Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Displacement Related Abstracts

25 Torsional Design Method of Asymmetric and Irregular Building under Horizontal Earthquake Action

Authors: Radhwane Boudjelthia


Based upon elaborate analysis on torsional design methods of asymmetric and irregular structure under horizontal earthquake action, it points out that the main design principles of an asymmetric building subjected to horizontal earthquake are: the torsion of vertical members induced by the torsion angle of the floor (rigid diaphragm) cannot exceed the allowable value, the inter-story displacement at outermost frame or shear wall should be less than that required by design code, stresses in plane of the slab should be controlled within acceptable extent under different intensity earthquakes. That current seismic design code only utilizes the torsion displacement ratio to control the floor torsion, which seems not reasonable enough since its connotation is the multiple of the floor torsion angle and the distance of floor mass center to the edge frame or shear wall.

Keywords: Earthquake, Building, Displacement, Resonance, response, seismic forces

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24 Migration and Displacement: A Study on the Impact of Bangladeshi and Nepali Migration to North-Eastern India

Authors: Sri Mahan Borah


The issue of migration and displacement is considered so sensitive that states have often linked it with their sovereignty, independence and even existence. Therefor, even in the era of globalisation no nation-state is ready to compromise with its territorial boundaries. The problem of migration and displacement has generated a range of socio-political, economic, ethnic, and communal tensions in India in general and northeastern States in particular. In such situation it becomes unpreventable to look over the issue so that a viable elucidation may emerge. The present paper is an attempt to understand the impact of Bangladeshi and Nepali migration to North-Eastern states of India through historical and analytical methods. In this course it will look into the emergence of the migration and displacement problem, its causes, impacts on security and other issues of national interest especially when the migration is illegal and poses multi-layered challenges to the Indian state. The nature of migration from these countries to India has been dissimilar. This is because of their different historical backgrounds, geographical variants, ethno-religious affinities, political systems and bilateral arrangements with India. It concludes inter alia that, India’s borders with Bangladesh and Nepal must be regulated and that resident migrants need to be strategically dealt with, keeping in mind age-old relationships with these countries and, more importantly, the nature and construct of our geography.

Keywords: Migration, Displacement, India, North-East

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23 Risk Assessment of Reinforcement System on Fractured Rock Mass, Gate Shaft Project, Jatigede Dam, Sumedang, West Java, Indonesia

Authors: A. Ardianto, M. A. Putera Agung, S. Pramusandi


Power waterway is one of dam structures and as an intake vertical tunnel or well function for hydroelectric power plants in Jatigede area, Sumedang, West Java. Gate shaft is also one of parts the power waterway system. The paper concerns some consideration in determining a critical state parameter on the back stability analysis of gate shaft or excavation wall stability during excavation. Study analysis was carried out using without and with reinforcement system. Results study showed that reinforcement shaft could reduce the total displacement and safety factor could increases significantly. Based on the back calculation results, it was recommended to install some reinforcement materials and drainage system to reduce pore water pressure.

Keywords: Safety, Displacement, reinforcement, power waterway

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22 Brazil's Olympian Tragedy: Searching for Citizenship in Vila Autodromo

Authors: Rachel K. Cremona


Forty years ago, Vila Autodromo was a small fishing settlement in southwest Rio de Janeiro. By 2012, Vila Autodromo had established itself into a working class neighborhood – certainly not a slum, but nonetheless designated as a ‘favela’ as a consequence of its history as an illegal settlement that was thus never provided with public services. Vila Autodromo sits on a large lagoon, adjacent to the Olympic Park being constructed for the 2016 Olympic Games to be held in Rio, and looks out over the expensive high rise condominiums that have sprouted across the water. In 2009, when Rio submitted their bid for the Olympic games, there were approximately 900 families that called Vila Autodromo home, and the original plans for the games clearly show their homes remaining in place. Today, only a handful of these homes remain. This paper will utilize the case study of Vila Autodromo to examine the broader issue of Favelas in 21st century Rio de Janeiro. While race and poverty have become synonymous with Brazil’s inegalitarian social order – and personified by the thousands of favelas scattered in and around large cities like Rio and Sao Paulo – much less attention has been given to the political status of the nation’s invisible majority. In particular, this research will examine the question of citizenship and argue that the most fundamental problem of inequality in Brazil is not simply a product of history, race and social order, but more specifically a problem of ‘personhood’. The political marginalization of Brazil’s poor does not simply reinforce their social marginalization, it institutionalizes it in a way that makes it almost impossible to escape. The story of Vila Autodromo captures this problem in a way that not only illustrates the clear (though ambiguous) role of the state in the perpetuation of Brazil’s underclass, but also the human resilience that it has fostered.

