Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

direct shear test Related Abstracts

5 Particle Size Effect on Shear Strength of Granular Materials in Direct Shear Test

Authors: R. Alias, A. Kasa, M. R. Taha


The effect of particle size on shear strength of granular materials are investigated using direct shear tests. Small direct shear test (60 mm by 60 mm by 24 mm deep) were conducted for particles passing the sieves with opening size of 2.36 mm. Meanwhile, particles passing the standard 20 mm sieves were tested using large direct shear test (300 mm by 300 mm by 200 mm deep). The large direct shear tests and the small direct shear tests carried out using the same shearing rate of 0.09 mm/min and similar normal stresses of 100, 200, and 300 kPa. The results show that the peak and residual shear strength decreases as particle size increases.

Keywords: Shear Strength, particle size, granular material, direct shear test

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4 Experimental Determination of Shear Strength Properties of Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregates Using Direct Shear and Triaxial Tests

Authors: Mahsa Shafaei Bajestani, Mahmoud Yazdani, Aliakbar Golshani


Artificial lightweight aggregates have a wide range of applications in industry and engineering. Nowadays, the usage of this material in geotechnical activities, especially as backfill in retaining walls has been growing due to the specific characteristics which make it a competent alternative to the conventional geotechnical materials. In practice, a material with lower weight but higher shear strength parameters would be ideal as backfill behind retaining walls because of the important roles that these parameters play in decreasing the overall active lateral earth pressure. In this study, two types of Light Expanded Clay Aggregates (LECA) produced in the Leca factory are investigated. LECA is made in a rotary kiln by heating natural clay at different temperatures up to 1200 °C making quasi-spherical aggregates with different sizes ranged from 0 to 25 mm. The loose bulk density of these aggregates is between 300 and 700 kN/m3. The purpose of this research is to determine the stress-strain behavior, shear strength parameters, and the energy absorption of LECA materials. Direct shear tests were conducted at five normal stresses of 25, 50, 75, 100, and 200 kPa. In addition, conventional triaxial compression tests were operated at confining pressures of 50, 100, and 200 kPa to examine stress-strain behavior. The experimental results show a high internal angle of friction and even a considerable amount of nominal cohesion despite the granular structure of LECA. These desirable properties along with the intrinsic low density of these aggregates make LECA as a very proper material in geotechnical applications. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that lightweight aggregates may have high energy absorption that is excellent alternative material in seismic isolations.

Keywords: Energy Absorption, triaxial test, shear properties, direct shear test, expanded clay

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3 Study on the Effects of Grassroots Characteristics on Reinforced Soil Performance by Direct Shear Test

Authors: Zhanbo Cheng, Xueyu Geng


Vegetation slope protection technique is economic, aesthetic and practical. Herbs are widely used in practice because of rapid growth, strong erosion resistance, obvious slope protection and simple method, in which the root system of grass plays a very important role. In this paper, through changing the variables value of grassroots quantity, grassroots diameter, grassroots length and grassroots reinforce layers, the direct shear tests were carried out to discuss the change of shear strength indexes of grassroots reinforced soil under different reinforce situations, and analyse the effects of grassroots characteristics on reinforced soil performance. The laboratory test results show that: (1) in the certain number of grassroots diameter, grassroots length and grassroots reinforce layers, the value of shear strength, and cohesion first increase and then reduce with the increasing of grassroots quantity; (2) in the certain number of grassroots quantity, grassroots length and grassroots reinforce layers, the value of shear strength and cohesion rise with the increasing of grassroots diameter; (3) in the certain number of grassroots diameter, and grassroots reinforce layers, the value of shear strength and cohesion raise with the increasing of grassroots length in a certain range of grassroots quantity, while the value of shear strength and cohesion first rise and then decline with the increasing of grassroots length when the grassroots quantity reaches a certain value; (4) in the certain number of grassroots quantity, grassroots diameter, and grassroots length, the value of shear strength and cohesion first climb and then decline with the increasing of grassroots reinforced layers; (5) the change of internal friction angle is small in different parameters of grassroots. The research results are of importance for understanding the mechanism of vegetation protection for slopes and determining the parameters of grass planting.

