Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Dispersion Related Abstracts

32 Magnetorheological Silicone Composites Filled with Micro- and Nano-Sized Magnetites with the Addition of Ionic Liquids

Authors: M. Masłowski, M. Zaborski

Abstract:

Magnetorheological elastomer composites based on micro- and nano-sized Fe3O4 magnetoactive fillers in silicone rubber are reported and studied. To improve the dispersion of applied fillers in polymer matrix, ionic liquids such as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate,1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride were added during the process of composites preparation. The method of preparation process influenced the specific properties of MREs (isotropy/anisotropy), similarly to ferromagnetic particles content and theirs quantity. Micro and non-sized magnetites were active fillers improving the mechanical properties of elastomers. They also changed magnetic properties and reinforced the magnetorheological effect of composites. Application of ionic liquids as dispersing agents influenced the dispersion of magnetic fillers in the elastomer matrix. Scanning electron microscopy images used to observe magnetorheological elastomer microstructures proved that the dispersion improvement had a significant effect on the composites properties. Moreover, the particles orientation and their arrangement in the elastomer investigated by vibration sample magnetometer showed the correlation between MRE microstructure and their magnetic properties.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, Dispersion, magnetorheological elastomers, iron oxides

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
31 Influence of Chirp of High-Speed Laser Diodes and Fiber Dispersion on Performance of Non-Amplified 40-Gbps Optical Fiber Links

Authors: Moustafa Ahmed, Ahmed Bakry

Abstract:

We model and simulate the combined effect of fiber dispersion and frequency chirp of a directly modulated high-speed laser diode on the figures of merit of a non-amplified 40-Gbps optical fiber link. We consider both the return to zero (RZ) and non-return to zero (NRZ) patterns of the pseudorandom modulation bits. The performance of the fiber communication system is assessed by the fiber-length limitation due to the fiber dispersion. We study the influence of replacing standard single-mode fibers by non-zero dispersion-shifted fibers on the maximum fiber length and evaluate the associated power penalty. We introduce new dispersion tolerances for 1-dB power penalty of the RZ and NRZ 40-Gbps optical fiber links.

Keywords: Dispersion, Semiconductor Laser, bit error rate, frequency chirp, fiber communications

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
30 Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Ultrasonication on Dispersion and Mechanical Performance of Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube-Cement Mortar Composites

Authors: S. Alrekabi, A. Cundy, A. Lampropoulos, I. Savina

Abstract:

Due to their remarkable mechanical properties, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are considered by many researchers to be a highly promising filler and reinforcement agent for enhanced performance cementitious materials. Currently, however, achieving an effective dispersion of MWCNTs remains a major challenge in developing high performance nano-cementitious composites, since carbon nanotubes tend to form large agglomerates and bundles as a consequence of Van der Waals forces. In this study, effective dispersion of low concentrations of MWCNTs at 0.01%, 0.025%, and 0.05% by weight of cement in the composite was achieved by applying different sonication conditions in combination with the use of polycarboxylate ether as a surfactant. UV-Visible spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to assess the dispersion of MWCNTs in water, while the dispersion states of MWCNTs within the cement composites and their surface interactions were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A high sonication intensity applied over a short time period significantly enhanced the dispersion of MWCNTs at initial mixing stages, and 0.025% of MWCNTs wt. of cement, caused 86% and 27% improvement in tensile strength and compressive strength respectively, compared with a plain cement mortar.

Keywords: Dispersion, mechanical performance, multi wall carbon nanotubes, sonication conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
29 Chitosan-Aluminum Monostearate Dispersion as Fabricating Liquid for Constructing Controlled Drug Release Matrix

Authors: Kotchamon Yodkhum, Thawatchai Phaechamud

Abstract:

Hydrophobic chitosan-based materials have been developed as controlled drug delivery system. This study was aimed to prepare and evaluate chitosan-aluminum monostearate composite dispersion (CLA) as fabricating liquid for construct a hydrophobic, controlled-release solid drug delivery matrix. This work was attempted to blend hydrophobic substance, aluminum monostearate (AMS), with chitosan in acidic aqueous medium without using any surfactants or grafting reaction, and high temperature during mixing that are normally performed when preparing hydrophobic chitosan system. Lactic acid solution (2%w/v) was employed as chitosan solvent. CLA dispersion was prepared by dispersing different amounts of AMS (1-20% w/w) in chitosan solution (4% w/w) with continuous agitation using magnetic stirrer for 24 h. Effect of AMS amount on physicochemical properties of the dispersion such as viscosity, rheology and particle size was evaluated. Morphology of chitosan-AMS complex (dispersant) was observed under inverted microscope and atomic force microscope. Stability of CLA dispersions was evaluated after preparation within 48 h. CLA dispersions containing AMS less than 5 % w/w exhibited rheological behavior as Newtonian while that containing higher AMS amount exhibited as pseudoplastic. Particle size of the dispersant was significantly smaller when AMS amount was increased up to 5% w/w and was not different between the higher AMS amount system. Morphology of the dispersant under inverted microscope displayed irregular shape and their size exhibited the same trend with particle size measurement. Observation of the dispersion stability revealed that phase separation occurred faster in the system containing higher AMS amount which indicated lower stability of the system. However, the dispersions were homogeneous and stable more than 12 hours after preparation that enough for fabrication process. The prepared dispersions had ability to be fabricated as a porous matrix via lyophilization technique.

Keywords: Dispersion, controlled-release, chitosan, aluminum monostearate

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
28 Particle Concentration Distribution under Idling Conditions in a Residential Underground Garage

Authors: Yu Zhao, Shinsuke Kato, Jianing Zhao

Abstract:

Particles exhausted from cars have an adverse impacts on human health. The study developed a three-dimensional particle dispersion numerical model including particle coagulation to simulate the particle concentration distribution under idling conditions in a residential underground garage. The simulation results demonstrate that particle disperses much faster in the vertical direction than that in horizontal direction. The enhancement of particle dispersion in the vertical direction due to the increase of cars with engine running is much stronger than that in the car exhaust direction. Particle dispersion from each pair of adjacent cars has little influence on each other in the study. Average particle concentration after 120 seconds exhaust is 1.8-4.5 times higher than the initial total particles at ambient environment. Particle pollution in the residential underground garage is severe.

Keywords: Dispersion, idling conditions, particle concentration, residential underground garage

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
27 Effect of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Chemical Reactions on Peristaltic Flow of a Jeffrey Fluid in an Asymmetric Channel

Authors: G. Radhakrishnamacharya, G. Ravi Kiran

Abstract:

In this paper, the dispersion of a solute in the peristaltic flow of a Jeffrey fluid in the presence of both homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions has been discussed. The average effective dispersion coefficient has been found using Taylor's limiting condition under long wavelength approximation. It is observed that the average dispersion coefficient increases with amplitude ratio which implies that dispersion is more in the presence of peristalsis. The average effective dispersion coefficient increases with Jeffrey parameter in the cases of both homogeneous and combined homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions. Further, dispersion decreases with a phase difference, homogeneous reaction rate parameters, and heterogeneous reaction rate parameter.

Keywords: Chemical Reaction, Dispersion, peristalsis, Jeffrey fluid, asymmetric channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
26 Low Nonlinear Effects Index-Guiding Nanostructured Photonic Crystal Fiber

Authors: S. Olyaee, M. Seifouri, A. Nikoosohbat, M. Shams Esfand Abadi

Abstract:

Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) can be used in optical communications as transmission lines. For this reason, the PCFs with low confinement loss, low chromatic dispersion, and low nonlinear effects are highly suitable transmission media. In this paper, we introduce a new design of index-guiding nanostructured photonic crystal fiber (IG-NPCF) with ultra-low chromatic dispersion, low nonlinearity effects, and low confinement loss. Relatively low dispersion is achieved in the wavelength range of 1200 to 1600nm using the proposed design. According to the new structure of nanostructured PCF presented in this study, the chromatic dispersion slope is -30(ps/km.nm) and the confinement loss reaches below 10-7 dB/km. While in the wavelength range mentioned above at the same time an effective area of more than 50.2μm2 is obtained.