Keywords: Poverty, Citizenship, Displacement, favela

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21 Negotiating Strangeness: Narratives of Forced Return Migration and the Construction of Identities

Authors: Cheryl-Ann Sarita Boodram


Historically, the movement of people has been the subject of socio-political and economic regulatory policies which congeal to regulate human mobility and establish geopolitical and spatial identities and borderlands. As migratory practices evolved, so too has the problematization associated with movement, migration and citizenship. The emerging trends have led to active development of immigration technology governing human mobility and the naming of migratory practices. One such named phenomenon is ‘deportation’ or the forced removal of individuals from their adopted country. Deportation, has gained much attention within the human mobility landscape in the past twenty years following the September 2001 terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre in New York. In a reactionary move, several metropolitan countries, including Canada and the United Kingdom enacted or reviewed immigration laws which further enabled the removal of foreign born criminals to the land of their birth in the global south. Existing studies fall short of understanding the multiple textures of the forced returned migration experiences and the social injustices resulting from deportation displacement. This study brings together indigenous research methodologies through the use of participatory action research and social work with returned migrants in Trinidad and Tobago to uncover the experiences of displacement of deported nationals. The study explores the experiences of negotiating life as a ‘stranger’ and how return has influenced the construction of identities of returned nationals. Findings from this study reveal that deportation has led to inequalities and facilitated ‘othering’ of this group within their own country of birth. The study further highlighted that deportation leads to circuits of dispossession, and perpetuates inequalities. This study provides original insights into the way returned migrants negotiate, map and embody ‘strangeness’ and manage their return to a soil they consider unfamiliar and alien.

Keywords: Identity, Displacement, otherness, stranger, alien geographies, deportation, negotiating strangeness, alien landscapes

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20 Seismic Evaluation with Shear Walls and Braces for Buildings

Authors: S. K. Madan, R. S. Malik, V. K. Sehgal


Reinforced concrete (RCC) buildings with dual system consisting of shear walls and moment resisting frames or braces and moment resisting frames have been widely used to resist lateral forces during earthquakes. The two dual systems are designed to resist the total design lateral force in proportion to their lateral stiffness. The response of the combination of braces and shear walls has not yet been studied therefore has practically no work to refer to. The combination may prove to be more effective in lateral load resistance by employing the peculiar advantages of shear walls and braces simultaneously and may also improve the architectural appearance of structures. This concept has been applied to regular RCC buildings provided with shear walls, braces, and their combinations.

Keywords: Displacement, Pushover Analysis, Dynamic Analysis, dual structures, storey drift

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19 The Judiciary as Pacemaker? Considering the Role of Courts in an Expansion of Protection for War Refugees and People Fleeing Natural Disasters

Authors: Charlotte Lülf


Migration flows, resulting from war, climate change or economic crisis cannot be tackled by single states but need to be addressed as a transnational and international responsibility. The traditional architecture surrounding the work of the UNHCR and the 1951 Convention, however, is not equipped to deal with these challenges. Widely excluded from legal protection are people not individually persecuted for the statutory criteria, people that flee from the indiscriminate effects of an armed conflict as well as people fleeing natural disasters. With the lack of explicit legal protection and the political reluctance of nation states worldwide to extend their commitment in new asylum laws, the judiciary must be put in focus: it plays a unique role in interpreting and potentially expanding the application of existing regulations. This paper as part of an ongoing Ph.D. Project deals with the current and partly contradicting approaches to the protection of war- and climate refugees. Changing jurisprudential practice of national and regional courts will be assessed, as will be their dialogue to interpret the international obligations of human rights law, migration laws, and asylum laws in an interacting world. In recent judgments refoulment to an armed conflict as well as countries without adequate disaster relief or health care was argued as violating fundamental human and asylum law rights and therefore prohibited – even for applicants without refugee status: The first step towards access to subsidiary protection could herewith be established. Can one observe similar developments in other parts of the world? This paper will evaluate the role of the judiciary to define, redefine and potentially expand protection for people seeking refuge from armed conflicts and natural disasters.

