Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Distributed Generation Related Abstracts

31 Integration of UPQC Based on Fuzzy Controller for Power Quality Enhancement in Distributed Network

Authors: H. Madi, M. Habab, C. Benachaiba, B. Mazari, C. Benoudjafer


The use of Distributed Generation (DG) has been increasing in recent years to fill the gap between energy supply and demand. This paper presents the grid connected wind energy system with UPQC based on fuzzy controller to compensate for voltage and current disturbances. The proposed system can improve power quality at the point of installation on power distribution systems. Simulation results show the capability of the DG-UPQC intelligent system to compensate sags voltage and current harmonics at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC).

Keywords: Power Quality, Distributed Generation, Wind turbine, shunt active filter, series active filter, UPQC, sags voltage

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30 Effect of DG Installation in Distribution System for Voltage Monitoring Scheme

Authors: M. M. Othman, I. Musirin, S. R. A. Rahim, M. H. Hussain


Loss minimization is a long progressing issue mainly in distribution system. Nevertheless, its effect led to temperature rise due to significant voltage drop through the distribution line. Thus, compensation scheme should be proper scheduled in the attempt to alleviate the voltage drop phenomenon. Distributed generation has been profoundly known for voltage profile improvement provided that over-compensation or under-compensation phenomena are avoided. This paper addresses the issue of voltage improvement through different type DG installation. In ensuring optimal sizing and location of the DGs, predeveloped EMEFA technique was made to be used for this purpose. Incremental loading condition subjected to the system is the concern such that it is beneficial to the power system operator.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, EMEFA, power loss, voltage profile

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29 Optimization of Line Loss Minimization Using Distributed Generation

Authors: S. Sambath, P. Palanivel


Research conducted in the last few decades has proven that an inclusion of Distributed Genaration (DG) into distribution systems considerably lowers the level of power losses and the power quality improved. Moreover, the choice of DG is even more attractive since it provides not only benefits in power loss minimisation, but also a wide range of other advantages including environment, economic, power qualities and technical issues. This paper is an intent to quantify and analyse the impact of distributed generation (DG) in Tamil Nadu, India to examine what the benefits of decentralized generation would be for meeting rural loads. We used load flow analysis to simulate and quantify the loss reduction and power quality enhancement by having decentralized generation available line conditions for actual rural feeders in Tamil Nadu, India. Reactive and voltage profile was considered. This helps utilities to better plan their system in rural areas to meet dispersed loads, while optimizing the renewable and decentralised generation sources.

Keywords: Power Quality, Distributed Generation, Distribution System, load flow analysis, optimal location

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28 Distribution Planning with Renewable Energy Units Based on Improved Honey Bee Mating Optimization

Authors: Noradin Ghadimi, Nima Amjady, Oveis Abedinia, Roza Poursoleiman


This paper proposed an Improved Honey Bee Mating Optimization (IHBMO) for a planning paradigm for network upgrade. The proposed technique is a new meta-heuristic algorithm which inspired by mating of the honey bee. The paradigm is able to select amongst several choices equi-cost one assuring the optimum in terms of voltage profile, considering various scenarios of DG penetration and load demand. The distributed generation (DG) has created a challenge and an opportunity for developing various novel technologies in power generation. DG prepares a multitude of services to utilities and consumers, containing standby generation, peaks chopping sufficiency, base load generation. The proposed algorithm is applied over the 30 lines, 28 buses power system. The achieved results demonstrate the good efficiency of the DG using the proposed technique in different scenarios.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, IHBMO, renewable energy units, network upgrade

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27 DG Allocation to Reduce Production Cost by Reducing Losses in Radial Distribution Systems Using Fuzzy

Authors: G. V. Siva Krishna Rao, B. Srinivasa Rao


Electrical energy is vital in every aspect of day-to-day life. Keen interest is taken on all possible sources of energy from which it can be generated and this led to the encouragement of generating electrical power using renewable energy resources such as solar, tidal waves and wind energy. Due to the increasing interest on renewable sources in recent times, the studies on integration of distributed generation to the power grid have rapidly increased. Distributed Generation (DG) is a promising solution to many power system problems such as voltage regulation, power loss and reduction in operational cost, etc. To reduce production cost, it is important to minimize the losses by determining the location and size of local generators to be placed in the radial distribution systems. In this paper, reduction of production cost by optimal size of DG unit operated at optimal power factor is dealt. The optimal size of the DG unit is calculated analytically using approximate reasoning suitable nodes and DG placement to minimize production cost with minimum loss is determined by fuzzy technique. Total Cost of Power generation is compared with and without DG unit for 1 year duration. The suggested method is programmed under MATLAB software and is tested on IEEE 33 bus system and the results are presented.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, optimum size, operational cost, exact loss formula, optimum location

