is integrated system that enables to remotely supervise and control breakers and switches on distribution network. Using DAS, we can reduce outage time and power loss. KEPCO has about 160,000 switches, 50%(about 80,000) of switches are automated, and 41 distribution center monitoring&control these switches 24-hour 365 days to get the best efficiency of distribution networks. However, the rapid increasing renewable energy sources become the problem in the efficient operation of distributed power system. (currently 2,400 MW, 75,000 generators operate in distribution power system). In this paper, it suggests the way to interconnect between renewable energy source and distribution power system.

Keywords: renewable, Distribution, connect, DAS (Distribution Automation System)

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
18 Distribution of Micro Silica Powder at a Ready Mixed Concrete

Authors: Kyong-Ku Yun, Kyeo-Re Lee, Kyong Namkung, Seung-Yeon Han, Dae-Ae Kim

Abstract:

Micro silica is collected as a by-product of the silicon and ferrosilicon alloy production in electric arc furnace using highly pure quartz, wood chips, coke and the like. It consists of about 85% of silicon which has spherical particles with an average particle size of 150 μm. The bulk density of micro silica varies from 150 to 700kg/m^3 and the fineness ranges from 150,000 to 300,000cm^2/g. An amorphous structure with a high silicon oxide content of micro silica induces an active reaction with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)₂) generated by the cement hydrate of a large surface area (about 20 m^² / g), and they are also known to form calcium, silicate, hydrate conjugate (C-S-H). Micro silica tends to act as a filler because of the fine particles and the spherical shape. These particles do not get covered by water and they fit well in the space between the relatively rough cement grains which does not freely fluidize concrete. On the contrary, water demand increases since micro silica particles have a tendency to absorb water because of the large surface area. The overall effect of micro silica depends on the amount of micro silica added with other parameters in the water-(cement + micro silica) ratio, and the availability of superplasticizer. In this research, it was studied on cellular sprayed concrete. This method involves a direct re-production of ready mixed concrete into a high performance at a job site. It could reduce the cost of construction by an adding a cellular and a micro silica into a ready mixed concrete truck in a field. Also, micro silica which is difficult with mixing due to high fineness in the field can be added and dispersed in concrete by increasing the fluidity of ready mixed concrete through the surface activity of cellular. Increased air content is converged to a certain level of air content by spraying and it also produces high-performance concrete by remixing of powders in the process of spraying. As it does not use a field mixing equipment the cost of construction decrease and it can be constructed after installing special spray machine in a commercial pump car. Therefore, use of special equipment is minimized, providing economic feasibility through the utilization of existing equipment. This study was carried out to evaluate a highly reliable method of confirming dispersion through a high performance cellular sprayed concrete. A mixture of 25mm coarse aggregate and river sand was applied to the concrete. In addition, by applying silica fume and foam, silica fume dispersion is confirmed in accordance with foam mixing, and the mean and standard deviation is obtained. Then variation coefficient is calculated to finally evaluate the dispersion. Comparison and analysis of before and after spraying were conducted on the experiment variables of 21L, 35L foam for each 7%, 14% silica fume respectively. Taking foam and silica fume as variables, the experiment proceed. Casting a specimen for each variable, a five-day sample is taken from each specimen for EDS test. In this study, it was examined by an experiment materials, plan and mix design, test methods, and equipment, for the evaluation of dispersion in accordance with micro silica and foam.

Keywords: Distribution, micro silica, foam, ready mixed concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
17 A Framework for Supply Chain Efficiency Evaluation of Mass Customized Automobiles

Authors: Arshia Khan, Hans-Dietrich Haasis

Abstract:

Different tools of the supply chain should be managed very efficiently in mass customization. In the automobile industry, there are different strategies to manage these tools. We need to investigate which strategies among the different ones are successful and which are not. There is lack in literature regarding such analysis. Keeping this in view, the purpose of this paper is to construct a framework and model which can help to analyze the supply chain of mass customized automobiles quantitatively for future studies. Furthermore, we will also consider that which type of data can be used for the suggested model and where it can be taken from. Such framework can help to bring insight for future analysis.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Distribution, Inventory, mass customization, automobile industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
16 Avifauna of Bara Gali Summer Campus, University of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Authors: Muhammad Ali, Saif Ullah, Muhammad Awais, Zaigham Hasan, Qaisar Jamal, Kiran Salahuddin

