Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Distillation Related Abstracts

18 Reduction of Energy Consumption of Distillation Process by Recovering the Heat from Exit Streams

Authors: Apichit Svang-Ariyaskul, Thanapat Chaireongsirikul, Pawit Tangviroon


Distillation consumes enormous quantity of energy. This work proposed a process to recover the energy from exit streams during the distillation process of three consecutive columns. There are several novel techniques to recover the heat with the distillation system; however, a complex control system is required. This work proposed a simpler technique by exchanging the heat between streams without interrupting the internal distillation process that might cause a serious control problem. The proposed process is executed by using heat exchanger network with pinch analysis to maximize the process heat recovery. The test model is the distillation of butane, pentane, hexane, and heptanes, which is a common mixture in the petroleum refinery. This proposed process saved the energy consumption for hot and cold utilities of 29 and 27%, which is considered significant. Therefore, the recovery of heat from exit streams from distillation process is proved to be effective for energy saving.

Keywords: Chemical Engineering, Distillation, heat exchanger, network pinch analysis

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17 Solar Energy Applications in Seawater Distillation

Authors: Yousef Abdulaziz Almolhem


Geographically, the most Arabic countries locate in areas confined to arid or semiarid regions. For this reason, most of our countries have adopted the seawater desalination as a strategy to overcome this problem. For example, the water supply of AUE, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia is almost 100% from the seawater desalination plants. Many areas in Saudia Arabia and other countries in the world suffer from lack of fresh water which hinders the development of these areas, despite the availability of saline water and high solar radiation intensity. Furthermore, most developing countries do not have sufficient meteorological data to evaluate if the solar radiation is enough to meet the solar desalination. A mathematical model was developed to simulate and predict the thermal behavior of the solar still which used direct solar energy for distillation of seawater. Measurement data were measured in the Environment and Natural Resources Department, Faculty of Agricultural and Food sciences, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, in order to evaluate the present model. The simulation results obtained from this model were compared with the measured data. The main results of this research showed that there are slight differences between the measured and predicted values of the elements studied, which is resultant from the change of some factors considered constants in the model such as the sky clearance, wind velocity and the salt concentration in the water in the basin of the solar still. It can be concluded that the present model can be used to estimate the average total solar radiation and the thermal behavior of the solar still in any area with consideration to the geographical location.

Keywords: Distillation, Solar Radiation, mathematical model, sea water

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16 Evaluation of the Potability Qualities of Pretreated Distilled Water Produced from Biomass Fuelled Water Distiller

Authors: E. I. Oluwasola, J. A. V. Famurewa, R. Aboloma, K. Adesina


Water samples with pretreatment and without pretreatment were obtained from locally constructed biomass fuelled stainless steel water distiller. The water samples were subjected to Microbial, Physicochemical and Minerals analyses for comparison with NAFDAC and WHO Standards for potable water. The results of the physicochemical and microbiological properties of the raw water(A), and the two distilled water samples (B; distill water without pretreatment) and (C; distill water with pretreatment) showed reduction in most of the quality parameters evaluated in the distilled water samples to the level that conforms to the W.H.O standards for drinking water however, lower values were obtained for the pretreated distilled water sample. The values of 0.0016mg/l, 0.0052mg/l and 0.0528mg/l for the arsenic, chromium and lead content respectively in the raw water were within the permissible limit specified by WHO however; the values of cadmium (0.067mg/l) and mercury (0.0287mg/l) are above the maximum tolerable for drinking water thus, making the raw water unsafe for human consumption. Similarly, the high total plate count (278cfu /ml) and coliform count (1100/100ml) indicate that the raw water is potentially harmful while the distilled water samples showed nil coliform count and low total plate count (35cfu/ml,18cfu/ml) for B and C respectively making the distilled water microbiologically safer for human consumption.

Keywords: biomass, Distillation, Mineral, physicochemical, potable

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15 Microwave Accelerated Simultaneous Distillation –Extraction: Preparative Recovery of Volatiles from Food Products

Authors: Ferhat Mohamed, Boukhatem Mohamed Nadjib, Chemat Farid


Simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE) is routinely used by analysts for sample preparation prior to gas chromatography analysis. In this work, a new process design and operation for microwave assisted simultaneous distillation – solvent extraction (MW-SDE) of volatile compounds was developed. Using the proposed method, isolation, extraction and concentration of volatile compounds can be carried out in a single step. To demonstrate its feasibility, MW-SDE was compared with the conventional technique, Simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE), for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of volatile compounds in a fresh orange juice and a dry spice “carvi seeds”. SDE method required long time (3 h) to isolate the volatile compounds, and large amount of organic solvent (200 mL of hexane) for further extraction, while MW-SDE needed little time (only 30 min) to prepare sample, and less amount of organic solvent (10 mL of hexane). These results show that MW-SDE–GC-MS is a simple, rapid and solvent-less method for determination of volatile compounds from aromatic plants.