Keywords: Migration, Human rights law, Displacement, asylum-seekers

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18 The Impact of FDI on Economic Growth in Algeria

Authors: Mohammed Yagoub


The new orientation to the market economy sponsored by the Algeria government in the early Nineties of the last century, and its desire to develop investment mechanisms and the promotion of development recently, the access into a partnership with the European Union, and the forthcoming accession to the World Trade Organization, foreign direct investment makes one of the most important means of opening up to foreign markets and bring technology and interact with globalization, this article we will discuss the impact of FDI on economic growth in the Algerian.

Keywords: Development, Economic, Markets, Globalization, Displacement, FDI

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17 An Assessment of Involuntary Migration in India: Understanding Issues and Challenges

Authors: Rajni Singh, Rakesh Mishra, Mukunda Upadhyay


India is among the nations born out of partition that led to one of the greatest forced migrations that marked the past century. The Indian subcontinent got partitioned into two nation-states, namely India and Pakistan. This led to an unexampled mass displacement of people accounting for about 20 million in the subcontinent as a whole. This exemplifies the socio-political version of displacement, but there are other identified reasons leading to human displacement viz., natural calamities, development projects and people-trafficking and smuggling. Although forced migrations are rare in incidence, they are mostly region-specific and a very less percentage of population appears to be affected by it. However, when this percentage is transcripted in terms of volume, the real impact created by such migration can be realized. Forced migration is thus an issue related to the lives of many people and requires to be addressed with proper intervention. Forced or involuntary migration decimates peoples' assets while taking from them their most basic resources and makes them migrate without planning and intention. This in most cases proves to be a burden on the destination resources. Thus, the question related to their security concerns arise profoundly with regard to the protection and safeguards to these migrants who need help at the place of destination. This brings the human security dimension of forced migration into picture. The present study is an analysis of a sample of 1501 persons by NSSO in India (National Sample Survey Organisation), which identifies three reasons for forced migration- natural disaster, social/political problem and displacement by development projects. It was observed that, of the total forced migrants, about 4/5th comprised of the internally displaced persons. However, there was a huge inflow of such migrants to the country from across the borders also, the major contributing countries being Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Gulf countries and Nepal. Among the three reasons for involuntary migration, social and political problem is the most prominent in displacing huge masses of population; it is also the reason where the share of international migrants to that of internally displaced is higher compared to the other two factors /reasons. Second to political and social problems, natural calamities displaced a high portion of the involuntary migrants. The present paper examines the factors which increase people's vulnerability to forced migration. On perusing the background characteristics of the migrants it was seen that those who were economically weak and socially fragile are more susceptible to migration. Therefore, getting an insight about this fragile group of society is required so that government policies can benefit these in the most efficient and targeted manner.

Keywords: Displacement, natural disaster, involuntary migration, social and political problem

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16 Assessment of Indigenous People Living Condition in Coal Mining Region: An Evidence from Dhanbad, India

Authors: Arun Kumar Yadav


Coal contributes a significant role in India’s developmental mission. But, ironically, on the other side it causes large scale population displacement and significant changes in indigenous people’s livelihood mechanism. Dhanbad which is regarded as one of the oldest and large mining area, as well as a “Coal Capital of India”. Here, mining exploration work started nearly a century ago. But with the passage of time, mining brings a lot of changes in the life of local people. In this context, study tries to do comparative situational analysis of the changes in the living condition of dwellers living in mines affected and non-mines affected villages based on livelihood approach. Since, this place has long history of mining so it is very difficult to conduct before and after comparison between mines and non-mines affected areas. Consequently, the present study is based on relative comparison approach to elucidate the actual scenario. By using primary survey data which was collected by the author during the month of September 2014 to March 2015 at Dhanbad, Jharkhand. The data were collected from eight villages, these were categorised broadly into mines and non-mines affected villages. Further at micro level, mines affected villages has been categorised into open cast and underground mines. This categorization will help us to capture the deeper understanding about the issues of mine affected villages group. Total of 400 household were surveyed. Result depicts that in every sphere mining affected villages are more vulnerable. Regarding financial capital, although mine affected villages are engaged in mining work and get higher mean income. But in contrast, non-mine affected villages are more occupationally diversified. They have an opportunity to earn money from diversified extents like agricultural land, working in mining area, selling coal informally as well as receiving remittances. Non-mines affected villages are in better physical capital which comprises of basic infrastructure to support livelihood. They have an access to secured shelter, adequate water supply & sanitation, and affordable information and transport. Mining affected villages are more prone to health risks. Regarding social capital, it shows that in comparison to last five years, law and order has been improved in mine affected villages.

