Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Diseases Related Abstracts

12 Sports: A Vital Tool for Promotion of Good Health and Prevention of Diseases

Authors: Agburuga Obi, Madumere Akuego Jane

Abstract:

This paper explores the important role sports can play in the promotion of good health and prevention of diseases. Technological advancements in today’s world has come along with some difficulties to man. This is because work formally done by man has been taken over by machines, thus, man has become sedentary. This has created a lot of health problems to man such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. To nip this ugly situation in the bud, the following recommendations are made: specific measures should be taken to raise the awareness within the government, key sectors and the population of the diverse benefits or physical activity and sports and the risk and costs of inactivity, provision of equipment, facilities for sports and recreational activities in every community, participation in physical activities in sports if not on daily basis at least thrice a week.

Keywords: Sport, Diseases, Prevention, Physical Activities, good health

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11 Comparative Study of the Effect of Three Fungicides: Tilt and Artea Amistarxtra about Growing Wheat, Hard, and Soft and Their Impact on Grain Yield and Its Components in the Semi-Arid Zone of Setif

Authors: Cheniti Khalissa, Dekhili Mohamed

Abstract:

Several fungal diseases may infect hard and soft wheat, which directly affect the yield and thus the economy of the homeland. So, a treatment fungicide is one of means of diseases control. In this context, we studied two varieties of wheat; Waha for soft wheat and Hidhab for hard wheat, at the level of the Technical Institute of crops (ITGC) in the wilaya of Setif under semi-arid conditions. This study consists of a successive application of three fungicides (Tilt, Artea, and Armistarxtra) according to three treatments (T1, T2, and T3) in addition to the witness (T0) at different stages of plant development (respectively, Montaison, earing and after flowering) whose purpose is to test and determine the effectiveness of these products used sequentially. The study showed good efficacy when we use the sum of these pesticides The comparison between these different treatments indicates that the T3 treatment reduced yield losses significantly; which is evident in the main yield components such as fertility, grain yield and weight of 1000 grains. The various components of yield and final yield are all parameters to be taken into account in such a study. In general, the fungal treatment is an effective way of improving profitability. In general, the fungal treatment is an effective way of improving profitability and positioning interventions in time is one of the requirements for an appreciable efficiency.

Keywords: Diseases, Fertility, fungicide treatment, hard wheat, soft wheat, semi-arid zone

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10 Non Chemical-Based Natural Products in the Treatment and Control of Disease in Fish

Authors: Albert P. Ekanem, Austin I. Obiekezie, Elizabeth X. Ntia

Abstract:

Introduction: Some African plants and bile from animals have shown efficacies in the treatment and control of diseases in farmed fish. The background of the study is based on the fact the African rain forest is blessed with the abundance of medicinal plants that should be investigated for their use in the treatment of diseases. The significance of the study is informed by the fact that chemical-based substances accumulate in the tissues of food fish, thereby reducing the food values of such products and moreover, the continuous use of chemotherapeutics in the aquatic environments tends to degrade the affected environment. Methodology: Plants and animal products were extracted, purified and applied under in vitro and in vivo conditions to the affected organisms. Effective plants and bills were analyzed for biologically active substances responsible for the activities by both qualitative and HPLC methods. Results: Extracts of Carica papaya and Mucuna pruriens were effective in the treatment of Ichthyophthiriasis in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) with high host tolerance. Similarly, ectoparasitic monogeneans were effectively dislodged from the gills and skin of goldfish by the application of extracts of Piper guineense at therapeutic concentrations. Artemesia annua with known antimalarial activities in human was also effective against fish monogenean parasites of Clarias gariepinus in a concentration-related manner without detriments to the host. Effective antibacterial activities against Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases of the African catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis) were demonstrated in some plants such as Phylanthus amarus, Allium sativum, A. annua, and Citrus lemon. Bile from some animals (fish, goat, chicken, cow, and pig) showed great antibacterial activities against some gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens of fish. Conclusions: African plants and some animal bile have shown potential promise in the treatment of diseases in fish and other aquatic animals. The use of chemical-based substances for control of diseases in the aquatic environments should be restricted.