Keywords: Distillation, Extraction, Essential Oil, carvi seeds

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14 Modification of Underwood's Equation to Calculate Minimum Reflux Ratio for Column with One Side Stream Upper Than Feed

Authors: S. Mousavian, A. Abedianpour, A. Khanmohammadi, S. Hematian, Gh. Eidi Veisi


Distillation is one of the most important and utilized separation methods in the industrial practice. There are different ways to design of distillation column. One of these ways is short cut method. In short cut method, material balance and equilibrium are employed to calculate number of tray in distillation column. There are different methods that are classified in short cut method. One of these methods is Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland method. In this method, minimum reflux ratio should be calculated by underwood equation. Underwood proposed an equation that is useful for simple distillation column with one feed and one top and bottom product. In this study, underwood method is developed to predict minimum reflux ratio for column with one side stream upper than feed. The result of this model compared with McCabe-Thiele method. The result shows that proposed method able to calculate minimum reflux ratio with very small error.

Keywords: Distillation, minimum reflux ratio, side stream, Underwood’s method

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13 Modelling and Simulation of the Freezing Systems and Heat Pumps Using Unisim® Design

Authors: C. Patrascioiu


The paper describes the modeling and simulation of the heat pumps domain processes. The main objective of the study is the use of the heat pump in propene–propane distillation processes. The modeling and simulation instrument is the Unisim® Design simulator. The paper is structured in three parts: An overview of the compressing gases, the modeling and simulation of the freezing systems, and the modeling and simulation of the heat pumps. For each of these systems, there are presented the Unisim® Design simulation diagrams, the input–output system structure and the numerical results. Future studies will consider modeling and simulation of the propene–propane distillation process with heat pump.

Keywords: Simulation, Distillation, Heat pump, unisim design

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12 Comparison of Various Control Methods for an Industrial Multiproduct Fractionator

Authors: Merve Aygün Esastürk, Deren Ataç Yılmaz, Görkem Oğur, Emre Özgen Kuzu, Sadık Ödemiş


Hydrocracker plants are one of the most complicated and most profitable units in the refinery process. It takes long chain paraffinic hydrocarbons as feed and turns them into smaller and more valuable products, mainly kerosene and diesel under high pressure with the excess amount of hydrogen. Controlling the product qualities well directly contributes to the unit profit. Control of a plant is mainly based on PID and MPC controllers. Controlling the reaction section is important in terms of reaction severity. However, controlling the fractionation section is more crucial since the end products are separated in fractionation section. In this paper, the importance of well-configured base layer control mechanism, composed of PID controllers, is highlighted. For this purpose, two different base layer control scheme is applied in a hydrocracker fractionator column performances of schemes, which is a direct contribution to better product quality, are compared.

Keywords: Distillation, controller, proportional-integral-derivative controller, configuration selection, hydrocracker, model predictive controller

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11 Design of Multi-Loop Controller for Minimization of Energy Consumption in the Distillation Column

Authors: Vinayambika S. Bhat, S. Shanmuga Priya, I. Thirunavukkarasu, Shreeranga Bhat


An attempt has been made to design a decoupling controller for systems with more inputs more outputs with dead time in it. The de-coupler is designed for the chemical process industry 3×3 plant transfer function with dead time. The Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) based controller has also been designed here for the 2×2 distillation column transfer function. The developed control techniques were simulated using the MATLAB/Simulink. Also, the stability of the process was analyzed, together with the presence of various perturbations in it. Time domain specifications like setting time along with overshoot and oscillations were analyzed to prove the efficiency of the de-coupler method. The load disturbance rejection was tested along with its performance. The QFT control technique was synthesized based on the stability and performance specifications in the presence of uncertainty in time constant of the plant transfer function through sequential loop shaping technique. Further, the energy efficiency of the distillation column was improved by proper tuning of the controller. A distillation column consumes 3% of the total energy consumption of the world. A suitable control technique is very important from an economic point of view. The real time implementation of the process is under process in our laboratory.