Abstract:

Survey of avian fauna of Bara Gali Summer Campus, University of Peshawar situated in Abbottabad was conducted from April to October, 2013. A total of 21 species belonging to 5 orders and 15 families were recorded. Out of these, 6 were resident, 12 summer visitor and 3 rare. Order Passeriformes was represented by 16 species which are Certhia himalayana, Megalaima virens, Phylloscopus trochiloides, Garrulax lineatus, Passer rutilans, Corvus macrorhynchos, Hypsipetes leucocephalus, Acridotheres tristis, Delichon dasypus cashmeriensis, Hirundo rustica, Muscicapa thalassina, Saxicola ferrea, Myiophoneus caeruleus, Parus melonolophus, Parus rufonuchalis, Parus monticolus, belonging to 11 families. Two species Dendrocopos himalayansis and Picus squamatus belong to only one family Picidae of order Piciformes. Among rest of the three orders each is represented by only a single species; Accipitriformes by Accipiter virgatus, Coraciformes by Upupa epops while order Psittaciformes has been represented by Psittacula himalayana. The distribution and abundance varied with season and maximum number of species were found during the monsoon season when most of the birds migrate for breeding. Some habits and behaviors like nesting, feeding, breeding and vocalizations were also studied which are very unique from other birds found at lower elevations. Among bird species adapted to diverse habitat in the field, Himalayan Jungle Crow, Common Mynas, Bulbuls, Barn Swallows, barbets were prominent. Interesting feature of the avian fauna is its familiarity with flora, was also observed during the present studies that some birds are very quick and active in their movement on a tree surface i.e Certhia himalayana.

Keywords: Distribution, avifauna diversity, Bara Gali, Abbottabad

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
15 Distribution, Seasonal Phenology and Infestation Dispersal of the Chickpea Leafminer Liriomyza cicerina (Diptera: Agromizidae) on Two Winter and Spring Chickpea Varieties

Authors: Abir Soltani, Moez Amri, Jouda Mediouni Ben Jemâa

Abstract:

In North Africa, the chickpea leafminer Liriomyza cicerina (Rondani) (Diptera: Agromizidae) is one of the major damaging pests affecting both spring and winter-planted chickpea. Damage is caused by the larvae which feed in the leaf mesophyll tissue, resulting in desiccation and premature leaf fall that can cause severe yield losses. In the present work, the distribution and the seasonal phenology of L. cicerina were studied on two chickpea varieties; a winter variety Beja 1 which is the most cultivated variety in Tunisia and a spring-sown variety Amdoun 1. The experiment was conducted during the cropping season 2015-2016. In the experimental research station Oued Beja, in the Beja region (36°44’N; 9°13’E). To determine the distribution and seasonal phenology of L. cicerina in both studied varieties Beja 1 and Amdoun 1, respectively 100 leave samples (50 from the top and 50 from the base) were collected from 10 chickpea plants randomly chosen from each field. The sampling was done during three development stages (i) 20-25 days before flowering (BFL), (ii) at flowering (FL) and (ii) at pod setting stage (PS). For each plant, leaves were checked from the base till the upper ones for the insect infestation progress into the plant in correlation with chickpea growth Stages. Fly adult populations were monitored using 8 yellow sticky traps together with weekly leaves sampling in each field. The traps were placed 70 cm above ground. Trap catches were collected once a week over the cropping season period. Results showed that L. cicerina distribution varied among both studied chickpea varieties and crop development stage all with seasonal phenology. For the winter chickpea variety Beja 1, infestation levels of 2%, 10.3% and 20.3% were recorded on the bases plant part for BFL, FL and PS stages respectively against 0%, 8.1% and 45.8% recorded for the upper plant part leaves for the same stages respectively. For the spring-sown variety Amdoun 1 the infestation level reached 71.5% during flowering stage. Population dynamic study revealed that for Beja 1 variety, L. cicerina accomplished three annual generations over the cropping season period with the third one being the most important with a capture level of 85 adult/trap by mid-May against a capture level of 139 adult/trap at the end May recorded for cv. Amdoun 1. Also, results showed that L. cicerina field infestation dispersal depends on the field part and on the crop growth stage. The border areas plants were more infested than the plants placed inside the plots. For cv. Beja 1, border areas infestations were 11%, 28% and 91.2% for BFL, FL and PS stages respectively, against 2%, 10.73% and 69.2% recorded on the on the inside plot plants during the for the same growth stages respectively. For the cv. Amdoun1 infestation level of 90% was observed on the border plants at FL and PS stages against an infestation level less than 65% recorded inside the plot.