Keywords: Diseases, Control, treatment, Fish

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9 Non Chemical-Based Natural Products in the Treatment and Control of Fish Diseases

Authors: Albert P. Ekanem, Austin I. Obiekezie, Elizabeth X. Ntia

Abstract:

Introduction: Some African plants and bile from animals have shown efficacies in the treatment and control of diseases in farmed fish. The background of the study is based on the fact the African rain forest is blessed with abundance of medicinal plants that should be investigated for their use in the treatment of diseases. The significance of the study is informed by the fact that chemical-based substances accumulates in the tissues of food fish, thereby reducing the food values of such products and moreover, the continuous use of chemotherapeutants in the aquatic environments tends to degrades the affected environment. Methodology: Plants and animal products were extracted, purified and applied under in vitro and in vivo conditions to the affected organisms. Effective plants and biles were analyzed for active biological substances responsible for the activities by both qualitative and HPLC methods. Results: Extracts of Carica papaya and Mucuna pruriens were effective in the treatment of Ichthyophthiriasis in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) with high host tolerance. Similarly, ectoparasitic monogeneans were effectively dislodged from the gills and skin of goldfish by the application of extracts of Piper guineense at therapeutic concentrations. Artemesia annua with known antimalarial activities in human was also effective against fish monogenean parasites of Clarias gariepinus in a concentration related manner without detriments to the host. Effective antibacterial activities against Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases of the African catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis) were demonstrated in some plants such as Phylanthus amarus, Allium sativum, A. annua, and Citrus lemon. Bile from some animals (fish, goat, chicken, cow, and pig) showed great antibacterial activities against some gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens of fish. Conclusions: African plants and some animal bile have shown potential promise in the treatment of diseases in fish and other aquatic animals. The use of chemical-based substances for control of diseases in the aquatic environments should be restricted.

Keywords: Diseases, Natural Products, Control, treatment, Fish

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8 Integrated Management of Diseases of Vegetables and Flower Crops Grown in Protected Condition under Organic Production System

Authors: Shripad Kulkarni

Abstract:

Plant disease is an impairment of the normal state of a plant that interrupts or modifies its vital functions. Disease occurs on different parts of plants and cause heavy losses. Diagnosis of Problem is very important before planning any management practice and this can be done based on appearance of the crop, examination of the root and examination of the soil. There are various types of diseases such as biotic (transmissible) which accounts for ~30% whereas , abiotic (not transmissible) diseases are the major one with ~70% incidence. Plant diseases caused by different groups of organism’s belonging fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes and few others have remained important in causing significant losses in different crops indicating the urgent need of their integrated management. Various factors favor disease development and different steps and methods are involved in management of diseases under protected condition. Management of diseases through botanicals and bioagents by modifying root and aerial environment, vector management along with care to be taken while managing the disease are analysed.

Keywords: Diseases, Agriculture, organic production system, bioagents and polyhouse

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7 A Case Comparative Study of Infant Mortality Rate in North-West Nigeria

Authors: A. Danbaba, G. I. Onwuka, S. U. Gulumbe

Abstract:

This study investigated of Infant Mortality Rate as observed at a general hospital in Kaduna-South, Kaduna State, North West Nigeria. The causes of infant Mortality were examined. The data used for this analysis were collected at the statistics unit of the Hospital. The analysis was carried out on the data using Multiple Linear regression Technique and this showed that there is linear relationship between the dependent variable (death) and the independent variables (malaria, measles, anaemia, and coronary heart disease). The resultant model also revealed that a unit increment in each of these diseases would result to a unit increment in death recorded, 98.7% of the total variation in mortality is explained by the given model. The highest number of mortality was recorded in July, 2005 and the lowest mortality recorded in October, 2009.Recommendations were however made based on the results of the study.