Keywords: Nanostructured, Optical communication systems, Dispersion, photonic crystal fiber, index-guiding, confinement loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 421
25 Raman Line Mapping on Melt Spun Polycarbonate/MWNT Fiber-Based Nanocomposites

Authors: Dong Bok Lee, Poonam Yadav

Abstract:

Raman spectroscopy was used for characterization of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) and Polycarbonate/multi-wall carbon nanotube (PC/MWNT) based fibers with 0.55% and 0.75% of MWNT (PC/MWNT55 and PC/MWNT75). PC/MWNT55 and PC/MWNT75 fibers was prepared by melt spinning device using nanocomposites made by two different route, viz., solvent casting and melt extrusion. Fibers prepared from melt extruded nanocomposites showed smooth and uniform morphology as compared to solvent casting based nanocomposites. The Raman mapping confirmed that the melt extruded based nanocomposites had better dispersion of MWNT in Polycarbonate (PC) than solvent casting carbon nanotube.

Keywords: Mapping, Dispersion, melt extrusion, multi-wall carbon nanotube

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
24 Ultra-Low Chromatic Dispersion, Low Confinement Loss, and Low Nonlinear Effects Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fiber

Authors: S. Olyaee, M. Seifouri, A. Nikoosohbat, M. Shams Esfand Abadi

Abstract:

Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) can be used in optical communications as transmission lines. For this reason, the PCFs with low confinement loss, low chromatic dispersion, and low nonlinear effects are highly suitable transmission media. In this paper, we introduce a new design of index-guiding photonic crystal fiber (IG-PCF) with ultra-low chromatic dispersion, low nonlinearity effects, and low confinement loss. Relatively low dispersion is achieved in the wavelength range of 1200 to 1600 nm using the proposed design. According to the new structure of IG-PCF presented in this study, the chromatic dispersion slope is -30(ps/km.nm) and the confinement loss reaches below 10-7 dB/km. While in the wavelength range mentioned above at the same time an effective area of more than 50.2μm2 is obtained.

Keywords: Optical communication systems, Dispersion, photonic crystal fiber, index-guiding, confinement loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 455
23 Effect of the Workpiece Position on the Manufacturing Tolerances

Authors: Rahou Mohamed, Sebaa Fethi, Cheikh Abdelmadjid

Abstract:

Manufacturing tolerancing is intended to determine the intermediate geometrical and dimensional states of the part during its manufacturing process. These manufacturing dimensions also serve to satisfy not only the functional requirements given in the definition drawing but also the manufacturing constraints, for example geometrical defects of the machine, vibration, and the wear of the cutting tool. The choice of positioning has an important influence on the cost and quality of manufacture. To avoid this problem, a two-step approach have been developed. The first step is dedicated to the determination of the optimum position. As for the second step, a study was carried out for the tightening effect on the tolerance interval.

Keywords: Manufacturing, Tolerance, Position, Dispersion

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
22 Characterization of the Dispersion Phenomenon in an Optical Biosensor

Authors: An-Shik Yang, Chiang-Ho Cheng, Chin-Ting Kuo, Yung-Chun Yang, Wen-Hsin Hsieh

Abstract:

Optical biosensors have become a powerful detection and analysis tool for wide-ranging applications in biomedical research, pharmaceuticals and environmental monitoring. This study carried out the computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based simulations to explore the dispersion phenomenon in the microchannel of a optical biosensor. The predicted time sequences of concentration contours were utilized to better understand the dispersion development occurred in different geometric shapes of microchannels. The simulation results showed the surface concentrations at the sensing probe (with the best performance of a grating coupler) in respect of time to appraise the dispersion effect and therefore identify the design configurations resulting in minimum dispersion.

Keywords: Microfluidic, Dispersion, CFD simulations, optical waveguide sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
21 Effects of Dispersion on Peristaltic Flow of a Micropolar Fluid Through a Porous Medium with Wall Effects in the Presence of Slip

Authors: G. Radhakrishnamacharya, G. Ravi Kiran

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effects of slip boundary condition and wall properties on the dispersion of a solute matter in peristaltic flow of an incompressible micropolar fluid through a porous medium. Long wavelength approximation, Taylor's limiting condition and dynamic boundary conditions at the flexible walls are used to obtain the average effective dispersion coefficient in the presence of combined homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions. The effects of various pertinent parameters on the effective dispersion coefficient are discussed. It is observed that peristalsis enhances dispersion. It also increases with micropolar parameter, cross viscosity coefficient, Darcy number, slip parameter and wall parameters. Further, dispersion decreases with homogenous chemical reaction rate and heterogeneous chemical reaction rate.

