Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Disease Related Abstracts

12 The Effect of Meteorological Factors on the Trap Catches of Culicoides Species

Authors: Ahmed M. Rashed

Abstract:

Culicoides midges are known to be vectors of disease to both man and animals. For providing information necessary for control methods to be applied to the best advantage, a New jersey light-trap was used. Twenty species were identified during this study and eight species were recorded from Chantilly for the first time, these include C.grisescens, C.nubeculosus, C.cubitalis, C.achrayi, C.circumscriptus, C.stigma, C.reconditus, and C.parroti. The environmental factors, wind speed and temperature were found to have a marked effect on the activity of Culicoides midges. The temperature was found to be positively correlated and the wind speed negatively correlated with the light-trap catch. However, humidioty could not be shown to have any effect on the catch.

Keywords: Disease, Wind Speed, meteorological factors, culicoides

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11 Study of Some Epidemiological Factors Influencing the Disease Incidence in Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.)

Authors: Muhammad Asim Nazir

Abstract:

The investigations reported in this manuscript were carried on the screening of one hundred and seventy-eight chickpea germplasm lines/cultivars against wilt disease, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. The screening was conducted in vivo (field) conditions. The field screening was accompanied with the study of some epidemiological factors affecting the occurrence and severity of the disease. Among the epidemiological factors maximum temperature range (28-40°C), minimum temperature range (12-24°C), relative humidity (19-44%), soil temperature (26-41°C) and soil moisture range (19-34°C) was studied for affecting the disease incidence/severity. The results revealed that air temperature was positively correlated with diseases. Soil temperature data revealed that in all cultivars disease incidence was maximum as 39°C. Most of the plants show 40-50% disease incidence. Disease incidence decreased at 33.5°C. The result of correlation of relative humidity of air and wilt incidence revealed that all cultivars/lines were negatively correlated with relative humidity. With increasing relative humidity wilt incidence decreased and vice versa.

Keywords: Disease, Screening, chickpea, epidemiological

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10 Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Molecular Epidemiology: An Overview

Authors: Asho Ali

Abstract:

Tuberculosis is a disease of grave concern which infects one-third of the global population. The high incidence of tuberculosis is further compounded by the increasing emergence of drug resistant strains including multi drug resistant (MDR). Global incidence MDR-TB is ~4%. Molecular epidemiological studies, based on the assumption that patients infected with clustered strains are epidemiologically linked, have helped understand the transmission dynamics of disease. It has also helped to investigate the basis of variation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains, differences in transmission, and severity of disease or drug resistance mechanisms from across the globe. This has helped in developing strategies for the treatment and prevention of the disease including MDR.

Keywords: Disease, Molecular Epidemiology, Drug Resistance, Mycobcaterium tuberculosis

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9 Identification of Healthy and BSR-Infected Oil Palm Trees Using Color Indices

Authors: Idris Abu Seman, Siti Khairunniza-Bejo, Yusnida Yusoff, Nik Salwani Nik Yusoff, Mohamad Izzuddin Anuar

Abstract:

Most of the oil palm plantations have been threatened by Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease which causes serious economic impact. This study was conducted to identify the healthy and BSR-infected oil palm tree using thirteen color indices. Multispectral and thermal camera was used to capture 216 images of the leaves taken from frond number 1, 9 and 17. Indices of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), red (R), green (G), blue (B), near infrared (NIR), green – blue (GB), green/blue (G/B), green – red (GR), green/red (G/R), hue (H), saturation (S), intensity (I) and thermal index (T) were used. From this study, it can be concluded that G index taken from frond number 9 is the best index to differentiate between the healthy and BSR-infected oil palm trees. It not only gave high value of correlation coefficient (R=-0.962), but also high value of separation between healthy and BSR-infected oil palm tree. Furthermore, power and S model developed using G index gave the highest R2 value which is 0.985.

Keywords: Image Processing, Disease, oil palm, leaves

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8 Hydrotherapy with Dual Sensory Impairment (Dsi)-Deaf and Blind

Authors: M. Warburton

Abstract:

Background: Case study examining hydrotherapy for a person with DSI. A 46 year-old lady completely deaf and blind post congenital rubella syndrome. Touch becomes the primary information gathering sense to optimise function in life. Communication is achieved via tactile finger spelling and signals onto her hand and skin. Hydrotherapy may provide a suitable mobility environment and somato-sensory input to people, and especially DSI persons. Buoyancy, warmth, hydrostatic pressure, viscosity and turbulence are elements of hydrotherapy that may offer a DSI person somato-sensory input to stimulate the mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors and proprioceptors and offer a unique hydro-therapeutic environment. Purpose: The purpose of this case study was to establish what measurable benefits could be achieved from hydrotherapy with a DSI person. Methods: Hydrotherapy was provided for 8-weeks, 2 x week, 35-minute session duration. Pool temperature 32.5 degrees centigrade. Pool length 25-metres. Each session consisted of mobility encouragement and supervision, and activities to stimulate the somato-sensory system utilising aquatic properties of buoyancy, turbulence, viscosity, warmth and hydrostatic pressure. Somato-sensory activities focused on stimulating touch and tactile exploration including objects of various shape, size, weight, contour, texture, elasticity, pliability, softness and hardness. Outcomes were measured by the Goal Attainment Scale (GAS) and included mobility distance, attendance, and timed tactile responsiveness to varying objects. Results: Mobility distance and attendance exceeded baseline expectations. Timed tactile responsiveness to varying objects also changed positively from baseline. Average scale scores were 1.00 with an overall GAS t-score of 63.69. Conclusions: Hydrotherapy can be a quantifiable physio-therapeutic option for persons with DSI. It provides a relatively safe environment for mobility and allows the somato-sensory system to be fully engaged - important for the DSI population. Implications: Hydrotherapy can be a measurable therapeutic option for a DSI person. Physiotherapists should consider hydrotherapy for DSI people. Hydrotherapy can offer unique physical properties for the DSI population not available on land.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Disability, Disease, chronic

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7 E-Vet Smart Rapid System: Detection of Farm Disease Based on Expert System as Supporting to Epidemic Disesase Control

Authors: Malik Abdul Jabbar Zen, Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti, Azisya Amalia Karimasari, Novita Priandini

Abstract:

Zoonos is as an infectiontransmitted froma nimals to human sand vice versa currently having increased in the last 20 years. The experts/scientists predict that zoonosis will be a threat to the community in the future since it leads on 70% emerging infectious diseases (EID) and the high mortality of 50%-90%. The zoonosis’ spread from animal to human is caused by contaminated food known as foodborne disease. One World One Health, as the conceptual prevention toward zoonosis, requires the crossed disciplines cooperation to accelerate and streamlinethe handling ofanimal-based disease. E-Vet Smart Rapid System is an integrated innovation in the veterinary expertise application is able to facilitate the prevention, treatment, and educationagainst pandemic diseases and zoonosis. This system is constructed by Decision Support System (DSS) method provides a database of knowledge that is expected to facilitate the identification of disease rapidly, precisely, and accurately as well as to identify the deduction. The testingis conducted through a black box test case and questionnaire (N=30) by validity and reliability approach. Based on the black box test case reveals that E-Vet Rapid System is able to deliver the results in accordance with system design, and questionnaire shows that this system is valid (r > 0.361) and has a reliability (α > 0.3610).

Keywords: Diagnosis, Livestock, Disease, Expert Systems, Zoonosis

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6 The Last of Centuries Old Cardamom Farming in Eastern Nepal: Crop Disease, Coping Strategies and Institutional Innovation

Authors: K. C. Sony

Abstract:

This paper investigates the coping strategies of households confronting disease in large cardamom (Amomum Subulatum Roxb.) in eastern Nepal. Cardamom farmers draw on various coping strategies to reduce the impact of crop disease in their livelihoods. Yet farmers face tremendous decline in production with a constant effort for revival. Past evidences provides dearth of information about coping strategies employed by farmers and institutional intervention to combat disease. Using factual data from Ilam district, and conducting a political economic analysis, this research addresses the gap by 1) understanding the impact of crop disease in farmers’ livelihoods, 2) identifying the coping strategies adopted by farmers and, 3) examining the existing institutional arrangements to address the disease. Coping strategies vary by household’s status defined by size of land, alternative income, and access to supporting institutions. Measures adopted are burning the cardamom field, changing land use pattern, diversifying crops, and visiting institutions for support. The local government’s support is limited to providing trainings and producing new varieties of cardamom. During crisis, farmers expect institutions to help revive the cardamom production, despite customary practice to combat disease. To retain and improve the livelihoods of farmers, there needs to be institutional innovation at the community level and policies that endorse immediate and sustainable support during hazards.

Keywords: Disease, Institutions, Nepal, cardamom, coping strategy

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5 Marker Assisted Selection of Rice Genotypes for Xa5 and Xa13 Bacterial Leaf Blight Resistance Genes

Authors: P. Sindhumole, K. Soumya, R. Renjimol

Abstract:

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the major staple food crop over the world. It is prone to a number of biotic and abiotic stresses, out of which Bacterial Leaf Blight (BLB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, is the most rampant. Management of this disease through chemicals or any other means is very difficult. The best way to control BLB is by the development of Host Plant Resistance. BLB resistance is not an activity of a single gene but it involves a cluster of more than thirty genes reported. Among these, Xa5 and Xa13 genes are two important ones, which can be diagnosed through marker assisted selection using closely linked molecular markers. During 2014, the first phase of field screening using forty traditional rice genotypes was carried out and twenty resistant symptomless genotypes were identified. Molecular characterisation of these genotypes using RM 122 SSR marker revealed the presence of Xa5 gene in thirteen genotypes. Forty-two traditional rice genotypes were used for the second phase of field screening for BLB resistance. Among these, sixteen resistant genotypes were identified. These genotypes, along with two susceptible check genotypes, were subjected to marker assisted selection for Xa13 gene, using the linked STS marker RG-136. During this process, presence of Xa13 gene could be detected in ten resistant genotypes. In future, these selected genotypes can be directly utilised as donors in Marker assisted breeding programmes for BLB resistance in rice.