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26 Voltage Profile Enhancement in the Unbalanced Distribution Systems during Fault Conditions

Authors: S. Sivanagaraju, K. Jithendra Gowd, Ch. Sai Babu


Electric power systems are daily exposed to service interruption mainly due to faults and human accidental interference. Short circuit currents are responsible for several types of disturbances in power systems. The fault currents are high and the voltages are reduced at the time of fault. This paper presents two suitable methods, consideration of fault resistance and Distributed Generator are implemented and analyzed for the enhancement of voltage profile during fault conditions. Fault resistance is a critical parameter of electric power systems operation due to its stochastic nature. If not considered, this parameter may interfere in fault analysis studies and protection scheme efficiency. The effect of Distributed Generator is also considered. The proposed methods are tested on the IEEE 37 bus test systems and the results are compared.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, electrical distribution systems, fault resistance

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25 Determination of Frequency Relay Setting during Distributed Generators Islanding

Authors: Tarek Kandil, Ameen Ali


Distributed generation (DG) has recently gained a lot of momentum in power industry due to market deregulation and environmental concerns. One of the most technical challenges facing DGs is islanding of distributed generators. The current industry practice is to disconnect all distributed generators immediately after the occurrence of islands within 200 to 350 ms after loss of main supply. To achieve such goal, each DG must be equipped with an islanding detection device. Frequency relays are one of the most commonly used loss of mains detection method. However, distribution utilities may be faced with concerns related to false operation of these frequency relays due to improper settings. The commercially available frequency relays are considering standard tight setting. This paper investigates some factors related to relays internal algorithm that contribute to their different operating responses. Further, the relay operation in the presence of multiple distributed at the same network is analyzed. Finally, the relay setting can be accurately determined based on these investigation and analysis.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, frequency relay, islanding detection, relay setting

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24 Technical and Economic Environment in the Polish Power System as the Basis for Distributed Generation and Renewable Energy Sources Development

Authors: Pawel Sowa, Joachim Bargiel, Bogdan Mol, Katarzyna Luszcz


The article raises the issue of the development of local renewable energy sources and the production of distributed energy in context of improving the reliability of the Polish Power System and the beneficial impact on local and national energy security. The paper refers to the current problems of local governments in the process of investment in the area of distributed energy projects, and discusses the issues of the future role and cooperation within the local power plants and distributed energy. Attention is paid to the local communities the chance to raise their own resources and management of energy fuels (biomass, wind, gas mining) and improving the local energy balance. The material presented takes the issue of the development of the energy potential of municipalities and future cooperation with professional energy. As an example, practical solutions used in one of the communes in Silesia.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, Renewable Energy Sources, mini centers energy, reliability of supply of rural commune

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23 Energy System Analysis Using Data-Driven Modelling and Bayesian Methods

Authors: Paul Rowley, Adam Thirkill, Nick Doylend, Philip Leicester, Becky Gough


The dynamic performance of all energy generation technologies is impacted to varying degrees by the stochastic properties of the wider system within which the generation technology is located. This stochasticity can include the varying nature of ambient renewable energy resources such as wind or solar radiation, or unpredicted changes in energy demand which impact upon the operational behaviour of thermal generation technologies. An understanding of these stochastic impacts are especially important in contexts such as highly distributed (or embedded) generation, where an understanding of issues affecting the individual or aggregated performance of high numbers of relatively small generators is especially important, such as in ESCO projects. Probabilistic evaluation of monitored or simulated performance data is one technique which can provide an insight into the dynamic performance characteristics of generating systems, both in a prognostic sense (such as the prediction of future performance at the project’s design stage) as well as in a diagnostic sense (such as in the real-time analysis of underperforming systems). In this work, we describe the development, application and outcomes of a new approach to the acquisition of datasets suitable for use in the subsequent performance and impact analysis (including the use of Bayesian approaches) for a number of distributed generation technologies. The application of the approach is illustrated using a number of case studies involving domestic and small commercial scale photovoltaic, solar thermal and natural gas boiler installations, and the results as presented show that the methodology offers significant advantages in terms of plant efficiency prediction or diagnosis, along with allied environmental and social impacts such as greenhouse gas emission reduction or fuel affordability.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Distributed Generation, Bayesian analysis, dynamic performance simulation