Keywords: Chemical Reaction, Dispersion, peristalsis, slip condition, wall properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
20 Scanning Electronic Microscopy for Analysis of the Effects of Surfactants on De-Wrinkling and Dispersion of Graphene

Authors: Fawad Inam, Kostandinos Katsamangas

Abstract:

Graphene was dispersed using a tip sonicator and the effect of surfactants were analysed. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) were compared to observe whether or not they had any effect on any de-wrinkling, and secondly whether they aided to achieve better dispersions. There is a huge demand for wrinkle free graphene as this will greatly increase its usefulness in various engineering applications. A comprehensive literature on de-wrinkling graphene has been discussed. Low magnification Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) was conducted to assess the quality of graphene de-wrinkling. The utilization of the PVA has a significant effect on de-wrinkling whereas SDS had minimal effect on the de-wrinkling of graphene.

Keywords: Graphene, Surfactants, Dispersion, de-wrinkling, scanning electronic microscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
19 Amplification of electromagnetic pulse by conducting cone

Authors: E. S. Manuylovich, V. A. Astapenko, P. A. Golovinsky

Abstract:

The dispersion relation binding the constant of propagation and frequency is calculated for silver cone. The evolution of the electric field of ultrashort pulse during its propagation in conical structure is considered. Increasing of electric field during pulse propagation to the top of the cone is observed. Reduction of the pulse duration at a certain distance is observed. The dependence of minimum pulse duration on initial chirp and cone angle is investigated.

Keywords: Dispersion, ultrashort pulses, surface plasmon polariton, silver cone

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
18 Quantification of Dispersion Effects in Arterial Spin Labelling Perfusion MRI

Authors: Rutej R. Mehta, Michael A. Chappell

Abstract:

Introduction: Arterial spin labelling (ASL) is an increasingly popular perfusion MRI technique, in which arterial blood water is magnetically labelled in the neck before flowing into the brain, providing a non-invasive measure of cerebral blood flow (CBF). The accuracy of ASL CBF measurements, however, is hampered by dispersion effects; the distortion of the ASL labelled bolus during its transit through the vasculature. In spite of this, the current recommended implementation of ASL – the white paper (Alsop et al., MRM, 73.1 (2015): 102-116) – does not account for dispersion, which leads to the introduction of errors in CBF. Given that the transport time from the labelling region to the tissue – the arterial transit time (ATT) – depends on the region of the brain and the condition of the patient, it is likely that these errors will also vary with the ATT. In this study, various dispersion models are assessed in comparison with the white paper (WP) formula for CBF quantification, enabling the errors introduced by the WP to be quantified. Additionally, this study examines the relationship between the errors associated with the WP and the ATT – and how this is influenced by dispersion. Methods: Data were simulated using the standard model for pseudo-continuous ASL, along with various dispersion models, and then quantified using the formula in the WP. The ATT was varied from 0.5s-1.3s, and the errors associated with noise artefacts were computed in order to define the concept of significant error. The instantaneous slope of the error was also computed as an indicator of the sensitivity of the error with fluctuations in ATT. Finally, a regression analysis was performed to obtain the mean error against ATT. Results: An error of 20.9% was found to be comparable to that introduced by typical measurement noise. The WP formula was shown to introduce errors exceeding 20.9% for ATTs beyond 1.25s even when dispersion effects were ignored. Using a Gaussian dispersion model, a mean error of 16% was introduced by using the WP, and a dispersion threshold of σ=0.6 was determined, beyond which the error was found to increase considerably with ATT. The mean error ranged from 44.5% to 73.5% when other physiologically plausible dispersion models were implemented, and the instantaneous slope varied from 35 to 75 as dispersion levels were varied. Conclusion: It has been shown that the WP quantification formula holds only within an ATT window of 0.5 to 1.25s, and that this window gets narrower as dispersion occurs. Provided that the dispersion levels fall below the threshold evaluated in this study, however, the WP can measure CBF with reasonable accuracy if dispersion is correctly modelled by the Gaussian model. However, substantial errors were observed with other common models for dispersion with dispersion levels similar to those that have been observed in literature.