Keywords: Mining, Indigenous, Displacement, livelihood

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15 Development Project, Land Acquisition and Rehabilitation: A Study of Navi Mumbai International Airport Project, India

Authors: Rahul Rajak, Archana Kumari Roy


Purpose: Development brings about structural change in the society. It is essential for socio-economic progress of the society, but it also causes pain to the people who are forced to displace from their motherland. Most of the people who are displaced due to development are poor and tribes. Development and displacement are interlinked with each other in the sense development sometimes leads to displacement of people. These studies mainly focus on socio-economic profile of villages and villagers likely to be affected by the Airport Project and they examine the issues of compensation and people’s level of satisfaction. Methodology: The study is based on Descriptive design; it is basically observational and correlation study. Primary data is used in this study. Considering the time and resource constrains, 100 people were interviewed covering socio-economic and demographic diversities from 6 out of 10 affected villages. Due to Navi Mumbai International Airport Project ten villages have to be displaced. Out of ten villages, this study is based on only six villages. These are Ulwe, Ganeshpuri, Targhar Komberbuje, Chincpada and Kopar. All six villages situated in Raigarh district under the Taluka Panvel in Maharashtra. Findings: It is revealed from the survey that there are three main castes of affected villages that are Agri, Koli, and Kradi. Entire village population of migrated person is very negligible. All three caste have main occupation are agricultural and fishing activities. People’s perception revealed that due to the establishment of the airport project, they may have more opportunities and scope of development rather than the adverse effect, but vigorously leave a motherland is psychological effect of the villagers. Research Limitation: This study is based on only six villages, the scenario of the entire ten affected villages is not explained by this research. Practical implication: The scenario of displacement and resettlement signifies more than a mere physical relocation. Compensation is not only hope for villagers, is it only give short time relief. There is a need to evolve institutions to protect and strengthen the right of Individuals. The development induced displacement exposed them to a new reality, the reality of their legality and illegality of stay on the land which belongs to the state. Originality: Mumbai has large population and high industrialized city have put land at the center of any policy implication. This paper demonstrates through the actual picture gathered from the field that how seriously the affected people suffered and are still suffering because of the land acquisition for the Navi Mumbai International Airport Project. The whole picture arise the question which is how long the government can deny the rights to farmers and agricultural laborers and remain unwilling to establish the balance between democracy and development.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Displacement, Compensation, land acquisition, project affected person (PAPs)

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14 Finite Difference Method of the Seismic Analysis of Earth Dam

Authors: Alaoua Bouaicha, Fahim Kahlouche, Abdelhamid Benouali


Many embankment dams have suffered failures during earthquakes due to the increase of pore water pressure under seismic loading. After analyzing of the behavior of embankment dams under severe earthquakes, major advances have been attained in the understanding of the seismic action on dams. The present study concerns numerical analysis of the seismic response of earth dams. The procedure uses a nonlinear stress-strain relation incorporated into the code FLAC2D based on the finite difference method. This analysis provides the variation of the pore water pressure and horizontal displacement.

Keywords: Earthquake, Numerical Analysis, Displacement, pore water pressure, FLAC2D, Embankment Dam

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13 SIPINA Induction Graph Method for Seismic Risk Prediction

Authors: B. Selma


The aim of this study is to test the feasibility of SIPINA method to predict the harmfulness parameters controlling the seismic response. The approach developed takes into consideration both the focal depth and the peak ground acceleration. The parameter to determine is displacement. The data used for the learning of this method and analysis nonlinear seismic are described and applied to a class of models damaged to some typical structures of the existing urban infrastructure of Jassy, Romania. The results obtained indicate an influence of the focal depth and the peak ground acceleration on the displacement.

Keywords: Displacement, peak ground acceleration, SIPINA algorithm, seism, focal depth

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12 Welcome to 'Almanya': Effects of Displacement among Refugee Women

