Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

discharge Related Abstracts

5 Detecting Trends in Annual Discharge and Precipitation in the Chott Melghir Basin in Southeastern Algeria

Authors: M. T. Bouziane, A. Benkhaled, B. Achour


In this study, data from 30 catchments in the Chott Melghir basin in the semiarid region of southern East Algeria were analyzed to investigate changes in annual discharge, annual precipitation over the 1965-2005 period. These data were analyzed with the aid of Kendall test trend and regression analysis. The results indicate that the major variations in all catchments discharge in Chott Melghir correspond well to the precipitation. Changes in total annual discharge of Chott Melghir were lower than changes in annual precipitation. Annual precipitation decreased by 66 percent and annual discharge decreased by 4 percent. No significant trend is detected for annual discharge and precipitation at major catchments up to 95% confidence level. The decreasing trend in Chott Melghir discharge is mainly attributed to the decrease of precipitation.

Keywords: Climate Change, Precipitation, Regression analysis, Trends, discharge, Kendall test, Chott Melghir catchments

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4 Comparative Study on Daily Discharge Estimation of Soolegan River

Authors: Redvan Ghasemlounia, Elham Ansari, Hikmet Kerem Cigizoglu


Hydrological modeling in arid and semi-arid regions is very important. Iran has many regions with these climate conditions such as Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province that needs lots of attention with an appropriate management. Forecasting of hydrological parameters and estimation of hydrological events of catchments, provide important information that used for design, management and operation of water resources such as river systems, and dams, widely. Discharge in rivers is one of these parameters. This study presents the application and comparison of some estimation methods such as Feed-Forward Back Propagation Neural Network (FFBPNN), Multi Linear Regression (MLR), Gene Expression Programming (GEP) and Bayesian Network (BN) to predict the daily flow discharge of the Soolegan River, located at Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, in Iran. In this study, Soolegan, station was considered. This Station is located in Soolegan River at 51° 14՜ Latitude 31° 38՜ longitude at North Karoon basin. The Soolegan station is 2086 meters higher than sea level. The data used in this study are daily discharge and daily precipitation of Soolegan station. Feed Forward Back Propagation Neural Network(FFBPNN), Multi Linear Regression (MLR), Gene Expression Programming (GEP) and Bayesian Network (BN) models were developed using the same input parameters for Soolegan's daily discharge estimation. The results of estimation models were compared with observed discharge values to evaluate performance of the developed models. Results of all methods were compared and shown in tables and charts.

Keywords: Forecasting, Bayesian network, ANN, discharge, multi linear regression, gene expression programming

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3 Review of the Safety of Discharge on the First Postoperative Day Following Carotid Surgery: A Retrospective Analysis

Authors: Hansraj Riteesh Bookun, John Yahng


Objective: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study evaluating the safety of discharge on the first postoperative day following carotid surgery - principally carotid endarterectomy. Methods: Between January 2010 to October 2017, 252 patients with mean age of 72 years, underwent carotid surgery by seven surgeons. Their medical records were consulted and their operative as well as complication timelines were databased. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse pooled responses and our indicator variables. The statistical package used was STATA 13. Results: There were 183 males (73%) and the comorbid burden was as follows: ischaemic heart disease (54%), diabetes (38%), hypertension (92%), stage 4 kidney impairment (5%) and current or ex-smoking (77%). The main indications were transient ischaemic attacks (42%), stroke (31%), asymptomatic carotid disease (16%) and amaurosis fugax (8%). 247 carotid endarterectomies (109 with patch arterioplasty, 88 with eversion and transection technique, 50 with endarterectomy only) were performed. 2 carotid bypasses, 1 embolectomy, 1 thrombectomy with patch arterioplasty and 1 excision of a carotid body tumour were also performed. 92% of the cases were performed under general anaesthesia. A shunt was used in 29% of cases. The mean length of stay was 5.1 ± 3.7days with the range of 2 to 22 days. No patient was discharged on day 1. The mean time from admission to surgery was 1.4 ± 2.8 days, ranging from 0 to 19 days. The mean time from surgery to discharge was 2.7 ± 2.0 days with the of range 0 to 14 days. 36 complications were encountered over this period, with 12 failed repairs (5 major strokes, 2 minor strokes, 3 transient ischaemic attacks, 1 cerebral bleed, 1 occluded graft), 11 bleeding episodes requiring a return to the operating theatre, 5 adverse cardiac events, 3 cranial nerve injuries, 2 respiratory complications, 2 wound complications and 1 acute kidney injury. There were no deaths. 17 complications occurred on postoperative day 0, 11 on postoperative day 1, 6 on postoperative day 2 and 2 on postoperative day 3. 78% of all complications happened before the second postoperative day. Out of the complications which occurred on the second or third postoperative day, 4 (1.6%) were bleeding episodes, 1 (0.4%) failed repair , 1 respiratory complication (0.4%) and 1 wound complication (0.4%). Conclusion: Although it has been common practice to discharge patients on the second postoperative day following carotid endarterectomy, we find here that discharge on the first operative day is safe. The overall complication rate is low and most complications are captured before the second postoperative day. We suggest that patients having an uneventful first 24 hours post surgery be discharged on the first day. This should reduce hospital length of stay and the health economic burden.