Keywords: MRI, Dispersion, arterial spin labelling, perfusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
17 Guided Wave in a Cylinder with Trepezoid Cross-Section

Authors: Bin Wu, Nan Tang, Cunfu He

Abstract:

The trapezoid rods are widely used in civil engineering as load –carrying members. Ultrasonic guided wave is one of the most popular techniques in analyzing the propagation of elastic guided wave. The goal of this paper is to investigate the propagation of elastic waves in the isotropic bar with trapezoid cross-section. Dispersion curves that describe the relationship between the frequency and velocity provide the fundamental information to describe the propagation of elastic waves through a structure. Based on the SAFE (semi-analytical finite element) a linear algebraic system of equations is obtained. By using numerical methods, dispersion curves solved for the rods with the trapezoid cross-section. These fundamental information plays an important role in applying ultrasonic guided waves to NTD for structures with trapezoid cross section.

Keywords: Dispersion, Finite Element Method, guided wave, trapezoid rod

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
16 Numerical Simulation of the Air Pollutants Dispersion Emitted by CPH Using ANSYS CFX

Authors: Oliver Mărunţălu, Gheorghe Lăzăroiu, Elena Elisabeta Manea, Dana Andreya Bondrea, Lăcrămioara Diana Robescu

Abstract:

This paper presents the results obtained by numerical simulation of the pollutants dispersion in the atmosphere coming from the evacuation of combustion gases resulting from the fuel combustion used by electric thermal power plant using the software ANSYS CFX-CFD. The model uses the Navier-Stokes equation to simulate the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. We considered as important factors in elaboration of simulation the atmospheric conditions (pressure, temperature, wind speed, wind direction), the exhaust velocity of the combustion gases, chimney height and the obstacles (buildings). Using the air quality monitoring stations we have measured the concentrations of main pollutants (SO2, NOx and PM). The pollutants were monitored over a period of 3 months, after that we calculated the average concentration, which is used by the software. The concentrations are: 8.915 μg/m3 (NOx), 9.587 μg/m3 (SO2) and 42 μg/m3 (PM). A comparison of test data with simulation results demonstrated that CFX was able to describe the dispersion of the pollutant as well the concentration of this pollutants in the atmosphere.

Keywords: Simulation, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Dispersion, Air Pollutants

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
15 Estimation of Longitudinal Dispersion Coefficient Using Tracer Data

Authors: K. Ebrahimi, Sh. Shahid, M. Mohammadi Ghaleni, M. H. Omid

Abstract:

The longitudinal dispersion coefficient is a crucial parameter for 1-D water quality analysis of riverine flows. So far, different types of empirical equations for estimation of the coefficient have been developed, based on various case studies. The main objective of this paper is to develop an empirical equation for estimation of the coefficient for a riverine flow. For this purpose, a set of tracer experiments was conducted, involving salt tracer, at three sections located in downstream of a lengthy canal. Tracer data were measured in three mixing lengths along the canal including; 45, 75 and 100m. According to the results, the obtained coefficients from new developed empirical equation gave an encouraging level of agreement with the theoretical values.

Keywords: Water Quality, Dispersion, river, coefficients, tracer

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
14 Lamb Waves in Plates Subjected to Uniaxial Stresses

Authors: Andrei Kotousov, Munawwar Mohabuth, Ching-Tai Ng

Abstract:

On the basis of the finite deformation theory, the effect of homogeneous stress on the propagation of Lamb waves in an initially isotropic hyperelastic plate is analysed. The equations governing the propagation of small amplitude waves in the prestressed plate are derived using the theory of small deformations superimposed on large deformations. By enforcing traction free boundary conditions at the upper and lower surfaces of the plate, acoustoelastic dispersion equations for Lamb wave propagation are obtained, which are solved numerically. Results are given for an aluminum plate subjected to a range of applied stresses.

Keywords: Dispersion, acoustoelasticity, finite deformation, lamb waves

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
13 The Extent to Which Social Factors Affect Urban Functional Mutations and Transformations

Authors: Skirmante Mozuriunaite

Abstract:

Contemporary metropolitan areas and large cities are dynamic, rapidly growing and continuously changing. Thus, urban transformations and mutations are not a new phenomenon, but rather a continuous process. Basic factors of urban transformation are related to development of technologies, globalisation, lifestyle, etc., which, in combination with local factors, have generated an extremely great variety of urban development conditions. This article discusses the main urbanisation processes in Lithuania during last 50 year period and social factors affecting urban functional mutations.