Authors: Carmen Nechita


This research explores the world of Syrian refugee women living in Dresden and their efforts to reconstruct their lives in the state of Saxony in Germany. The focus is on the initial period of adjustment and understanding how refugee women use culture, family ties, and tradition to contest and rebuild new relationships with the host country. Faced with a new status as “the refugee”, women have to re-imagine their ethno-cultural identity in order to cope with life in Diaspora. In order to understand the coping mechanism and the displacement effects on Syrian women, interviews with twelve refugee women were conducted. Traumatic experiences of loss and oppression are at the core of their confessions. While gender violence, abuse and patriarchal framework shape their narratives, this research argues that there is a need to look at this from a cultural perspective and try to distance ourselves from the western paradigm. The way Syrian women refute and rebuild their national and ethno-cultural identity in order to negotiate for themselves new space within German borders is explored. Two discourses are bridged: one of multiculturalism and one of tradition in order to explain how Syrian women experience western notions of family, womanhood and spousal dynamics. The process is painful, traumatic and marked by feelings of low self-worth, but in the end, new codes emerge and these women come out more empowered. The paper includes the migration experience and explores the ways in which Syrian refugee women tend to tell their complex stories, and how they reconstruct their identity in a new territory while faced with a different culture that discriminates against them. During the research, four distinct phases in the acculturation period were identified: “the survival”, “the honeymoon period”, “the isolation period” and “the anger period”. Each phase is analyzed in order to understand what triggers them, how women migrate from one phase to another and what can be done to make the process easier. This paper contributes to the field of refugee studies by offering a thorough understanding of the initial phases of the acculturation process in the case of Syrian refugee women. The study examines the fleeing and settlement experience in order to understand the complex ways that refugee women cope with the traumatic experience of settlement in another country and in a different culture. *Almanya: The Arabic word for Germany.

Keywords: Migration, Displacement, Syria, refugee women

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11 Displacement Due to Natural Disasters Vis-à-Vis Policy Framework: Case Study of Mising Community of Majuli, Assam

Authors: Mausumi Chetia


One of the main causes of impoverishment of the rural areas of Assam has been the recurrent floods and riverbank erosion. One of the life-changing consequences is displacement. This results not only in a loss of livelihoods but also has wide-reaching socio-economic and cultural effects. Thus, due to such disasters, not only families but communities too are being displaced at large. This compels them to find temporary shelter and begin life from scratch. The role of the state has been highly negligible, with a displacement not being perceived as an ‘issue’ to be addressed. A more holistic approach is thus needed to take socio-economic, cultural, political as well as ecological considerations into account.

Keywords: Displacement, India, Assam, policy-framework, human-induced disasters, marginalised communities

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10 Pros and Cons of Agriculture Investment in Gambella Region, Ethiopia

Authors: Azeb Degife


Over the past few years, the volume of international investment in agricultural land has increased globally. In recent times, Ethiopian government uses agricultural investment as one of the most important and effective strategies for economic growth, food security and poverty reduction in rural areas. Since the mid-2000s, government has awarded millions of hectares of most fertile land to rich countries and some of the world's most wealthy people to export various kinds of crop, often in long-term leases and at bargain prices. This study focuses on the pros and cons of large-scale agriculture investment Gambella region, Ethiopia. The main results were generated both from primary and secondary data sources. Primary data are obtained through interview, direct observation and a focus group discussion (FGDs). The secondary data are obtained from published documents, reports from governmental and non-governmental institutions. The findings of the study demonstrated that agriculture investment has advantages on the socio-economic and disadvantages on socio-environmental aspects. The main benefits agriculture investments in the region are infrastructural development and generation employment for the local people. Further, the Ethiopian government also generates foreign currency from the agriculture investment opportunities. On the other hand, Gambella people are strongly tied to the land and the rivers that run through in the region. However, now large-scale agricultural investment by foreign and local investors on an industrial scale results deprives people livelihoods and natural resources of the region. Generally, the negative effects of agriculture investment include increasing food insecurity, and displacement of smallholder farmers and pastoralists. Moreover, agriculture investment has strong adverse environmental impacts on natural resources such as land, water, forests and biodiversity. Therefore, an Ethiopian government strategy needs to focus on integration approach and sustainable agricultural growth.

Keywords: Displacement, socio-economic, agriculture investment, cons, Gambella, integration approach, pros, socio-environmental

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9 Displacement and Cultural Capital in East Harlem: Use of Community Space in Affordable Artist Housing