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22 A Novel Probablistic Strategy for Modeling Photovoltaic Based Distributed Generators

Authors: Y. G. Hegazy, Engy A. Mohamed


This paper presents a novel algorithm for modeling photovoltaic based distributed generators for the purpose of optimal planning of distribution networks. The proposed algorithm utilizes sequential Monte Carlo method in order to accurately consider the stochastic nature of photovoltaic based distributed generators. The proposed algorithm is implemented in MATLAB environment and the results obtained are presented and discussed.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, Monte Carlo, comulative distribution function

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21 Performance Comparison of Droop Control Methods for Parallel Inverters in Microgrid

Authors: Mustafa Baysal, Ahmed Ismail


Although the energy source in the world is mainly based on fossil fuels today, there is a need for alternative energy generation systems, which are more economic and environmentally friendly, due to continuously increasing demand of electric energy and lacking power resources and networks. Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) such as fuel cells, wind and solar power have recently become widespread as alternative generation. In order to solve several problems that might be encountered when integrating DERs to power system, the microgrid concept has been proposed. A microgrid can operate both grid connected and island mode to benefit both utility and customers. For most distributed energy resources (DER) which are connected in parallel in LV-grid like micro-turbines, wind plants, fuel cells and PV cells electrical power is generated as a direct current (DC) and converted to an alternative currents (AC) by inverters. So the inverters are assumed to be primary components in a microgrid. There are many control techniques of parallel inverters to manage active and reactive sharing of the loads. Some of them are based on droop method. In literature, the studies are usually focused on improving the transient performance of inverters. In this study, the performance of two different controllers based on droop control method is compared for the inverters operated in parallel without any communication feedback. For this aim, a microgrid in which inverters are controlled by conventional droop controller and modified droop controller is designed. Modified controller is obtained by adding PID into conventional droop control. Active and reactive power sharing performance, voltage and frequency responses of those control methods are measured in several operational cases. Study cases have been simulated by MATLAB-SIMULINK.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, Microgrid, droop control, active and reactive power sharing

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20 Optimal Planning of Dispatchable Distributed Generators for Power Loss Reduction in Unbalanced Distribution Networks

Authors: Mahmoud M. Othman, Y. G. Hegazy, A. Y. Abdelaziz


This paper proposes a novel heuristic algorithm that aims to determine the best size and location of distributed generators in unbalanced distribution networks. The proposed heuristic algorithm can deal with the planning cases where power loss is to be optimized without violating the system practical constraints. The distributed generation units in the proposed algorithm is modeled as voltage controlled node with the flexibility to be converted to constant power factor node in case of reactive power limit violation. The proposed algorithm is implemented in MATLAB and tested on the IEEE 37 -node feeder. The results obtained show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Optimization, Planning, Distributed Generation, heuristic approach

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19 Application of Fuzzy Logic in Voltage Regulation of Radial Feeder with Distributed Generators

Authors: Shivarudraswamy, Anubhav Shrivastava, Lakshya Bhat


Distributed Generation is the need of the hour. With current advancements in the DG technology, there are some major issues that need to be tackled in order to make this method of generation of energy more efficient and feasible. Among other problems, the control in voltage is the major issue that needs to be addressed. This paper focuses on control of voltage using reactive power control of DGs with the help of fuzzy logic. The membership functions have been defined accordingly and the control of the system is achieved. Finally, with the help of simulation results in Matlab, the control of voltage within the tolerance limit set (+/- 5%) is achieved. The voltage waveform graphs for the IEEE 14 bus system are obtained by using simple algorithm with MATLAB and then with fuzzy logic for 14 bus system. The goal of this project was to control the voltage within limits by controlling the reactive power of the DG using fuzzy logic.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, Fuzzy Logic, MATLAB, Voltage Regulation, newton raphson, IEEE 14 bus, radial network