Keywords: Urbanization, Dispersion, social factors, functional mutations, urban mutations

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
12 Chemical Functionalization of Graphene Oxide for Improving Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Polyurethane Composites

Authors: Lin Li, Zhili Dong, Qifei Jing, Vadim V. Silberschmidt

Abstract:

Graphene oxide (GO) was chemically functionalized to prepare polyurethane (PU) composites with improved mechanical and thermal properties. In order to achieve a well exfoliated and stable GO suspension in an organic solvent (dimethylformamide, DMF), 4, 4′- methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) and polycaprolactone diol, which were the two monomers for synthesizing PU, were selectively used to functionalize GO. The obtained functionalized GO (FGO) could form homogeneous dispersions in DMF solvent and the PU matrix, as well as provide a good compatibility with the PU matrix. The most efficient improvement of mechanical properties was achieved when 0.4 wt% FGO was added into the PU matrix, showing increases in the tensile stress, elongation at break and toughness by 34.2%, 27.6% and 64.5%, respectively, compared with those of PU. Regarding the thermal stability, PU filled with 1 wt% FGO showed the largest extent of improvement with T2% and T50% (the temperatures at which 2% and 50% weight-loss happened) 16 °C and 21 °C higher than those of PU, respectively. The significant improvement in both mechanical properties and thermal stability of FGO/PU composites should be attributed to the homogeneous dispersion of FGO in the PU matrix and strong interfacial interaction between them.

Keywords: Composite, Dispersion, Graphene Oxide, polyurethane

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
11 Pd Supported on Activated Carbon: Effect of Support Texture on the Dispersion of Pd

Authors: Ji Sun Kim, Jae Ho Baek, Kyeong Ho Kim, Ji Hae Ha, Seong Soo Hong, Jung-Wook Park, Man Sig Lee

Abstract:

Carbon supported palladium catalysts have been used in many industrial reactions, especially for hydrogenation in the fine chemical industry. Porous carbons had been widely used as catalyst supports due to its higher surface area and larger pore volume. The specific surface area, pore structure and surface chemical functional groups of porous carbon affects metal dispersion and particle size. In this paper, we confirm the effect of support texture on the dispersion of Pd. Pd catalyst supported on activated carbon having various specific surface area were characterized by BET, XRD and FE-TEM. Catalyst activity and dispersion of prepared catalyst were evaluated on the basis of the CO adsorption capacity by CO-chemisorption. As concluding remark to this part of our study, let us note that specific area of carbon play important role on the synthesis of Pd/C catalyst/.

Keywords: Carbon, Dispersion, support, Pd/C, specific are

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
10 Estimation of the Road Traffic Emissions and Dispersion in the Developing Countries Conditions

Authors: Hicham Gourgue, Ahmed Aharoune, Ahmed Ihlal

Abstract:

We present in this work our model of road traffic emissions (line sources) and dispersion of these emissions, named DISPOLSPEM (Dispersion of Poly Sources and Pollutants Emission Model). In its emission part, this model was designed to keep the consistent bottom-up and top-down approaches. It also allows to generate emission inventories from reduced input parameters being adapted to existing conditions in Morocco and in the other developing countries. While several simplifications are made, all the performance of the model results are kept. A further important advantage of the model is that it allows the uncertainty calculation and emission rate uncertainty according to each of the input parameters. In the dispersion part of the model, an improved line source model has been developed, implemented and tested against a reference solution. It provides improvement in accuracy over previous formulas of line source Gaussian plume model, without being too demanding in terms of computational resources. In the case study presented here, the biggest errors were associated with the ends of line source sections; these errors will be canceled by adjacent sections of line sources during the simulation of a road network. In cases where the wind is parallel to the source line, the use of the combination discretized source and analytical line source formulas minimizes remarkably the error. Because this combination is applied only for a small number of wind directions, it should not excessively increase the calculation time.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Urban Transport, Emissions, Dispersion, line sources, road traffic

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
9 Designing a Dispersion Flattened Single Mode PCF for E-Band to U-Band with Less Effective Area

Authors: Shabbir Chowdhury

Abstract:

A signal is broadened when it is gone through a channel, this phenomenon is known as dispersion. And dispersion is different for different wavelength. So bandwidth become limited. Research have tried to design an optical fiber with flattened dispersion to use more bandwidth and also for wavelength division multiplexing. In this paper, a single mode photonic crystal fiber with a flattened dispersion and less effective area has been proposed where silica is used as fiber materials. The effective dispersion varies from -1.996 to 0.1783 [ps/(nm-km)] for enter E-band to U-band. This fiber will take only 3.048 [micrometer^2] (for 1.75 micrometer wavelength). Silica is being used as the fiber material.