Keywords: Energy, Distillation, Robust Stability, Time Delay, MIMO process

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10 A Comparative Study of the Modeling and Quality Control of the Propylene-Propane Classical Distillation and Distillation Column with Heat Pump

Authors: C. Patrascioiu, Cao Minh Ahn


The paper presents the research evolution in the propylene – propane distillation process, especially for the distillation columns equipped with heat pump. The paper is structured in three parts: separation of the propylene-propane mixture, steady state process modeling, and quality control systems. The first part is dedicated to state of art of the two distillation processes. The second part continues the author’s researches of the steady state process modeling. There has been elaborated a software simulation instrument that may be used to dynamic simulation of the process and to design the quality control systems. The last part presents the research of the control systems, especially for quality control systems.

Keywords: Distillation, Absorption, Heat pump, unisim design

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9 Crude Distillation Process Simulation Using Unisim Design Simulator

Authors: C. Patrascioiu, M. Jamali


The paper deals with the simulation of the crude distillation process using the Unisim Design simulator. The necessity of simulating this process is argued both by considerations related to the design of the crude distillation column, but also by considerations related to the design of advanced control systems. In order to use the Unisim Design simulator to simulate the crude distillation process, the identification of the simulators used in Romania and an analysis of the PRO/II, HYSYS, and Aspen HYSYS simulators were carried out. Analysis of the simulators for the crude distillation process has allowed the authors to elaborate the conclusions of the success of the crude modelling. A first aspect developed by the authors is the implementation of specific problems of petroleum liquid-vapors equilibrium using Unisim Design simulator. The second major element of the article is the development of the methodology and the elaboration of the simulation program for the crude distillation process, using Unisim Design resources. The obtained results validate the proposed methodology and will allow dynamic simulation of the process.  

Keywords: Simulation, Distillation, Simulators, crude oil, unisim design

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8 Ultrasound-Mediated Separation of Ethanol, Methanol, and Butanol from Their Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Ozan Kahraman, Hao Feng


Ultrasonic atomization (UA) is a useful technique for producing a liquid spray for various processes, such as spray drying. Ultrasound generates small droplets (a few microns in diameter) by disintegration of the liquid via cavitation and/or capillary waves, with low range velocity and narrow droplet size distribution. In recent years, UA has been investigated as an alternative for enabling or enhancing ultrasound-mediated unit operations, such as evaporation, separation, and purification. The previous studies on the UA separation of a solvent from a bulk solution were limited to ethanol-water systems. More investigations into ultrasound-mediated separation for other liquid systems are needed to elucidate the separation mechanism. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the operational parameters on the ultrasound-mediated separation of three miscible liquid pairs: ethanol-, methanol-, and butanol-water. A 2.4 MHz ultrasonic mister with a diameter of 18 mm and rating power of 24 W was installed on the bottom of a custom-designed cylindrical separation unit. Air was supplied to the unit (3 to 4 L/min.) as a carrier gas to collect the mist. The effects of the initial alcohol concentration, viscosity, and temperature (10, 30 and 50°C) on the atomization rates were evaluated. The alcohol concentration in the collected mist was measured with high performance liquid chromatography and a refractometer. The viscosity of the solutions was determined using a Brookfield digital viscometer. The alcohol concentration of the atomized mist was dependent on the feed concentration, feed rate, viscosity, and temperature. Increasing the temperature of the alcohol-water mixtures from 10 to 50°C increased the vapor pressure of both the alcohols and water, resulting in an increase in the atomization rates but a decrease in the separation efficiency. The alcohol concentration in the mist was higher than that of the alcohol-water equilibrium at all three temperatures. More importantly, for ethanol, the ethanol concentration in the mist went beyond the azeotropic point, which cannot be achieved by conventional distillation. Ultrasound-mediated separation is a promising non-equilibrium method for separating and purifying alcohols, which may result in significant energy reductions and process intensification.

