Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

dilution Related Abstracts

5 Experimental Measurements for the Effect of Dilution Procedure in Blood Esterases as Animals Biomarker for Exposure to Organophosphate Compounds

Authors: Kasim Sakran Abass


This main aim of this study was to confirm and extend our current knowledge about the effects of dilutions on esterases activities in the blood for birds with respect to protecting the enzyme from organophosphate inhibition. There were significantly higher esterases activities in dilution 1:10 in all blood samples from quail, duck, and chick compared to other dilutions (1:5, 1:15, 1:20, and 1:25). Furthermore, our results also pointed to the importance of estimating different dilutions effects prior to using in birds as biomarker tools of environmental exposure. Concentration–inhibition curves were determined for the inhibitor in the presence of dilutions 1:5, 1:10 plus 1:15 (to stimulate carboxylesterase). Point estimates (concentrations calculated to produce 20, 50, and 80% inhibition) were compared across conditions and served as a measure of esterase-mediated detoxification. Among the thiol esters (dilution 1:5) was observed to have the highest specificity constant (kcat/Km), and the Km and kcat values were 176 μM and 16,765 s−1, respectively for S-phenyl thioacetate ester, while detected in (dilution 1:15) the lowest specificity constant (kcat/Km), and the Km and kcat values were 943 μM and 1154 s−1, respectively for acetylthiocholine iodide ester.

Keywords: Animal, Pesticides, esterase, dilution

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4 Evaluation of High Temperature Wear Performance of as Cladded and Tig Re-Melting Stellite 6 Cladded Overlay on Aisi-304L Using SMAW Process

Authors: Manjit Singha, Sandeep Singh Sandhu, A. S. Shahi


Stellite 6 is cobalt based superalloy used for protective coatings. It is used to improve the wear performance of stainless steel engineering components subjected to harsh environmental conditions. This paper reports the high temperature wear analysis of satellite 6 cladded on AISI 304 L substrate using SMAW process. Bead on plate experiment was carried out by varying current and electrode manipulation techniques to optimize the dilution and hardness. 80 Amp current and weaving technique was found to be the optimum set of parameters for overlaying which were further used for multipass multilayer cladding on two plates of AISI 304 L substrate. On the first plate, seven layers seven passes of stellite 6 was overlaid which was used in as cladded form and the second plate was overlaid with five layers five passes of satellite 6 with further TIG remelting. The wear performance was examined for normal temperature environmental condition and harsh temperature environmental condition. The satellite 6 coating with TIG remelting was found to be better in both the conditions even with lesser metal deposition due to its finer grain structure.

Keywords: micro-hardness, dilution, surfacing, stellite 6, overlay, SMAW, high-temperature frictional wear, micro-structure

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3 Wear Performance of Stellite 21 Cladded Overlay on Aisi 304L

Authors: Sandeep Singh Sandhua, Karanvir Singh Ghuman, Arun Kumar


Stellite 21 is cobalt based super alloy used in improving the wear performance of stainless steel engineering components subjected to harsh environmental conditions. This piece of research focuses on the wear analysis of satellite 21 cladded on AISI 304 L substrate using SMAW process. Bead on plate experiments were carried out by varying current and electrode manipulation techniques to optimize the dilution and microhardness. 80 Amp current and weaving technique was found to be optimum set of parameters for overlaying which were further used for multipass multilayer cladding of AISI 304 L substrate. The wear performance was examined on pin on dics wear testing machine under room temperature conditions. The results from this study show that Stellite 21 overlays show a significant improvement in the frictional wear resistance after TIG remelting. It is also established that low dilution procedures are important in controlling the metallurgical composition of these overlays which has a consequent effect in enhancing hardness and wear resistance of these overlays.

Keywords: micro-hardness, dilution, surfacing, SMAW, stellite 21, frictional wear

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2 Ni-Based Hardfacing Alloy Reinforced with Fused Eutectic Tungsten Carbide Deposited on Infiltrated WC-W-Ni Substrate by Oxyacetylene Welding