Keywords: Dispersion, bandwidth, photonic crystal fiber, chromatic dispersion, dispersion compensation, effective dispersion, effective area, effective refractive index

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
8 Dispersion Rate of Spilled Oil in Water Column under Non-Breaking Water Waves

Authors: Hanifeh Imanian, Morteza Kolahdoozan

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to present a mathematical phrase for calculating the dispersion rate of spilled oil in water column under non-breaking waves. In this regard, a multiphase numerical model is applied for which waves and oil phase were computed concurrently, and accuracy of its hydraulic calculations have been proven. More than 200 various scenarios of oil spilling in wave waters were simulated using the multiphase numerical model and its outcome were collected in a database. The recorded results were investigated to identify the major parameters affected vertical oil dispersion and finally 6 parameters were identified as main independent factors. Furthermore, some statistical tests were conducted to identify any relationship between the dependent variable (dispersed oil mass in the water column) and independent variables (water wave specifications containing height, length and wave period and spilled oil characteristics including density, viscosity and spilled oil mass). Finally, a mathematical-statistical relationship is proposed to predict dispersed oil in marine waters. To verify the proposed relationship, a laboratory example available in the literature was selected. Oil mass rate penetrated in water body computed by statistical regression was in accordance with experimental data was predicted. On this occasion, it was necessary to verify the proposed mathematical phrase. In a selected laboratory case available in the literature, mass oil rate penetrated in water body computed by suggested regression. Results showed good agreement with experimental data. The validated mathematical-statistical phrase is a useful tool for oil dispersion prediction in oil spill events in marine areas.

Keywords: Marine Environment, Oil Spill, Dispersion, mathematical-statistical relationship

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
7 Thermal Conductivity of Al2O3/Water-Based Nanofluids: Revisiting the Influences of pH and Surfactant

Authors: Sebastien Poncet, Nizar Bouguerra, Ahmed Khabou, Saïd Elkoun

Abstract:

The present work focuses on the preparation and the stabilization of Al2O3-water based nanofluids. Though they have been widely considered in the past, to the best of our knowledge, there is no clear consensus about a proper way to prepare and stabilize them by the appropriate surfactant. In this paper, a careful experimental investigation is performed to quantify the combined influence of pH and the surfactant on the stability of Al2O3-water based nanofluids. Two volume concentrations of nanoparticles and three nanoparticle sizes have been considered. The good preparation and stability of these nanofluids are evaluated through thermal conductivity measurements. The results show that the optimum value for the thermal conductivity is obtained mainly by controlling the pH of the mixture and surfactants are not necessary to stabilize the solution.

Keywords: Nanofluid, Stability, Dispersion, Thermal Conductivity, Preparation, surfactant, Al2O3, transient hot wire

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
6 Investigation of Dispersion of Carbon Nanoparticles in Polymer Melt for the Fabrication of Functional Filaments

Authors: Thomas Gries, Gunnar Seide, Merle Bischoff

Abstract:

Nanocomposites have become more and more important as the implementation of nanoparticles in polymer allows additional functions in common industrial parts. Especially in the fabrication of filaments or fibres nanomodification is important, as only very small fillers can be added to the very fine fibres (common diameter is 20 µm, fine filament are 1 µm). Discharging fibres, conductive fibres, and many other functional fibres raise in their importance nowadays. Especially the dispersion quality is essential for the final enhancement of the filament propertied. In this paper, the dispersion of carbon nanoparticles in polymer melt is enhanced by a newly developed sonication unit of ITA and BANDELIN electronic GmbH & Co. KG. The first development steps of the unit fabrication, as well as the first experimental results of the modification of the dispersion, are shown. Special focus will be laid on the sealing of the new sonication unit as well as the positioning and equipment size when being implemented in an existing melt spinning unit. Furthermore, the influence on the thereby manufactured nano-modified filaments will be shown.