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18 Impact of Very Small Power Producers (VSPP) on Control and Protection System in Distribution Networks

Authors: Noppatee Sabpayakom, Somporn Sirisumrannukul


Due to incentive policies to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency, high penetration levels of very small power producers (VSPP) located in distribution networks have imposed technical barriers and established new requirements for protection and control of the networks. Although VSPPs have economic and environmental benefit, they may introduce negative effects and cause several challenges on the issue of protection and control system. This paper presents comprehensive studies of possible impacts on control and protection systems based on real distribution systems located in a metropolitan area. A number of scenarios were examined primarily focusing on state of islanding, and un-disconnected VSPP during faults. It is shown that without proper measures to address the issues, the system would be unable to maintain its integrity of electricity power supply for disturbance incidents.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Distributed Generation, control and protection systems, very small power producers

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17 Wind Resource Classification and Feasibility of Distributed Generation for Rural Community Utilization in North Central Nigeria

Authors: Oluseyi O. Ajayi, O. D. Ohijeagbon, M. Ogbonnaya, Ahmeh Attabo


This study analyzed the electricity generation potential from wind at seven sites spread across seven states of the North-Central region of Nigeria. Twenty-one years (1987 to 2007) wind speed data at a height of 10m were assessed from the Nigeria Meteorological Department, Oshodi. The data were subjected to different statistical tests and also compared with the two-parameter Weibull probability density function. The outcome shows that the monthly average wind speeds ranged between 2.2 m/s in November for Bida and 10.1 m/s in December for Jos. The yearly average ranged between 2.1m/s in 1987 for Bida and 11.8 m/s in 2002 for Jos. Also, the power density for each site was determined to range between 29.66 W/m2 for Bida and 864.96 W/m2 for Jos, Two parameters (k and c) of the Weibull distribution were found to range between 2.3 in Lokoja and 6.5 in Jos for k, while c ranged between 2.9 in Bida and 9.9m/s in Jos. These outcomes points to the fact that wind speeds at Jos, Minna, Ilorin, Makurdi and Abuja are compatible with the cut-in speeds of modern wind turbines and hence, may be economically feasible for wind-to-electricity at and above the height of 10 m. The study further assessed the potential and economic viability of standalone wind generation systems for off-grid rural communities located in each of the studied sites. A specific electric load profile was developed to suite hypothetic communities, each consisting of 200 homes, a school and a community health center. Assessment of the design that will optimally meet the daily load demand with a loss of load probability (LOLP) of 0.01 was performed, considering 2 stand-alone applications of wind and diesel. The diesel standalone system (DSS) was taken as the basis of comparison since the experimental locations have no connection to a distribution network. The HOMER® software optimizing tool was utilized to determine the optimal combination of system components that will yield the lowest life cycle cost. Sequel to the analysis for rural community utilization, a Distributed Generation (DG) analysis that considered the possibility of generating wind power in the MW range in order to take advantage of Nigeria’s tariff regime for embedded generation was carried out for each site. The DG design incorporated each community of 200 homes, freely catered for and offset from the excess electrical energy generated above the minimum requirement for sales to a nearby distribution grid. Wind DG systems were found suitable and viable in producing environmentally friendly energy in terms of life cycle cost and levelised value of producing energy at Jos ($0.14/kWh), Minna ($0.12/kWh), Ilorin ($0.09/kWh), Makurdi ($0.09/kWh), and Abuja ($0.04/kWh) at a particluar turbine hub height. These outputs reveal the value retrievable from the project after breakeven point as a function of energy consumed Based on the results, the study demonstrated that including renewable energy in the rural development plan will enhance fast upgrade of the rural communities.