Authors: D. Miroud, H. Mokaddem, M. Tata, N. Foucha


The body of PDC (polycrystalline diamond compact) drill bit can be manufactured from two different materials, steel and tungsten carbide matrix. Commonly the steel body is produced by machining, thermal spraying a bonding layer and hardfacing of Ni-based matrix reinforced with fused eutectic tungsten carbide (WC/W2C). The matrix body bit is manufactured by infiltrating tungsten carbide particles, with a Copper binary or ternary alloy. By erosion-corrosion mechanisms, the PDC drill bits matrix undergoes severe damage, occurring particularly around the PDC inserts and near injection nozzles. In this study, we investigated the possibility to repair the damaged matrix regions by hardfacing technic. Ni-based hardfacing alloy reinforced with fused eutectic tungsten carbide is deposited on infiltrated WC-W-Ni substrate by oxyacetylene welding (OAW). The microstructure at the hardfacing / matrix interface is characterized by SEM- EDS, XRD and micro hardness Hv0.1. The hardfacing conditions greatly affect the dilution phenomenon and the distribution of carbides at the interface, without formation of transition zone. During OAW welding deposition, interdiffusion of atoms occurs: Cu and Sn diffuse from infiltrated matrix substrate into hardfacing and simultaneously Cr and Si alloy elements from hardfacing diffuse towards the substrate. The dilution zone consists of a nickel-rich phase with a heterogeneous distribution of eutectic spherical (Ni-based hardfacing alloy) and irregular (matrix) WC/W2C carbides and a secondary phase rich in Cr-W-Si. Hardfacing conditions cause the dissolution of banding around both spherical and irregular carbides. The micro-hardness of interface is significantly improved by the presence of secondary phase in the inter-dendritic structure.

Keywords: Dissolution, dilution, hardfacing, infiltrated matrix, PDC drill bits

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1 Representational Issues in Learning Solution Chemistry at Secondary School

Authors: Lam Pham, Peter Hubber, Russell Tytler


Students’ conceptual understandings of chemistry concepts/phenomena involve capability to coordinate across the three levels of Johnston’s triangle model. This triplet model is based on reasoning about chemical phenomena across macro, sub-micro and symbolic levels. In chemistry education, there is a need for further examining inquiry-based approaches that enhance students’ conceptual learning and problem solving skills. This research adopted a directed inquiry pedagogy based on students constructing and coordinating representations, to investigate senior school students’ capabilities to flexibly move across Johnston’ levels when learning dilution and molar concentration concepts. The participants comprise 50 grade 11 and 20 grade 10 students and 4 chemistry teachers who were selected from 4 secondary schools located in metropolitan Melbourne, Victoria. This research into classroom practices used ethnographic methodology, involved teachers working collaboratively with the research team to develop representational activities and lesson sequences in the instruction of a unit on solution chemistry. The representational activities included challenges (Representational Challenges-RCs) that used ‘representational tools’ to assist students to move across Johnson’s three levels for dilution phenomena. In this report, the ‘representational tool’ called ‘cross and portion’ model was developed and used in teaching and learning the molar concentration concept. Students’ conceptual understanding and problem solving skills when learning with this model are analysed through group case studies of year 10 and 11 chemistry students. In learning dilution concepts, students in both group case studies actively conducted a practical experiment, used their own language and visualisation skills to represent dilution phenomena at macroscopic level (RC1). At the sub-microscopic level, students generated and negotiated representations of the chemical interactions between solute and solvent underpinning the dilution process. At the symbolic level, students demonstrated their understandings about dilution concepts by drawing chemical structures and performing mathematical calculations. When learning molar concentration with a ‘cross and portion’ model (RC2), students coordinated across visual and symbolic representational forms and Johnson’s levels to construct representations. The analysis showed that in RC1, Year 10 students needed more ‘scaffolding’ in inducing to representations to explicit the form and function of sub-microscopic representations. In RC2, Year 11 students showed clarity in using visual representations (drawings) to link to mathematics to solve representational challenges about molar concentration. In contrast, year 10 students struggled to get match up the two systems, symbolic system of mole per litre (‘cross and portion’) and visual representation (drawing). These conceptual problems do not lie in the students’ mathematical calculation capability but rather in students’ capability to align visual representations with the symbolic mathematical formulations. This research also found that students in both group case studies were able to coordinate representations when probed about the use of ‘cross and portion’ model (in RC2) to demonstrate molar concentration of diluted solutions (in RC1). Students mostly succeeded in constructing ‘cross and portion’ models to represent the reduction of molar concentration of the concentration gradients. In conclusion, this research demonstrated how the strategic introduction and coordination of chemical representations across modes and across the macro, sub-micro and symbolic levels, supported student reasoning and problem solving in chemistry.

Keywords: Representations, dilution, cross and portion, Johnston's triangle, molar concentration

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