Keywords: Dispersion, Carbon Nanoparticles, filaments, sonication

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
5 Analysis of Evolution of Higher Order Solitons by Numerical Simulation

Authors: K. Khadidja

Abstract:

Solitons are stable solution of nonlinear Schrodinger equation. Their stability is due to the exact combination between nonlinearity and dispersion which causes pulse broadening. Higher order solitons are born when nonlinear length is N multiple of dispersive length. Soliton order is determined by the number N itself. In this paper, evolution of higher order solitons is illustrated by simulation using Matlab. Results show that higher order solitons change their shape periodically, the reason why they are bad for transmission comparing to fundamental solitons which are constant. Partial analysis of a soliton of higher order explains that the periodic shape is due to the interplay between nonlinearity and dispersion which are not equal during a period. This class of solitons has many applications such as generation of supercontinuum and the impulse compression on the Femtosecond scale. As a conclusion, the periodicity which is harmful to transmission can be beneficial in other applications.

Keywords: Optical Fiber, Dispersion, nonlinearity, soliton

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
4 Inversion of the Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves Dispersion Curves through the Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

Authors: A. Cerrato Casado, C. Guigou, P. Jean

Abstract:

In this investigation, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to perform the inversion of the dispersion curves in the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) method. This inverse problem usually presents complicated solution spaces with many local minima that make difficult the convergence to the correct solution. PSO is a metaheuristic method that was originally designed to simulate social behavior but has demonstrated powerful capabilities to solve inverse problems with complex space solution and a high number of variables. The dispersion curve of the synthetic soils is constructed by the vertical flexibility coefficient method, which is especially convenient for soils where the stiffness does not increase gradually with depth. The reason is that these types of soil profiles are not normally dispersive since the dominant mode of Rayleigh waves is usually not coincident with the fundamental mode. Multiple synthetic soil profiles have been tested to show the characteristics of the convergence process and assess the accuracy of the final soil profile. In addition, the inversion procedure is applied to multiple real soils and the final profile compared with the available information. The combination of the vertical flexibility coefficient method to obtain the dispersion curve and the PSO algorithm to carry out the inversion process proves to be a robust procedure that is able to provide good solutions for complex soil profiles even with scarce prior information.

Keywords: Inverse problem, Particle Swarm Optimization, Dispersion, soil profile, SASW

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
3 Altering Surface Properties of Magnetic Nanoparticles with Single-Step Surface Modification with Various Surface Active Agents

Authors: Mukesh Ranjan, Krupali Mehta, Sandip Bhatt, Umesh Trivedi, Bhavesh Bharatiya, Atindra D. Shukla

Abstract:

Owing to the dominating surface forces and large-scale surface interactions, the nano-scale particles face difficulties in getting suspended in various media. Magnetic nanoparticles of iron oxide offer a great deal of promise due to their ease of preparation, reasonable magnetic properties, low cost and environmental compatibility. We intend to modify the surface of magnetic Fe₂O₃ nanoparticles with selected surface modifying agents using simple and effective single-step chemical reactions in order to enhance dispersibility of magnetic nanoparticles in non-polar media. Magnetic particles were prepared by hydrolysis of Fe²⁺/Fe³⁺ chlorides and their subsequent oxidation in aqueous medium. The dried particles were then treated with Octadecyl quaternary ammonium silane (Terrasil™), stearic acid and gallic acid ester of stearyl alcohol in ethanol separately to yield S-2 to S-4 respectively. The untreated Fe₂O₃ was designated as S-1. The surface modified nanoparticles were then analysed with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy dispersive X-Ray analysis (SEM-EDAX). Characterization reveals the particle size averaging 20-50 nm with and without modification. However, the crystallite size in all cases remained ~7.0 nm with the diffractogram matching to Fe₂O₃ crystal structure. FT-IR suggested the presence of surfactants on nanoparticles’ surface, also confirmed by SEM-EDAX where mapping of elements proved their presence. TGA indicated the weight losses in S-2 to S-4 at 300°C onwards suggesting the presence of organic moiety. Hydrophobic character of modified surfaces was confirmed with contact angle analysis, all modified nanoparticles showed super hydrophobic behaviour with average contact angles ~129° for S-2, ~139.5° for S-3 and ~151° for S-4. This indicated that surface modified particles are super hydrophobic and they are easily dispersible in non-polar media. These modified particles could be ideal candidates to be suspended in oil-based fluids, polymer matrices, etc. We are pursuing elaborate suspension/sedimentation studies of these particles in various oils to establish this conjecture.

Keywords: Modification, Dispersion, hydrophobic, iron nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 38