Keywords: wind power, Distributed Generation, clean energy, Wind Speed, cost per kilowatt-hour, North-Central Nigeria

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16 Wind Power Mapping and NPV of Embedded Generation Systems in Nigeria

Authors: Oluseyi O. Ajayi, Ohiose D. Ohijeagbon, Mercy Ogbonnaya, Ameh Attabo


The study assessed the potential and economic viability of stand-alone wind systems for embedded generation, taking into account its benefits to small off-grid rural communities at 40 meteorological sites in Nigeria. A specific electric load profile was developed to accommodate communities consisting of 200 homes, a school and a community health centre. This load profile was incorporated within the distributed generation analysis producing energy in the MW range, while optimally meeting daily load demand for the rural communities. Twenty-four years (1987 to 2010) of wind speed data at a height of 10m utilized for the study were sourced from the Nigeria Meteorological Department, Oshodi. The HOMER® software optimizing tool was engaged for the feasibility study and design. Each site was suited to 3MW wind turbines in sets of five, thus 15MW was designed for each site. This design configuration was adopted in order to easily compare the distributed generation system amongst the sites to determine their relative economic viability in terms of life cycle cost, as well as levelised cost of producing energy. A net present value was estimated in terms of life cycle cost for 25 of the 40 meteorological sites. On the other hand, the remaining sites yielded a net present cost; meaning the installations at these locations were not economically viable when utilizing the present tariff regime for embedded generation in Nigeria.

Keywords: wind power, Distributed Generation, clean energy, Wind Speed, Nigeria, cost per kilowatt-hour

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15 Optimal Load Control Strategy in the Presence of Stochastically Dependent Renewable Energy Sources

Authors: Mahmoud M. Othman, Yasser G. Hegazy, Almoataz Y. Abdelaziz


This paper presents a load control strategy based on modification of the Big Bang Big Crunch optimization method. The proposed strategy aims to determine the optimal load to be controlled and the corresponding time of control in order to minimize the energy purchased from substation. The presented strategy helps the distribution network operator to rely on the renewable energy sources in supplying the system demand. The renewable energy sources used in the presented study are modeled using the diagonal band Copula method and sequential Monte Carlo method in order to accurately consider the multivariate stochastic dependence between wind power, photovoltaic power and the system demand. The proposed algorithms are implemented in MATLAB environment and tested on the IEEE 37-node feeder. Several case studies are done and the subsequent discussions show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Optimization, Planning, Distributed Generation, big bang big crunch, load control

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14 Concept, Modules and Objectives of the Syllabus Course: Small Power Plants and Renewable Energy Sources

Authors: Rade M. Ciric, Nikola L. J. Rajakovic


This paper presents a curriculum of the subject small power plants and renewable energy sources, dealing with the concept of distributed generation, renewable energy sources, hydropower, wind farms, geothermal power plants, cogeneration plants, biogas plants of agriculture and animal origin, solar power and fuel cells. The course is taught the manner of connecting small power plants to the grid, the impact of small generators on the distribution system, as well as economic, environmental and legal aspects of operation of distributed generators.

Keywords: Energy policy, Distributed Generation, Renewable Energy Sources, Curriculum

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13 Inverterless Grid Compatible Micro Turbine Generator

Authors: S. Ozeri, D. Shmilovitz


Micro‐Turbine Generators (MTG) are small size power plants that consist of a high speed, gas turbine driving an electrical generator. MTGs may be fueled by either natural gas or kerosene and may also use sustainable and recycled green fuels such as biomass, landfill or digester gas. The typical ratings of MTGs start from 20 kW up to 200 kW. The primary use of MTGs is for backup for sensitive load sites such as hospitals, and they are also considered a feasible power source for Distributed Generation (DG) providing on-site generation in proximity to remote loads. The MTGs have the compressor, the turbine, and the electrical generator mounted on a single shaft. For this reason, the electrical energy is generated at high frequency and is incompatible with the power grid. Therefore, MTGs must contain, in addition, a power conditioning unit to generate an AC voltage at the grid frequency. Presently, this power conditioning unit consists of a rectifier followed by a DC/AC inverter, both rated at the full MTG’s power. The losses of the power conditioning unit account to some 3-5%. Moreover, the full-power processing stage is a bulky and costly piece of equipment that also lowers the overall system reliability. In this study, we propose a new type of power conditioning stage in which only a small fraction of the power is processed. A low power converter is used only to program the rotor current (i.e. the excitation current which is substantially lower). Thus, the MTG's output voltage is shaped to the desired amplitude and frequency by proper programming of the excitation current. The control is realized by causing the rotor current to track the electrical frequency (which is related to the shaft frequency) with a difference that is exactly equal to the line frequency. Since the phasor of the rotation speed and the phasor of the rotor magnetic field are multiplied, the spectrum of the MTG generator voltage contains the sum and the difference components. The desired difference component is at the line frequency (50/60 Hz), whereas the unwanted sum component is at about twice the electrical frequency of the stator. The unwanted high frequency component can be filtered out by a low-pass filter leaving only the low-frequency output. This approach allows elimination of the large power conditioning unit incorporated in conventional MTGs. Instead, a much smaller and cheaper fractional power stage can be used. The proposed technology is also applicable to other high rotation generator sets such as aircraft power units.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, Gas Turbine, Inverter, power multiplier