Keywords: Surgery, discharge, complication, carotid

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2 Chaotic Response of Electrical Insulation System with Gaseous Dielectric under High AC and DC Voltages

Authors: Arijit Basuray


It is well known that if an electrical insulation system is stressed under high voltage then discharge may occur in various form and if the system is made of composite dielectric having interfaces of materials having different dielectric constant discharge may occur due to gross mismatch of dielectric constant causing intense local field in the interfaces. Here author has studied, firstly, behavior of discharges in gaseous dielectric circuit under AC and DC voltages. A gaseous dielectric circuit is made such that a pair of electrode of typical geometry is used to make the discharges occur under application of AC and DC voltages. Later on, composite insulation system with air gap is also studied. Discharge response of the dielectric circuit is measured across a typically designed impedance. The time evolution of the discharge characteristics showed some interesting chaotic behavior. Author here proposed some analysis of such behavior of the discharge pattern and discussed about the possibility of presence of such discharge circuit in lumped electric circuit.

Keywords: Chaos, EIS, discharge, electrical insulation system, composite dielectric

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1 Groundwater Flow Dynamics in Shallow Coastal Plain Sands Aquifer, Abesan Area, Eastern Dahomey Basin, Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Anne Joseph, Yinusa Asiwaju-Bello, Oluwaseun Olabode


Sustainable administration of groundwater resources tapped in Coastal Plain Sands aquifer in Abesan area, Eastern Dahomey Basin, Southwestern Nigeria necessitates the knowledge of the pattern of groundwater flow in meeting a suitable environmental need for habitation. Thirty hand-dug wells were identified and evaluated to study the groundwater flow dynamics and anionic species distribution in the study area. Topography and water table levels method with the aid of Surfer were adopted in the identification of recharge and discharge zones where six recharge and discharge zones were delineated correspondingly. Dissolved anionic species of HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-and NO3- were determined using titrimetric and spectrophotometric method. The trend of significant anionic concentrations of groundwater samples are in the order Cl- > HCO3-> SO42- > NO3-. The prominent anions in the discharge and recharge area are Cl- and HCO3- ranging from 0.22ppm to 3.67ppm and 2.59ppm to 0.72ppm respectively. Analysis of groundwater head distribution and the groundwater flow vector in Abesan area confirmed that Cl- concentration is higher than HCO3- concentration in recharge zones. Conversely, there is a high concentration of HCO3- than Cl- inland towards the continent; therefore, HCO3-concentration in the discharge zones is higher than the Cl- concentration. The anions were to be closely related to the recharge and discharge areas which were confirmed by comparison of activities such as rainfall regime and anthropogenic activities in Abesan area. A large percentage of the samples showed that HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-and NO3- falls within the permissible limit of the W.H.O standard. Most of the samples revealed Cl- / (CO3- + HCO3-) ratio higher than 0.5 indicating that there is saltwater intrusion imprints in the groundwater of the study area. Gibbs plot shown that most of the samples is from rock dominance, some from evaporation dominance and few from precipitation dominance. Potential salinity and SO42/ Cl- ratios signifies that most of the groundwater in Abesan is saline and falls in a water class found to be insuitable for irrigation. Continuous dissolution of these anionic species may pose a significant threat to the inhabitants of Abesan area in the nearest future.

Keywords: Groundwater Flow, discharge, recharge, Abessan, Anionic species

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