Keywords: Diseases, serial correlation, infant mortality rate, multiple linear regression

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6 Technical Option Brought Solution for Safe Waste Water Management in Urban Public Toilet and Improved Ground Water Table

Authors: Chandan Kumar

Abstract:

Background and Context: Population growth and rapid urbanization resulted nearly 2 Lacs migrants along with families moving to Delhi each year in search of jobs. Most of these poor migrant families end up living in slums and constitute an estimated population of 1.87 lacs every year. Further, more than half (52 per cent) of Delhi’s population resides in places such as unauthorized and resettled colonies. Slum population is fully dependent on public toilet to defecate. In Public toilets, manholes either connected with Sewer line or septic tank. Septic tank connected public toilet faces major challenges to dispose of waste water. They have to dispose of waste water in outside open drain and waste water struck out side of public toilet complex and near to the slum area. As a result, outbreak diseases such as Malaria, Dengue and Chikungunya in slum area due to stagnated waste water. Intervention and Innovation took place by Save the Children in 21 Public Toilet Complexes of South Delhi and North Delhi. These public toilet complexes were facing same waste water disposal problem. They were disposing of minimum 1800 liters waste water every day in open drain. Which caused stagnated water-borne diseases among the nearest community. Construction of Soak Well: Construction of soak well in urban context was an innovative approach to minimizing the problem of waste water management and increased water table of existing borewell in toilet complex. This technique made solution in Ground water recharging system, and additional water was utilized in vegetable gardening within the complex premises. Soak well had constructed with multiple filter media with inlet and safeguarding bed on surrounding surface. After construction, soak well started exhausting 2000 liters of waste water to raise ground water level through different filter media. Finally, we brought a change in the communities by constructing soak well and with zero maintenance system. These Public Toilet Complexes were empowered by safe disposing waste water mechanism and reduced stagnated water-borne diseases.

Keywords: Diseases, Waste water, ground water recharging system, soak well, toilet complex

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5 Ethnobotanical Study of Traditional Medicinal Plants Used by Indigenous Tribal People of Kodagu District, Central Western Ghats, Karnataka, India

Authors: Anush Patric, M. Jadeyegowda, M. N. Ramesh, M. Ravikumar, C. R. Ajay

Abstract:

Kodagu district which is situated in Central Western Ghats regions falls in one of the hottest of hot spots of biodiversity which is recognised by UNESCO. The district has one of the highest densities of community managed sacred forests in the world with rich floral and faunal diversity. It is a habitat for more than ten different types of Ethnic Indigenous tribal groups commonly called ‘Girijanas’ (Soligas, Yarvas, Jenukuruba, Bettakuruba etc.), who are having the rich knowledge of medicinal value of the plants that are commonly available in the forest. The tribal men of this region are the treasure house of the traditional plant knowledge and health care practices. An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken in tribal areas of the district to collect information about some of the indigenous medicinal plant knowledge of tribal people by semi-structured interviews, ranking exercises and field observations on their native habitat in order to evaluate the potential medicinal uses of local plants. The study revealed that, the ethnobotanical information of 83 plant species belonging to 45 families, of the total 83 species documented, most plants used in the treatment were trees (11 species), shrubs (41 species), herbs (22 species) and rarely climbers (9 species) which are used in the treatment of Hyperacidity, Respiratory disorders, Snake bite Abortifacient, Anthelmintic, Paralysis, Antiseptic, Fever, Chest pain, Stomachic, Jaundice, Piles, Asthma, Malaria, Renal disorders, Malaria and many other diseases. Maximum of 6 plant species each of Acanthaceae, Apiaceae and were used for drug preparation, followed by Asclepiadaceae, Liliaceae, Fabaceae, Verbenaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Bombaceae, Papilonaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Myrtaceae, Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Ascelepidaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Apocyanaceae, and Solanaceae etc. In our present study, only medicinal plants and their local medicinal uses are recorded and presented. Information was obtained by local informants having the knowledge about medicinal plants. About 23 local tribes were interviewed. For each plant, necessary information like botanical name, family of plant species, local name and uses are given. Recent trend shows a decline in the number of traditional herbal healers in the tribal areas since the younger generation is not interested to continue this tradition. Hence, there is an urgent need to record and preserve all information on plants used by different ethnic/tribal communities for various purposes before it reaches to verge of extinction. In addition, several wild medicinal plants are declining in numbers due to deforestation and forest fires. There is need for phytochemical analysis and conservation measures to be taken for conserving medicinal plant species which is far better than allopathic medicines and these do not cause any side effects as they are the natural disease healers. So, conservation strategies have to be practiced in all levels and sectors by creating awareness about the value of such medicinal plants, and it is necessary to save the disappearing plants to strengthen the document and to conserve them for future generation.