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12 Pareto System of Optimal Placement and Sizing of Distributed Generation in Radial Distribution Networks Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Sani M. Lawal, Idris Musa, Aliyu D. Usman


The Pareto approach of optimal solutions in a search space that evolved in multi-objective optimization problems is adopted in this paper, which stands for a set of solutions in the search space. This paper aims at presenting an optimal placement of Distributed Generation (DG) in radial distribution networks with an optimal size for minimization of power loss and voltage deviation as well as maximizing voltage profile of the networks. And these problems are formulated using particle swarm optimization (PSO) as a constraint nonlinear optimization problem with both locations and sizes of DG being continuous. The objective functions adopted are the total active power loss function and voltage deviation function. The multiple nature of the problem, made it necessary to form a multi-objective function in search of the solution that consists of both the DG location and size. The proposed PSO algorithm is used to determine optimal placement and size of DG in a distribution network. The output indicates that PSO algorithm technique shows an edge over other types of search methods due to its effectiveness and computational efficiency. The proposed method is tested on the standard IEEE 34-bus and validated with 33-bus test systems distribution networks. Results indicate that the sizing and location of DG are system dependent and should be optimally selected before installing the distributed generators in the system and also an improvement in the voltage profile and power loss reduction have been achieved.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, Particle Swarm Optimization, power loss, pareto, voltage deviation

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11 Zero Net Energy Communities and the Impacts to the Grid

Authors: Heidi von Korff


The electricity grid is changing in terms of flexibility. Distributed generation (DG) policy is being discussed worldwide and implemented. Developers and utilities are seeking a pathway towards Zero Net Energy (ZNE) communities and the interconnection to the distribution grid. Using the VISDOM platform for establishing a method for managing and monitoring energy consumption loads of ZNE communities as a capacity resource for the grid. Reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and energy security are primary policy drivers for incorporating high-performance energy standards and sustainability practices in residential households, such as a market transformation of ZNE and nearly ZNE (nZNE) communities. This research investigates how load data impacts ZNE, to see if there is a correlation to the daily load variations in a single ZNE home. Case studies will include a ZNE community in California and a nearly ZNE community (All – Electric) in the Netherlands, which both are in measurement and verification (M&V) phases and connected to the grid for simulations of methods.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Distributed Generation, zero net energy, zero net energy community

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10 Impact of Series Reactive Compensation on Increasing a Distribution Network Distributed Generation Hosting Capacity

Authors: Moataz Ammar, Ahdab Elmorshedy


The distributed generation hosting capacity of a distribution network is typically limited at a given connection point by the upper voltage limit that can be violated due to the injection of active power into the distribution network. The upper voltage limit violation concern becomes more important as the network equivalent resistance increases with respect to its equivalent reactance. This paper investigates the impact of modifying the distribution network equivalent reactance at the point of connection such that the upper voltage limit is violated at a higher distributed generation penetration, than it would without the addition of series reactive compensation. The results show that series reactive compensation proves efficient in certain situations (based on the ratio of equivalent network reactance to equivalent network resistance at the point of connection). As opposed to the conventional case of capacitive compensation of a distribution network to reduce voltage drop, inductive compensation is seen to be more appropriate for alleviation of distributed-generation-induced voltage rise.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, Distribution Networks, series compensation, voltage rise

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9 Composite Distributed Generation and Transmission Expansion Planning Considering Security

Authors: Amir Lotfi, Seyed Hamid Hosseini


During the recent past, due to the increase of electrical energy demand and governmental resources constraints in creating additional capacity in the generation, transmission, and distribution, privatization, and restructuring in electrical industry have been considered. So, in most of the countries, different parts of electrical industry like generation, transmission, and distribution have been separated in order to create competition. Considering these changes, environmental issues, energy growth, investment of private equity in energy generation units and difficulties of transmission lines expansion, distributed generation (DG) units have been used in power systems. Moreover, reduction in the need for transmission and distribution, the increase of reliability, improvement of power quality, and reduction of power loss have caused DG to be placed in power systems. On the other hand, considering low liquidity need, private investors tend to spend their money for DGs. In this project, the main goal is to offer an algorithm for planning and placing DGs in order to reduce the need for transmission and distribution network.