Authors: Jun Ha Whang


As New York City weathers a swelling 'affordability crisis' marked by rapid transformation in land development and urban culture, much of the associated scholarly debate has turned to questions of the underlying mechanisms of gentrification. Though classically approached from the point of view of urban planning, increasingly these questions have been addressed with an eye to understanding the role of cultural capital in neighborhood valuation. This paper will examine the construction of an artist-specific affordable housing development in the Spanish Harlem neighborhood of Manhattan in order to identify and discuss several cultural parameters of gentrification. This study’s goal is not to argue that the development in question, named Art space PS 109, straightforwardly increases or decreases the rate of gentrification in Spanish Harlem, but rather to study dynamics present in the construction of Art space PS 109 as a case study considered against the broader landscape of gentrification in New York, particularly with respect to the impact of artist communities on housing supply. In the end, what Art space PS 109 most valuably offers us is a reference point for a comparative analysis of affordable housing strategies currently being pursued within municipal government. Our study of Art space PS 109 has allowed us to examine a microcosm of the city’s response and evaluate its overall strategy accordingly. As a base line, the city must aggressively pursue an affordability strategy specifically suited to the needs of each of its neighborhoods. It must also conduct this in such a way so as not to undermine its own efforts by rendering them susceptible to the exploitative involvement of real estate developers seeking to identify successive waves of trendy neighborhoods. Though Art space PS 109 offers an invaluable resource for the city’s legitimate aim of preserving its artist communities, with such a high inclusion rate of artists from outside of the community the project risks additional displacement, strongly suggesting the need for further study of the implications of sites of cultural capital for neighborhood planning.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Displacement, artist housing, east Harlem

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8 The Greek Diaspora in Australia: Identity and Transnational Identity

Authors: Panayiota Romios


As the use of 'diaspora' has proliferated in the last decade, its meaning has been stretched in various directions. Current diaspora frames of identity representation do not adequately capture the complexities of everyday lived experiences of transnational individuals and groups. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative research project conducted in Melbourne, Australia with second generation Greek Australians. It analyses the forms of intercultural identities of the second generation Greek Australians returning to Australia post-2008, after living in Greece for an extended period of time. The discussion highlights key characteristics in relation to diaspora-homeland ties, seeking to denaturalise the commonplace assumptions and imaginations about the cultures and identities of Greek Australian diaspora communities and probe the relevance of identity markers such a country of origin, nationality, ethnicity, ethnic origin, language and mother tongue. The definition of diaspora experienced in this transnational lexicon is interestingly quite distinct from original articulations and also from others returning ‘home’.

Keywords: Migration, Identity, Displacement, Diaspora

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7 Impact of Development Induced Displaced on Tribal Indigenous Women of North East India

Authors: Bitopi Dutta


Forced Displacement of marginalised groups has been widely debated whole across the world, including India. This paper will do a gender analysis of Development Induced Displacement(DID) in tribal indigenous societies of North East India (NEI), a region that is frequently quoted as a relatively gender equal society as compared to the other parts of India. The central argument of the paper concerns how patriarchies in the discourses of the state and societies work together in shaping a particular gendered experience for women (and men) - in this context a violent gendered transformation in displaced indigenous communities. The primary analysis of the paper will be centered on the acquisition of Common Property Resources (CPRs) under the Land Law of India which has devastating consequences for the tribal women since CPRs forms the basis of their high status, identity and autonomy. Tracing the trajectory of DID in the NEI since 1947 to 2010, this paper will locate the violent gendered transition that these tribal societies have undergone during this period vis.a.vis their tradition which was grounded on a far more gender equal worldview. The paper will place this argument in terms of the lost status and impoverishment of tribal women in the social and economic domain reflected in terms of loss of property and land ownership rights, monetisation of the tribal economy under the sole custody of the men, forced internalisation of this reduced status by the women themselves and so on. DID in this sense will not only be understood as only physical displacement, but also as social and cultural displacement. Interviews of people displaced/affected by the development projects will be the primary mode of data collection which will be supplemented with documentary research using Government Data, and local archives of the region.

Keywords: Women, Displacement, common property resources, tribal, North East India

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6 Defining Processes of Gender Restructuring: The Case of Displaced Tribal Communities of North East India

Authors: Bitopi Dutta


Development Induced Displacement (DID) of subaltern groups has been an issue of intense debate in India. This research will do a gender analysis of displacement induced by the mining projects in tribal indigenous societies of North East India, centering on the primary research question which is 'How does DID reorder gendered relationship in tribal matrilineal societies?' This paper will not focus primarily on the impacts of the displacement induced by coal mining on indigenous tribal women in the North East India; it will rather study 'what' are the processes that lead to these transformations and 'how' do they operate. In doing so, the paper will locate the cracks in traditional social systems that the discourse of displacement manipulates for its own benefit. DID in this sense will not only be understood as only physical displacement, but also as social and cultural displacement. The study will cover one matrilineal tribe in the state of Meghalaya in the North East India affected by several coal mining projects in the last 30 years. In-depth unstructured interviews used to collect life narratives will be the primary mode of data collection because the indigenous culture of the tribes in Meghalaya, including the matrilineal tribes, is based on oral history where knowledge and experiences produced under a tradition of oral history exist in a continuum. This is unlike modern societies which produce knowledge in a compartmentalized system. An interview guide designed around specific themes will be used rather than specific questions to ensure the flow of narratives from the interviewee. In addition to this, a number of focus groups will be held. The data collected through the life narrative will be supplemented and contextualized through documentary research using government data, and local media sources of the region.