Keywords: Distillation, Purification, evaporation, azeotropic mixtures, seperation, ultrasonic atomization

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7 Design, Construction and Evaluation of a Mechanical Vapor Compression Distillation System for Wastewater Treatment in a Poultry Company

Authors: Juan S. Vera, Miguel A. Gomez, Omar Gelvez


Water is Earth's most valuable resource, and the lack of it is currently a critical problem in today’s society. Non-treated wastewaters contribute to this situation, especially those coming from industrial activities, as they reduce the quality of the water bodies, annihilating all kind of life and bringing disease to people in contact with them. An effective solution for this problem is distillation, which removes most contaminants. However, this approach must also be energetically efficient in order to appeal to the industry. In this endeavour, most water distillation treatments fail, with the exception of the Mechanical Vapor Compression (MVC) distillation system, which has a great efficiency due to energy input by a compressor and the latent heat exchange. This paper presents the process of design, construction, and evaluation of a Mechanical Vapor Compression (MVC) distillation system for the main Colombian poultry company Avidesa Macpollo SA. The system will be located in the principal slaughterhouse in the state of Santander, and it will work along with the Gas Energy Mixing system (GEM) to treat the wastewaters from the plant. The main goal of the MVC distiller, rarely used in this type of application, is to reduce the chlorides, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) levels according to the state regulations since the GEM cannot decrease them enough. The MVC distillation system works with three components, the evaporator/condenser heat exchanger where the distillation takes place, a low-pressure compressor which gives the energy to create the temperature differential between the evaporator and condenser cavities and a preheater to save the remaining energy in the distillate. The model equations used to describe how the compressor power consumption, heat exchange area and distilled water are related is based on a thermodynamic balance and heat transfer analysis, with correlations taken from the literature. Finally, the design calculations and the measurements of the installation are compared, showing accordance with the predictions in distillate production and power consumption, changing the temperature difference of the evaporator/condenser.

Keywords: Design, Construction, Distillation, wastewater, Evaluation, mechanical vapor compression

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6 Fuel Properties of Distilled Tire Pyrolytic Oil and Its Blends with Biodiesel and Commercial Diesel Fuel

Authors: Moshe Mello, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng


Tires are extremely challenging to recycle due to the available chemically cross-linked polymer which constitutes their nature and therefore, they are neither fusible nor soluble and consequently, cannot be remoulded into other shapes without serious degradation. Pyrolysis of tires produces four valuable products namely; char, steel, tire pyrolytic oil (TPO) and non-condensable gases. TPO has been reported to have similar properties to commercial diesel fuel (CDF). In this study, distillation of TPO was carried out in a batch distillation column and biodiesel was produced from waste cooking oil. FTIR analysis proved that TPO can be used as a fuel due to the available compounds detected and GC analysis displayed 94% biodiesel concentration from waste cooking oil. Different blends of TPO/biodiesel, TPO/CDF and biodiesel/CDF were prepared at different ratios. Fuel properties such as viscosity, density, flash point, and calorific value were studied. Viscosity and density models were also studied to measure the quality of different blends.

Keywords: Distillation, Biodiesel, pyrolysis, tire

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5 Fast Adjustable Threshold for Uniform Neural Network Quantization

Authors: Alexander Goncharenko, Andrey Denisov, Sergey Alyamkin, Evgeny Terentev


The neural network quantization is highly desired procedure to perform before running neural networks on mobile devices. Quantization without fine-tuning leads to accuracy drop of the model, whereas commonly used training with quantization is done on the full set of the labeled data and therefore is both time- and resource-consuming. Real life applications require simplification and acceleration of quantization procedure that will maintain accuracy of full-precision neural network, especially for modern mobile neural network architectures like Mobilenet-v1, MobileNet-v2 and MNAS. Here we present a method to significantly optimize training with quantization procedure by introducing the trained scale factors for discretization thresholds that are separate for each filter. Using the proposed technique, we quantize the modern mobile architectures of neural networks with the set of train data of only ∼ 10% of the total ImageNet 2012 sample. Such reduction of train dataset size and small number of trainable parameters allow to fine-tune the network for several hours while maintaining the high accuracy of quantized model (accuracy drop was less than 0.5%). Ready-for-use models and code are available in the GitHub repository.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Machine Learning, Distillation, Quantization

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4 Effect of the Distance Between the Cold Surface and the Hot Surface on the Production of a Simple Solar Still