Keywords: Power Systems, Planning, Transmission, Distributed Generation, power security

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8 Modeling of Micro-Grid System Components Using MATLAB/Simulink

Authors: Mervat Badr, Marwa Ibrahim, Mahmoud Fouad


Micro-grid system is presently considered a reliable solution for the expected deficiency in the power required from future power systems. Renewable power sources such as wind, solar and hydro offer high potential of benign power for future micro-grid systems. Micro-Grid (MG) is basically a low voltage (LV) or medium voltage (MV) distribution network which consists of a number of called distributed generators (DG’s); micro-sources such as photovoltaic array, fuel cell, wind turbine etc. energy storage systems and loads; operating as a single controllable system, that could be operated in both grid-connected and islanded mode. The capacity of the DG’s is sufficient to support all; or most, of the load connected to the micro-grid. This paper presents a micro-grid system based on wind and solar power sources and addresses issues related to operation, control, and stability of the system. Using Matlab/Simulink, the system is modeled and simulated to identify the relevant technical issues involved in the operation of a micro-grid system based on renewable power generation units.

Keywords: Modeling, energy storage, Distributed Generation, Photovoltaic, Wind turbine, micro-grid system

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7 Intelligent Control of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbine for Smart Grid

Authors: Faten H. Fahmy, Amal A. Hassan, Abd El-Shafy A. Nafeh, Hosam K. M. Youssef


Due to the growing penetration of wind energy into the power grid, it is very important to study its interactions with the power system and to provide good control technique in order to deliver high quality power. In this paper, an intelligent control methodology is proposed for optimizing the controllers’ parameters of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbine generation system (WTGS). The genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) are employed and compared for the parameters adaptive tuning of the proposed proportional integral (PI) multiple controllers of the back to back converters of the DFIG based WTGS. For this purpose, the dynamic model of WTGS with DFIG and its associated controllers is presented. Furthermore, the simulation of the system is performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK and SIMPOWERSYSTEM toolbox to illustrate the performance of the optimized controllers. Finally, this work is validated to 33-bus test radial system to show the interaction between wind distributed generation (DG) systems and the distribution network.

Keywords: Intelligent Control, Distributed Generation, Genetic Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization, DFIG wind turine

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6 Superordinated Control for Increasing Feed-in Capacity and Improving Power Quality in Low Voltage Distribution Grids

Authors: Markus Meyer, Bastian Maucher, Rolf Witzmann


The ever increasing amount of distributed generation in low voltage distribution grids (mainly PV and micro-CHP) can lead to reverse load flows from low to medium/high voltage levels at times of high feed-in. Reverse load flow leads to rising voltages that may even exceed the limits specified in the grid codes. Furthermore, the share of electrical loads connected to low voltage distribution grids via switched power supplies continuously increases. In combination with inverter-based feed-in, this results in high harmonic levels reducing overall power quality. Especially high levels of third-order harmonic currents can lead to neutral conductor overload, which is even more critical if lines with reduced neutral conductor section areas are used. This paper illustrates a possible concept for smart grids in order to increase the feed-in capacity, improve power quality and to ensure safe operation of low voltage distribution grids at all times. The key feature of the concept is a hierarchically structured control strategy that is run on a superordinated controller, which is connected to several distributed grid analyzers and inverters via broad band powerline (BPL). The strategy is devised to ensure both quick response time as well as the technically and economically reasonable use of the available inverters in the grid (PV-inverters, batteries, stepless line voltage regulators). These inverters are provided with standard features for voltage control, e.g. voltage dependent reactive power control. In addition they can receive reactive power set points transmitted by the superordinated controller. To further improve power quality, the inverters are capable of active harmonic filtering, as well as voltage balancing, whereas the latter is primarily done by the stepless line voltage regulators. By additionally connecting the superordinated controller to the control center of the grid operator, supervisory control and data acquisition capabilities for the low voltage distribution grid are enabled, which allows easy monitoring and manual input. Such a low voltage distribution grid can also be used as a virtual power plant.