Keywords: Diseases, Medicinal Plants, folk medicine, ethnic groups, Kodagu

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4 Effect of Grafting and Rain Shelter Technologies on Performance of Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.)

Authors: Evy Latifah, Eli Korlina, Hanik Anggraeni, Kuntoro Boga, Joko Mariyono

Abstract:

During the rainy season, the tomato plants are vulnerable to various diseases. A disease that attacks the leaves of tomato plants (foliar diseases) such as late blight (Phytophtora infestans) and spotting bacteria (bacterial spot / Xanthomonas sp.) In addition, there is a disease that attacks the roots such as fusarium and bacterial wilt. If not immediately anticipated, it will decrease the quality and quantity of crop yields. In fact, it can lead to crop failure. The aim of this research is to know the production of tomato grafting by using Timoty and CLN 3024 tomatoes at rain shelter during rainy season in lowland. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and tested further by Least Significant Difference (LSD) level of 5 %. The parameters measured were plant height (cm), stem diameter (cm), number of fruit space, canopy extended, number of branches, number of productive branches, and the number of stem segments. The results show at the beginning of growth until the end of the treatment without grafting with relative rain shelter displays the highest plant height. This was followed by extensive crop canopy. For tomato grafting and non-grafting using rain shelter able to produce the number of branches and number of productive branches at most. While at the end of the growth in the number of productive branches generated as much. Highest production of tomatoes produced by tomato dig rafting to use the shelter.

Keywords: Production, Diseases, field trail, wet and dry season, rain shelter

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3 Survey of Potato Viral Infection Using Das-Elisa Method in Georgia

Authors: Iveta Megrelishvili, Maia Kukhaleishvili, Ekaterine Bulauri, Tamar Shamatava, Tamar Chipashvili

Abstract:

Plant viruses can cause loss of yield and quality in a lot of important crops. Symptoms of pathogens are variable depending on the cultivars and virus strain. Selection of resistant potato varieties would reduce the risk of virus transmission and significant economic impact. Other way to avoid reduced harvest yields is regular potato seed production sampling and testing for viral infection. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and distribution of viral diseases according potato cultivars for further selection of virus-free material in Georgia. During the summer 2015- 2016, 5 potato cultivars (Sante, Laura, Jelly, Red Sonia, Anushka) at 5 different farms located in Akhalkalaki were tested for 6 different potato viruses: Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus M (PVM), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus X (PVX), Potato virus Y (PVY) and potato leaf roll virus (PLRV). A serological method, Double Antibody Sandwich-Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (DASELISA) was used at the laboratory to analyze the results. The result showed that PVY (21.4%) and PLRV (19.7%) virus presence in collected samples was relatively high compared to others. Researched potato cultivars except Jelly and Laura were infected by PVY with different concentrations. PLRV was found only in three potato cultivars (Sante, Jelly, Red Sonia) and PVM virus (3.12%) was characterized with low prevalence. PVX, PVA and PVS virus infection was not reported. It would be noted that 7.9% of samples were containing PVY/PLRV mix infection. Based on the results it can be concluded that PVY and PLRV infections are dominant in all research cultivars. Therefore significant yield losses are expected. Systematic, long-term control of potato viral infection, especially seed-potatoes, must be regarded as the most important factor to increase seed productivity.