Authors: Hiba Akrout, Khaoula Hidouri, Béchir Chaouachi, Romdhane Ben Slama


A simple solar distiller has been constructed in order to desalt water via the solar distillation process. An experimental study has been conducted in June. The aim of this work is to study the effect of the distance between the cold condensing surface and the hot steam generation surface in order to optimize the geometric characteristics of a simple solar still. To do this, we have developed a mathematical model based on thermal and mass equations system. Subsequently, the equations system resolution has been made through a program developed on MATLAB software, which allowed us to evaluate the production of this system as a function of the distance separating the two surfaces. In addition, this model allowed us to determine the evolution of the humid air temperature inside the solar still as well as the humidity ratio profile all over the day. Simulations results show that the solar distiller production, as well as the humid air temperature, are proportional to the global solar radiation. It was also found that the air humidity ratio inside the solar still has a similar evolution of that of solar radiation. Moreover, the solar distiller average height augmentation, for constant water depth, induces the diminution of the production. However, increasing the water depth for a fixed average height of solar distiller reduces the production.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Solar energy, Distillation, mass transfer, average height

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3 Study of Some Factors Effecting on Productivity of Solar Distillers

Authors: Keshek M.H, Mohamed M.A, El-Shafey M.A


The aim of this research was increasing the productivity of solar distillation. In order to reach this aim, a solar distiller was created with three glass sides sloping 30o at the horizontal level, and the experiments were carried out on the solar distillation unit during the period from 24th August, 2016 till 24th May, 2017 at the Agricultural Engineering and Bio Systems Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Menoufia University. Three gap lengths were used between the water level and the inner glass cover, those were 3, 6, and 9 cm. As the result of change the gap length between the water level and the inner glass cover the total volume of basins were changed from 15.5, 13, and 11 L, respectively. The total basin volume was divided to three sections, to investigate the effect of water volume. The three water volumes were 100%, 75%, and 50%. Every section was supplied with one, two, or three heaters. The one heater power was 15 W. The results showed that, by increasing the distance between the basins edge and the inner edge of the glass cover, an increase occurs in the percentage of temperature difference with maximum value was 52% at distance 9 cm from each edge, an increase occurs in the productivity with maximum productivity was 3.3 L/m2 at distance 9 cm from each edge and an increase occurs in the efficiency with maximum efficiency was 70% at distance 9 cm from each edge.

Keywords: Solar energy, Distillation, Efficiency, still productivity

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2 MarginDistillation: Distillation for Face Recognition Neural Networks with Margin-Based Softmax

Authors: David Svitov, Sergey Alyamkin


The usage of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in conjunction with a margin-based softmax approach demonstrates a state-of-the-art performance for the face recognition problem. Recently, lightweight neural network models trained with the margin-based softmax have been introduced for the face identification task for edge devices. In this paper, we propose a distillation method for lightweight neural network architectures that outperforms other known methods for the face recognition task on LFW, AgeDB-30, and Megaface datasets. The idea of the proposed method is to use class centers from the teacher network for the student network. Then the student network is trained to get the same angles between the class centers and the face embeddings predicted by the teacher network. Implementation of our methods is available at

Keywords: Distillation, Face Recognition, ArcFace, margin-based softmax

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1 Recovery of Rare Metals: A Feasibility Analysis on the Distillability of Chlorides

Authors: D. Boehm, K. Czerski, R. Kaesemann, S. Gottlieb, A. Huke, D. Weissbach, J. C. Lewitz


For the recovery of rare metals and other metallic valuable materials, distillation as a low pressure, dry separation method of chlorinated species has been investigated in this paper. Using a self-developed code written in Octave/Matlab software for a continuously operating, totally reflux distillation column, a simplified simulation model has been developed based on lacking substance property data for chlorides. Here, four real and relevant recycling examples from the literature have been considered, which include the recycling of NdFeB-Dy magnets, electrode material from titanium lithium batteries, titanium purification from titanium ores, and an example for the recovery of spent nuclear fuel. The simulation results have shown that neodymium and dysprosium can be separated very well in NdFeB magnets in one distillation column with only seven separation stages. For practical reasons, the involved volatile chlorides BCl₃, FeCl₃, and Fe₂Cl₆ can be better separated into a single-stage distillation or flash evaporation. In the example of the nuclear waste recovery, the results show that actinide components can be excellently separated into a seven to twelve-stage separation column. This is especially true for the separation of UCl₄ and NpCl₄. PuCl₃ is contaminated with PrCl₃. NdCl₃, on the other hand, is obtained as an intermediate boiler substance component on the fifth separation stage of the distillation column. The results further show that titanium from alloys after chlorination is also excellently recyclable by distillation. The recycling examples simulated here already prove the applicability of distillation as an alternative to today's used current solvent- and extractant-dependent separation processes.

Keywords: Distillation, Recycling, spent Nuclear Fuel, dry separation method, NdFeB magnets, pre-separation method, titanium lithium batteries, total reflux column

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