Keywords: Mining, Displacement, gender-relations, matriliny

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5 Dynamics Analyses of Swing Structure Subject to Rotational Forces

Authors: Wooyoung Jung, Buntheng Chhorn


Large-scale swing has been used in entertainment and performance, especially in circus, for a very long time. To increase the safety of this type of structure, a thorough analysis for displacement and bearing stress was performed for an extreme condition where a full cycle swing occurs. Different masses, ranging from 40 kg to 220 kg, and velocities were applied on the swing. Then, based on the solution of differential dynamics equation, swing velocity response to harmonic force was obtained. Moreover, the resistance capacity was estimated based on ACI steel structure design guide. Subsequently, numerical analysis was performed in ABAQUS to obtain the stress on each frame of the swing. Finally, the analysis shows that the expansion of swing structure frame section was required for mass bigger than 150kg.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Displacement, swing structure, bearing stress, dynamic loads response

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4 Remediation and Health: A Systematic Review of the Role of Resulting Displacement in Damaging Health and Wellbeing

Authors: Rupert G. S. Legg


The connection between poor health outcomes and living near contaminated land has long been understood. Less examined has been the impact of remediation on residents’ health. The cleaning process undoubtedly changes the local area in which it occurs, leading to the possibility that local housing and rental prices could increase resulting in the displacement of those least able to cope. Whether or not this potential displacement resulting from remediation has a considerable impact on health remains unknown. This review aims to determine how these health effects have been approached in the health geography literature. A systematic review of health geographies literature was conducted, searching for two-word clusters: ‘health’ and ‘remediation’ (100 articles); and ‘health’, ‘displacement’ and ‘gentrification’ (43 articles). 43 articles were selected for their relevance (7 from the first cluster, 20 from the second, and 16 from those cited within the reviewed articles). Several of the reviewed cases identified that potential displacement was a contributor to stress and worry in residents living near remediation projects. Likewise, the experience of displacement in other cases beyond remediation was linked with several mental health issues. However, no remediation cases followed-up on the ultimate effects of experiencing displacement on residents’ health. A reason identified for this was a tendency for reviewed studies to adopt a contextual or compositional approach, as opposed to a relational approach, which is more concerned with dimensions of mobility and temporality. Given that remediation and displacement both involve changing mobility and temporality, focussing solely on contextual or compositional factors is problematic. This review concludes by suggesting that more thorough, relational research is conducted into the extent to which potential displacement resulting from remediation affects health.

Keywords: Remediation, Displacement, Contamination, Health Geography

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3 Land Tenure and Erosion as Determinants of Guerrilla Violence in Assam, India: An Ethnographic and Remote Sensing Approach

Authors: Kevin T. Inks


India’s Brahmaputra River Valley has, since independence, experienced consistent low-intensity guerrilla warfare between ethnic and religious groups. These groups are often organized around perceived ethnic territoriality, and target civilians, communities, and especially migrants belonging to other ethnic and religious groups. Intense flooding and erosion have led to widespread displacement, and disaster relief funds are largely tied to legal land tenure. Displaced residents of informal settlements receive little or no resettlement aid, and their subsequent migration strategies and risk from guerrilla violence are poorly understood. Semi-structured interviews and comprehensive surveys focused on perceptions of risk, efficacy of disaster relief, and migration and adaptation strategies were conducted with households identified as being ‘at-risk’ of catastrophic flooding and erosion in Majuli District, Assam. Interviews with policymakers and government workers were conducted to assess disaster relief efforts in informal settlements, and remote sensing methods were used to identify informal settlement and hydrogeomorphic change. The results show that various ethnic and religious groups have differential strategies and preferences for resettlement. However, these varying strategies are likely to lead to differential levels of risk from guerrilla violence. Members of certain ethnic groups residing in informal settlements, in the absence of resettlement assistance, are more likely to seek out unofficial settlement on land far from the protection of the state and experience greater risk of becoming victims of political violence. As climate change and deforestation are likely to increase the severity of the displacement crisis in the Brahmaputra River Valley, more comprehensive disaster relief and surveying efforts are vital for limiting migration and informal settlement in potential sites of guerrilla warfare.