Keywords: Power Quality, Smart Grid, Distributed Generation, Voltage Control, distribution grid, virtual power plant

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5 Steady State Analysis of Distribution System with Wind Generation Uncertainity

Authors: Zakir Husain, Neem Sagar, Neeraj Gupta


Due to the increased penetration of renewable energy resources in the distribution system, the system is no longer passive in nature. In this paper, a steady state analysis of the distribution system has been done with the inclusion of wind generation. The modeling of wind turbine generator system and wind generator has been made to obtain the average active and the reactive power injection into the system. The study has been conducted on a IEEE-33 bus system with two wind generators. The present research work is useful not only to utilities but also to customers.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, distribution network, radial network, wind turbine generating system

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4 Optimal Protection Coordination in Distribution Systems with Distributed Generations

Authors: Abdorreza Rabiee, Shahla Mohammad Hoseini Mirzaei


The advantages of distributed generations (DGs) based on renewable energy sources (RESs) leads to high penetration level of DGs in distribution network. With incorporation of DGs in distribution systems, the system reliability and security, as well as voltage profile, is improved. However, the protection of such systems is still challenging. In this paper, at first, the related papers are reviewed and then a practical scheme is proposed for coordination of OCRs in distribution system with DGs. The coordination problem is formulated as a nonlinear programming (NLP) optimization problem with the object function of minimizing total operating time of OCRs. The proposed method is studied based on a simple test system. The optimization problem is solved by General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) to calculate the optimal time dial setting (TDS) and also pickup current setting of OCRs. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method and its applicability.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, TDS, distribution network, OCR, over current relay, protection coordination, pickup current, time dial setting

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3 The Potential of Hybrid Microgrids for Mitigating Power Outage in Lebanon

Authors: R. Chedid, R. Ghajar


Lebanon electricity crisis continues to escalate. Rationing hours still apply across the country but with different rates. The capital Beirut is subjected to 3 hours cut while other cities, town and villages may endure 9 to 14 hours of power shortage. To mitigate this situation, private diesel generators distributed illegally all over the country are being used to bridge the gap in power supply. Almost each building in large cities has its own generator and individual villages may have more than one generator supplying their loads. These generators together with their private networks form incomplete and ill-designed and managed microgrids (MG) but can be further developed to become renewable energy-based MG operating in island- or grid-connected modes. This paper will analyze the potential of introducing MG to help resolve the energy crisis in Lebanon. It will investigate the usefulness of developing MG under the prevailing situation of existing private power supply service providers and in light of the developed national energy policy that supports renewable energy development. A case study on a distribution feeder in a rural area will be analyzed using HOMER software to demonstrate the usefulness of introducing photovoltaic (PV) arrays along the existing diesel generators for all the stakeholders; namely, the developers, the customers, the utility and the community at large. Policy recommendations regarding MG development in Lebanon will be presented on the basis of the accumulated experience in private generation and the privatization and public-private partnership laws.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Distributed Generation, microgrids, Decentralized Systems

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2 Optimal Placement and Sizing of Distributed Generation in Microgrid for Power Loss Reduction and Voltage Profile Improvement

Authors: Ferinar Moaidi, Mahdi Moaidi


Environmental issues and the ever-increasing in demand of electrical energy make it necessary to have distributed generation (DG) resources in the power system. In this research, in order to realize the goals of reducing losses and improving the voltage profile in a microgrid, the allocation and sizing of DGs have been used. The proposed Genetic Algorithm (GA) is described from the array of artificial intelligence methods for solving the problem. The algorithm is implemented on the IEEE 33 buses network. This study is presented in two scenarios, primarily to illustrate the effect of location and determination of DGs has been done to reduce losses and improve the voltage profile. On the other hand, decisions made with the one-level assumptions of load are not universally accepted for all levels of load. Therefore, in this study, load modelling is performed and the results are presented for multi-levels load state.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, Microgrid, Genetic Algorithm, loss reduction, load modelling, voltage improvement

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