Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Distribution coefficient Related Abstracts

3 Statistical Optimization of Distribution Coefficient for Reactive Extraction of Lactic Acid Using Tri-n-octyl Amine in Oleyl Alcohol and n-Hexane

Authors: Parmjit S. Panesar, Avinash Thakur, Manohar Singh


The distribution coefficient, KD for the reactive extraction of lactic acid from aqueous solutions of lactic acid using 10-30% (v/v) tri-n-octyl amine (extractant) dissolved in n-hexane (inert diluent) and 20% (v/v) oleyl alcohol (modifier) was optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM). A three level Box-Behnken design was employed for experimental design, analysis of the results and to depict the combined interactive effect of seven independent variables, viz lactic acid concentration (cl), pH, TOA concentration in organic phase (ψ), treat ratio (φ), temperature (T), agitation speed (ω) and batch agitation time (τ) on distribution coefficient of lactic acid. The regression analysis recommended that the quadratic model is significant (R2 and adjusted R2 are 98.72 % and 98.69 % respectively) for analysis. A numerical optimization had resulted in maximum lactic acid distribution coefficient (KD) of 3.16 at the optimized values for test variables, cl, pH, ψ, φ, T, ω and τ as 0.15 [M], 3.0, 22.75% (v/v), 1.0 (v/v), 26°C, 145 rpm and 23 min respectively. A good agreement between the predicted and experimentally obtained values for distribution coefficient using the optimized conditions was exhibited.

Keywords: response surface methodology, lactic acid, Distribution coefficient, tri-n-octylamine

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2 Synthesis and Application of Tamarind Hydroxypropane Sulphonic Acid Resin for Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Industrial Wastewater

Authors: Aresh Vikram Singh, Sarika Nagar


The tamarind based resin containing hydroxypropane sulphonic acid groups has been synthesized and their adsorption behavior for heavy metal ions has been investigated using batch and column experiments. The hydroxypropane sulphonic acid group has been incorporated onto tamarind by a modified Porath's method of functionalisation of polysaccharides. The tamarind hydroxypropane sulphonic acid (THPSA) resin can selectively remove of heavy metal ions, which are contained in industrial wastewater. The THPSA resin was characterized by FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis. The effects of various adsorption conditions, such as pH, treatment time and adsorbent dose were also investigated. The optimum adsorption condition was found at pH 6, 120 minutes of equilibrium time and 0.1 gram of resin dose. The orders of distribution coefficient values were determined.

Keywords: Industrial Wastewater, Polysaccharides, Distribution coefficient, thermogravimetric analysis, tamarind hydroxypropane sulphonic acid resin, THPSA

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1 Simulation of Multistage Extraction Process of Co-Ni Separation Using Ionic Liquids

Authors: Hongyan Chen, Megan Jobson, Andrew J. Masters, Maria Gonzalez-Miquel, Simon Halstead, Mayri Diaz de Rienzo


Ionic liquids offer excellent advantages over conventional solvents for industrial extraction of metals from aqueous solutions, where such extraction processes bring opportunities for recovery, reuse, and recycling of valuable resources and more sustainable production pathways. Recent research on the use of ionic liquids for extraction confirms their high selectivity and low volatility, but there is relatively little focus on how their properties can be best exploited in practice. This work addresses gaps in research on process modelling and simulation, to support development, design, and optimisation of these processes, focusing on the separation of the highly similar transition metals, cobalt, and nickel. The study exploits published experimental results, as well as new experimental results, relating to the separation of Co and Ni using trihexyl (tetradecyl) phosphonium chloride. This extraction agent is attractive because it is cheaper, more stable and less toxic than fluorinated hydrophobic ionic liquids. This process modelling work concerns selection and/or development of suitable models for the physical properties, distribution coefficients, for mass transfer phenomena, of the extractor unit and of the multi-stage extraction flowsheet. The distribution coefficient model for cobalt and HCl represents an anion exchange mechanism, supported by the literature and COSMO-RS calculations. Parameters of the distribution coefficient models are estimated by fitting the model to published experimental extraction equilibrium results. The mass transfer model applies Newman’s hard sphere model. Diffusion coefficients in the aqueous phase are obtained from the literature, while diffusion coefficients in the ionic liquid phase are fitted to dynamic experimental results. The mass transfer area is calculated from the surface to mean diameter of liquid droplets of the dispersed phase, estimated from the Weber number inside the extractor. New experiments measure the interfacial tension between the aqueous and ionic phases. The empirical models for predicting the density and viscosity of solutions under different metal loadings are also fitted to new experimental data. The extractor is modelled as a continuous stirred tank reactor with mass transfer between the two phases and perfect phase separation of the outlet flows. A multistage separation flowsheet simulation is set up to replicate a published experiment and compare model predictions with the experimental results. This simulation model is implemented in gPROMS software for dynamic process simulation. The results of single stage and multi-stage flowsheet simulations are shown to be in good agreement with the published experimental results. The estimated diffusion coefficient of cobalt in the ionic liquid phase is in reasonable agreement with published data for the diffusion coefficients of various metals in this ionic liquid. A sensitivity study with this simulation model demonstrates the usefulness of the models for process design. The simulation approach has potential to be extended to account for other metals, acids, and solvents for process development, design, and optimisation of extraction processes applying ionic liquids for metals separations, although a lack of experimental data is currently limiting the accuracy of models within the whole framework. Future work will focus on process development more generally and on extractive separation of rare earths using ionic liquids.

Keywords: mass transfer, Distribution coefficient, COSMO-RS, flowsheet simulation, phosphonium

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