Keywords: Diseases, Infection, Virus, potato

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2 Investigation of Diseases and Enemies of Bees of Breeding Apis mellifera intermissa (Buttel-Reepen, 1906)

Authors: F. Haddadj, S. Zenia, A. Smai, H. Saadi, A. Milla, F. Marniche, L. Bitta, O. Bouhamam, H. Brines, M. Boudriaa

Abstract:

The bee Apis mellifera intermissa is a major social insect, in addition to its honey production, it is a pillar of our biodiversity. Several living organisms can come into contact with it: bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi, mites, and insects. In Algeria, many beekeepers have reported unusual mortality of local bees, loss of foragers and significant losses of their livestock. Despite the presence of a varied honey-bearing flora and a favourable Mediterranean climate, honey production remains low. This phenomenon can be attributed to the excess winter mortality, but also to the increasing difficulties that beekeepers face in maintaining healthy bee colonies, particularly bee diseases and their transmission facilitated by trade and beekeeping practices. Our survey is based on a questionnaire composed of several parts. The results obtained show that the disease that most affects bees according to beekeepers is varroa mite with 93% followed by fungi with 26%. The most replied enemy of bees is the false ringworm with 73%, followed by the bee-eater with 63%. Our goal is to determine the causes of this low production in two areas: Bejaia and Tizi-Ouzou.

Keywords: Diseases, Apis mellifera L, varroa, European foulbrood

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1 Impact Evaluation of Vaccination against Eight-Child-Killer Diseases on under-Five Children Mortality at Mbale District, Uganda

Authors: Lukman Abiodun Nafiu

Abstract:

This study examines the impact evaluation of vaccination against eight-child-killer diseases on under-five children mortality at Mbale District. It was driven by three specific objectives which are to determine the proportion of under-five children mortality due to the eight-child-killer diseases to the total under-five children mortality; establish the cause-effect relationship between the eight-child-killer diseases and under-five children mortality; as well as establish the dependence of under-five children mortality in the location at Mbale District. A community based cross-sectional and longitudinal (panel) study design involving both quantitative and qualitative (focus group discussion and in-depth interview) approaches was employed over a period of 36 months. Multi-stage cluster design involving Health Sub-District (HSD), Forms of Ownership (FOO) and Health Facilities Centres (HFC) as the first, second and third stages respectively was used. Data was collected regarding the eight-child-killer diseases namely: measles, pneumonia, pertussis (whooping cough), diphtheria, poliomyelitis (polio), tetanus, haemophilus influenza, rotavirus gastroenteritis and mortality regarding immunized and non-immunized children aged 0-59 months. We monitored the children over a period of 24 months. The study used a sample of 384 children out of all the registered children for each year at Mbale Referral Hospital and other Primary Health Care Centres (HCIV, HCIII and HCII) at Mbale District between 2015 and 2019. These children were followed from birth to their current state (living or dead). The data collected in this study was analysed using cross tabulation and the chi-square test. The study concluded that majority of mothers at Mbale district took their children for immunization and thus reducing the occurrence of under-five children mortality. Overall, 2.3%, 4.6%, 3.1%, 5.4%, 1.5%, 3.8%, 0.0% and 0.0% of under-five children had polio, tetanus, diphtheria, measles, pertussis, pneumonia, haemophilus influenzae and rotavirus gastroenteritis respectively across all the sub counties at Mbale district during the period considered. Also, different locations (sub counties) do not have significant influence on the occurrence of these eight-child-killer diseases among the under-five children at Mbale district. Therefore, the study recommended that government and agencies should continue to work together to implement measures of vaccination programs and increasing access to basic health care with a continuous improvement on the social interventions to progress child survival.

Keywords: Diseases, Children, Vaccination, Mortality

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