Keywords: Climate, Violence, Displacement, India, Flooding

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2 The Effects of Damping Devices on Displacements, Velocities and Accelerations of Structures

Authors: Radhwane Boudjelthia


The most recent earthquakes that occurred in the world and particularly in Algeria, have killed thousands of people and severe damage. The example that is etched in our memory is the last earthquake in the regions of Boumerdes and Algiers (Boumerdes earthquake of May 21, 2003). For all the actors involved in the building process, the earthquake is the litmus test for construction. The goal we set ourselves is to contribute to the implementation of a thoughtful approach to the seismic protection of structures. For many engineers, the most conventional approach protection works (buildings and bridges) the effects of earthquakes is to increase rigidity. This approach is not always effective, especially when there is a context that favors the phenomenon of resonance and amplification of seismic forces. Therefore, the field of earthquake engineering has made significant inroads among others catalyzed by the development of computational techniques in computer form and the use of powerful test facilities. This has led to the emergence of several innovative technologies, such as the introduction of special devices insulation between infrastructure and superstructure. This approach, commonly known as "seismic isolation" to absorb the significant efforts without the structure is damaged and thus ensuring the protection of lives and property. In addition, the restraints to the construction by the ground shaking are located mainly at the supports. With these moves, the natural period of construction is increasing, and seismic loads are reduced. Thus, there is an attenuation of the seismic movement. Likewise, the insulation of the base mechanism may be used in combination with earthquake dampers in order to control the deformation of the insulation system and the absolute displacement of the superstructure located above the isolation interface. On the other hand, only can use these earthquake dampers to reduce the oscillation amplitudes and thus reduce seismic loads. The use of damping devices represents an effective solution for the rehabilitation of existing structures. Given all these acceleration reducing means considered passive, much research has been conducted for several years to develop an active control system of the response of buildings to earthquakes.

Keywords: Earthquake, Building, Displacement, Resonance, response, seismic forces

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1 Floating Populations, Rooted Networks. Tracing the Evolution of Russeifa City through the Lens of Marka Refugee Camp.

Authors: Dina Dahood Dabash


Refugee camps are habitually defined as receptive sites, transient spaces of exile and nondescript depoliticized places of exception. However, such arguments form partial sides of an existing situation, especially in countries that are geopolitically challenged and rely immensely on international aid as Jordan. In Jordan, the dynamics brought with the floating population of refugees (Palestinian amongst others) have resulted in spatial after-effects that cannot be easily overlooked. For instance, Palestine refugee camps have turned by time into socioeconomic centers of gravity and cores of spatial evolution. Yet, such a position is not instantaneous. Amongst various reasons, it can be related, according to this paper, to a distinctive institutional climate that has been co-produced, by the refugees, host community, humanitarian actors and the state. This paper aims to investigate the evolution of urban and spatial regulations in Jordan between 1948 and 1995, more specifically, state-regulations, community regulations and refugee-self-regulation that all dynamically interacted that period within a humanitarian mold. The paper aims to unpack the relations between refugee camps and their environs to further to explore the agency of such floating population in establishing rooting networks that extended time and place boundaries. The paper’s argument stems from the fact that the spatial configuration of urban systems is not only an outcome of a historical evolutionary process but is also a result of complex dynamics amongst actors. The paper aspires to further understand the post-emergency strategies, which were historically applied in Jordan and can be employed to handle more recent geopolitical challenges such as the Syrian refugee crisis. The research operationalizes Russeifa City and Marka refugee camp in Jordan as a case study. Russeifa, is a city in Zarqa Governorate in Jordan, and is part of a larger metropolitan area (together with the capital Amman and Zarqa governorate), of which acts as a home for more than half of Jordan’s businesses. Marka Camp is one of the six "emergency" Palestine refugee camps erected in 1968 to shelter 15,000 Palestine refugees and displaced persons who left the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Nowadays, the camp shelters more than 50,000 refugees in the same area of land. Methodological framework: The paper traces the evolution of the refugee-camp regulations in Jordan, in relation to the horizontal and vertical growth of Marka camp and its surroundings. Consequently, the main methods employed are historical and mental tracing, interviews, in addition to using available aerial and archival photos.

Keywords: Displacement, Refugee Camps, Socio-spatial Agency, Transient Settlements

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