Keywords: Distribution, chickpea, Tunisia, leaf miner, liriomyza cicerina, seasonal phenology

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
14 Distributional and Developmental Analysis of PM2.5 in Beijing, China

Authors: Alexander K. Guo

Abstract:

PM2.5 poses a large threat to people’s health and the environment and is an issue of large concern in Beijing, brought to the attention of the government by the media. In addition, both the United States Embassy in Beijing and the government of China have increased monitoring of PM2.5 in recent years, and have made real-time data available to the public. This report utilizes hourly historical data (2008-2016) from the U.S. Embassy in Beijing for the first time. The first objective was to attempt to fit probability distributions to the data to better predict a number of days exceeding the standard, and the second was to uncover any yearly, seasonal, monthly, daily, and hourly patterns and trends that may arise to better understand of air control policy. In these data, 66,650 hours and 2687 days provided valid data. Lognormal, gamma, and Weibull distributions were fit to the data through an estimation of parameters. The Chi-squared test was employed to compare the actual data with the fitted distributions. The data were used to uncover trends, patterns, and improvements in PM2.5 concentration over the period of time with valid data in addition to specific periods of time that received large amounts of media attention, analyzed to gain a better understanding of causes of air pollution. The data show a clear indication that Beijing’s air quality is unhealthy, with an average of 94.07µg/m3 across all 66,650 hours with valid data. It was found that no distribution fit the entire dataset of all 2687 days well, but each of the three above distribution types was optimal in at least one of the yearly data sets, with the lognormal distribution found to fit recent years better. An improvement in air quality beginning in 2014 was discovered, with the first five months of 2016 reporting an average PM2.5 concentration that is 23.8% lower than the average of the same period in all years, perhaps the result of various new pollution-control policies. It was also found that the winter and fall months contained more days in both good and extremely polluted categories, leading to a higher average but a comparable median in these months. Additionally, the evening hours, especially in the winter, reported much higher PM2.5 concentrations than the afternoon hours, possibly due to the prohibition of trucks in the city in the daytime and the increased use of coal for heating in the colder months when residents are home in the evening. Lastly, through analysis of special intervals that attracted media attention for either unnaturally good or bad air quality, the government’s temporary pollution control measures, such as more intensive road-space rationing and factory closures, are shown to be effective. In summary, air quality in Beijing is improving steadily and do follow standard probability distributions to an extent, but still needs improvement. Analysis will be updated when new data become available.

Keywords: Distribution, Patterns, Trends, PM2.5, Beijing

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
13 Community Adaptation of Drought Disaster in Grobogan District, Central Java Province, Indonesia

Authors: Chatarina Muryani, Sarwono, Sugiyanto Heribentus

Abstract:

Major part of Grobogan District, Central Java Province, Indonesia, always suffers from drought every year. The drought has implications toward almost all of the community activities, both domestic, agriculture, livestock, and industrial. The aim of this study was to determine (1) the drought distribution area in Grobogan District in 2015; (2) the impact of drought; and (3) the community adaptation toward the drought. The subject of the research was people who were impacted by the drought, purposive sampling technique was used to draw the sample. The data collection method was using field observation and in-depth interview while the data analysis was using descriptive analysis. The results showed that (1) in 2015, there were 14 districts which were affected by the drought and only 5 districts which do not suffer from drought, (2) the drought impacted to the reduction of water for domestic compliance, reduction of agricultural production, reduction of public revenue, (3) community adaptation to meet domestic water need was by making collective deep-wells and building water storages, adaptation in agriculture was done by setting the cropping pattern, while adaptation on economics was by allocating certain amount of funds for the family in anticipation of drought, which was mostly to purchase water.

Keywords: Distribution, Impacts, Adaptation, Drought

Procedia PDF Downloads 249