Keywords: Disease, Breeding, Oryza sativa, SSR, STS, marker

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4 Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Polymorphism and Disease Resistance

Authors: Oguzhan Avci, Oya Bulut, Zafer Bulut, Atilla Simsek

Abstract:

Livestock breeders have focused on the improvement of production traits with little or no attention for improvement of disease resistance traits. In order to determine the association between the genetic structure of the individual gene loci with possibility of the occurrence and the development of diseases, MHC (major histocompatibility complex) are frequently used. Because of their importance in the immune system, MHC locus is considered as candidate genes for resistance/susceptibility against to different diseases. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a critical role in both innate and adaptive immunity and have been considered candidate molecular markers of an association between polymorphisms and resistance/susceptibility to diseases. The purpose of this study is to give some information about MHC genes become an important area of study in recent years in terms of animal husbandry and determine the relation between MHC genes and resistance/susceptibility to disease.

Keywords: Resistance, Disease, Polymorphism, MHC

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3 The Effect of Physical Activity and Responses of Leptin

Authors: M. J. Pourvaghar, Sh. Khoshemehry, M. E. Bahram

Abstract:

In modern life, daily physical activity is relatively reduced, which is why the incidence of some diseases associated with overweight and obesity, such as hypertension, diabetes and other chronic illnesses, even in young people are observed. Obesity and overweight is one of the most common metabolic disorders in industrialized countries and in developing countries. One consequence of pathological obesity is cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. In the past, it was believed that adipose tissue was ineffective and served only for storing triglycerides. In this review article, it was tried to refer to the esteemed scientific sources about physical activity and responses of leptin.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Obesity, Disease, leptin

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2 Phylogenetic Analysis of the Myxosporea Detected from Emaciated Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in Korea

Authors: Seung Min Kim, Lyu Jin Jun, Joon Bum Jeong

Abstract:

The Myxosporea to cause emaciation disease in the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is a pathogen to cause severe losses in the aquafarming industry in Korea. The 3,362 bp of DNA nucleotide sequences of four myxosporean strains (EM-HM-12, EM-MA-13, EM-JJ-14, and EM-MS-15) detected by PCR method from olive flounder suffering from emaciation disease in Korea during 2012-2015 were sequenced and deposited in GenBank database (GenBank accession numbers: KU377574, KT321705, KU377575 and KU377573, respectively). The homologies of DNA nucleotide sequences of four strains were compared to each other and were more than 99.7% homologous between the four strains. All of the strains were identified as Parvicapsula petunia based on the results of phylogenetic analysis. The results in this study would be useful for the research of emaciation disease in olive flounder of Korea.

Keywords: Disease, phylogenetic analysis, olive flounder, emaciation

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1 Prevalence of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei in Shrimp Cultured in Inland Saline Water

Authors: Anuj Tyagi, Naveen Kumar B. T., Shanthanagouda A. H., Sumeet Rai, Prabjeet Singh

Abstract:

Inland saline water resources are gaining the importance in expanding the aquaculture activities to mitigate the nutritional and food security issues of the world. For profitable and sustainable aquaculture practices, scientific farming, biosecurity measure, and best fish health management should be the integral part of developmental activities. Keeping in line with global awareness and trends, the Indian government has taken an innovative step to conduct disease surveillance and awareness programme for aquatic disease through network project. This ‘National Surveillance Programme for Aquatic Animal Diseases (NSPAAD)’ is being implemented in collaboration of national institutes and state agriculture universities with funding support from National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB), Govt. of India. Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (GADVASU), Ludhiana, an NSPAAD collaborator, has been actively engaged in disease surveillance in the Indian state of Punjab. Shrimp farming in inland saline areas of Punjab is expanding at a tremendous pace under the guidance of GADVASU along with the support of State Fisheries Department. Under this national disease surveillance programme, we reported Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) infection in the Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in the inland saline waters. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnosis was carried out using the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) protocol. It was observed that out of 20 shrimp farms, two farms were 1st step PCR positive and two more farms were nested PCR positive. All the EHP positive ponds had shown the white faeces along with mortalities at very low rate. Therefore, implementation of biosecurity and continuous surveillance and monitoring program for finfish and shellfish aquaculture are in need of the hour to prevent and control the large-scale disease outbreaks and subsequent economic losses.

Keywords: Disease, Shrimp Culture, EHP, inland saline water

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