Keywords: Reinforced Soil, direct shear test, grassroots characteristics, shear strength indexes

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2 Shear Strength Characterization of Coal Mine Spoil in Very-High Dumps with Large Scale Direct Shear Testing

Authors: Leonie Bradfield, Stephen Fityus, John Simmons


The shearing behavior of current and planned coal mine spoil dumps up to 400m in height is studied using large-sample-high-stress direct shear tests performed on a range of spoils common to the coalfields of Eastern Australia. The motivation for the study is to address industry concerns that some constructed spoil dump heights ( > 350m) are exceeding the scale ( ≤ 120m) for which reliable design information exists, and because modern geotechnical laboratories are not equipped to test representative spoil specimens at field-scale stresses. For more than two decades, shear strength estimation for spoil dumps has been based on either infrequent, very small-scale tests where oversize particles are scalped to comply with device specimen size capacity such that the influence of prototype-sized particles on shear strength is not captured; or on published guidelines that provide linear shear strength envelopes derived from small-scale test data and verified in practice by slope performance of dumps up to 120m in height. To date, these published guidelines appear to have been reliable. However, in the field of rockfill dam design there is a broad acceptance of a curvilinear shear strength envelope, and if this is applicable to coal mine spoils, then these industry-accepted guidelines may overestimate the strength and stability of dumps at higher stress levels. The pressing need to rationally define the shearing behavior of more representative spoil specimens at field-scale stresses led to the successful design, construction and operation of a large direct shear machine (LDSM) and its subsequent application to provide reliable design information for current and planned very-high dumps. The LDSM can test at a much larger scale, in terms of combined specimen size (720mm x 720mm x 600mm) and stress (σn up to 4.6MPa), than has ever previously been achieved using a direct shear machine for geotechnical testing of rockfill. The results of an extensive LDSM testing program on a wide range of coal-mine spoils are compared to a published framework that widely accepted by the Australian coal mining industry as the standard for shear strength characterization of mine spoil. A critical outcome is that the LDSM data highlights several non-compliant spoils, and stress-dependent shearing behavior, for which the correct application of the published framework will not provide reliable shear strength parameters for design. Shear strength envelopes developed from the LDSM data are also compared with dam engineering knowledge, where failure envelopes of rockfills are curved in a concave-down manner. The LDSM data indicates that shear strength envelopes for coal-mine spoils abundant with rock fragments are not in fact curved and that the shape of the failure envelope is ultimately determined by the strength of rock fragments. Curvilinear failure envelopes were found to be appropriate for soil-like spoils containing minor or no rock fragments, or hard-soil aggregates.

Keywords: Large Scale, Shear Strength, direct shear test, coal mine, mine spoil, high dump, spoil dump

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1 Effect of Silt Presence on Shear Strength Parameters of Unsaturated Sandy Soils

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, E. Khavaninzadeh, M. Ghorbani Tochaee


Direct shear test is widely used in soil mechanics experiment to determine the shear strength parameters of granular soils. For analysis of soil stability problems such as bearing capacity, slope stability and lateral pressure on soil retaining structures, the shear strength parameters must be known well. In the present study, shear strength parameters are determined in silty-sand mixtures. Direct shear tests are performed on 161 Firoozkooh sand with different silt content at a relative density of 70% in three vertical stress of 100, 150, and 200 kPa. Wet tamping method is used for soil sample preparation, and the results include diagrams of shear stress versus shear deformation and sample height changes against shear deformation. Accordingly, in different silt percent, the shear strength parameters of the soil such as internal friction angle and dilation angle are calculated and compared. According to the results, when the sample contains up to 10% silt, peak shear strength and internal friction angle have an upward trend. However, if the sample contains 10% to 50% of silt a downward trend is seen in peak shear strength and internal friction angle.

Keywords: silty sand, direct shear test, shear deformation, shear stress, shear strength parameters

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