Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Digitization Related Abstracts

13 An Assessment of Drainage Network System in Nigeria Urban Areas using Geographical Information Systems: A Case Study of Bida, Niger State

Authors: Yusuf Hussaini Atulukwu, Daramola Japheth, Tabitit S. Tabiti, Daramola Elizabeth Lara

Abstract:

In view of the recent limitations faced by the township concerning poorly constructed and in some cases non - existence of drainage facilities that resulted into incessant flooding in some parts of the community poses threat to life,property and the environment. The research seeks to address this issue by showing the spatial distribution of drainage network in Bida Urban using Geographic information System techniques. Relevant features were extracted from existing Bida based Map using un-screen digitization and x, y, z, data of existing drainages were acquired using handheld Global Positioning System (GPS). These data were uploaded into ArcGIS 9.2, software, and stored in the relational database structure that was used to produce the spatial data drainage network of the township. The result revealed that about 40 % of the drainages are blocked with sand and refuse, 35 % water-logged as a result of building across erosion channels and dilapidated bridges as a result of lack of drainage along major roads. The study thus concluded that drainage network systems in Bida community are not in good working condition and urgent measures must be initiated in order to avoid future disasters especially with the raining season setting in. Based on the above findings, the study therefore recommends that people within the locality should avoid dumping municipal waste within the drainage path while sand blocked or weed blocked drains should be clear by the authority concerned. In the same vein the authority should ensured that contract of drainage construction be awarded to professionals and all the natural drainages caused by erosion should be addressed to avoid future disasters.

Keywords: Waste, Spatial, Digitization, relational database, drainage network

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12 Hacking the Spatial Limitations in Bridging Virtual and Traditional Teaching Methodologies in Sri Lanka

Authors: Manuela Nayantara Jeyaraj

Abstract:

Having moved into the 21st century, it is way past being arguable that innovative technology needs to be incorporated into conventional classroom teaching. Though the Western world has found presumable success in achieving this, it is still a concept under battle in developing countries such as Sri Lanka. Reaching the acme of implementing interactive virtual learning within classrooms is a struggling idealistic fascination within the island. In order to overcome this problem, this study is set to reveal facts that limit the implementation of virtual, interactive learning within the school classrooms and provide hacks that could prove the augmented use of the Virtual World to enhance teaching and learning experiences. As each classroom moves along with the usage of technology to fulfill its functionalities, a few intense hacks provided will build the administrative onuses on a virtual system. These hacks may divulge barriers based on social conventions, financial boundaries, digital literacy, intellectual capacity of the staff, and highlight the impediments in introducing students to an interactive virtual learning environment and thereby provide the necessary actions or changes to be made to succeed and march along in creating an intellectual society built on virtual learning and lifestyle. This digital learning environment will be composed of multimedia presentations, trivia and pop quizzes conducted on a GUI, assessments conducted via a virtual system, records maintained on a database, etc. The ultimate objective of this study could enhance every child's basic learning environment; hence, diminishing the digital divide that exists in certain communities.

Keywords: Digital Divide, Digitization, Digital Learning, Sri Lanka, teaching methodologies

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11 Digitization of European SMEs in Tourism and Hospitality: The Case of Greek Hoteliers

Authors: Joanna K. Konstantinou

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to explore the need of small and medium-sized businesses in tourism and hospitality industry to adopt technology and enhance their degree of digitalization, along with the main benefits enjoyed by technology and the main challenges that hinder its adoption. Within a hermeneutic phenomenological perspective, semi-structured interviews were conducted with three hotel owners and the focus was to identify the main reasons of adoption of technology, enablers and barriers. The findings were grouped with the goal of identifying typology of business practices in using and adopting technology.

Keywords: Challenges, Tourism and Hospitality, Digitization, SMEs, benefits

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10 Conceptualizing the Knowledge to Manage and Utilize Data Assets in the Context of Digitization: Case Studies of Multinational Industrial Enterprises

Authors: Martin Böhmer, Agatha Dabrowski, Boris Otto

Abstract:

The trend of digitization significantly changes the role of data for enterprises. Data turn from an enabler to an intangible organizational asset that requires management and qualifies as a tradeable good. The idea of a networked economy has gained momentum in the data domain as collaborative approaches for data management emerge. Traditional organizational knowledge consequently needs to be extended by comprehensive knowledge about data. The knowledge about data is vital for organizations to ensure that data quality requirements are met and data can be effectively utilized and sovereignly governed. As this specific knowledge has been paid little attention to so far by academics, the aim of the research presented in this paper is to conceptualize it by proposing a “data knowledge model”. Relevant model entities have been identified based on a design science research (DSR) approach that iteratively integrates insights of various industry case studies and literature research.

Keywords: Knowledge Engineering, Data Management, Digitization, Industry 4.0, metamodel

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9 Mastering Digitization: A Quality-Adapted Digital Transformation Model

Authors: Franziska Schaefer, Marlene Kuhn, Heiner Otten

Abstract:

In the very near future, digitization will be the main challenge a company has to master to survive in a highly competitive market. Developing the right transformation strategy by considering all relevant aspects determines the success or failure of a company. Especially the digital focus on the customer plays a key role in creating sustainable competitive advantages, also leading to new tasks within the quality management. Therefore, quality management needs to be particularly addressed to support the upcoming digital change. In this paper, we present an analysis of existing digital transformation approaches and derive a transformation strategy from a quality management perspective. We identify and classify different transformation dimensions and assess their relevance to quality management tasks, resulting in a quality-adapted digital transformation model. Furthermore, we introduce applicable and customized quality management methods to support the presented digital transformation tasks. With our developed model we provide a digital transformation guideline from a quality perspective to master future disruptive changes.

Keywords: Quality management, Strategy, Digitization, Digital transformation

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8 Digitization and Morphometric Characterization of Botanical Collection of Indian Arid Zones as Informatics Initiatives Addressing Conservation Issues in Climate Change Scenario

Authors: Dipankar Saha, J. P. Singh, C. B. Pandey

Abstract:

Indian Thar desert being the seventh largest in the world is the main hot sand desert occupies nearly 385,000km2 and about 9% of the area of the country harbours several species likely the flora of 682 species (63 introduced species) belonging to 352 genera and 87 families. The degree of endemism of plant species in the Thar desert is 6.4 percent, which is relatively higher than the degree of endemism in the Sahara desert which is very significant for the conservationist to envisage. The advent and development of computer technology for digitization and data base management coupled with the rapidly increasing importance of biodiversity conservation resulted in the invention of biodiversity informatics as discipline of basic sciences with multiple applications. Aichi Target 19 as an outcome of Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD) specifically mandates the development of an advanced and shared biodiversity knowledge base. Information on species distributions in space is the crux of effective management of biodiversity in the rapidly changing world. The efficiency of biodiversity management is being increased rapidly by various stakeholders like researchers, policymakers, and funding agencies with the knowledge and application of biodiversity informatics. Herbarium specimens being a vital repository for biodiversity conservation especially in climate change scenario the digitization process usually aims to improve access and to preserve delicate specimens and in doing so creating large sets of images as a part of the existing repository as arid plant information facility for long-term future usage. As the leaf characters are important for describing taxa and distinguishing between them and they can be measured from herbarium specimens as well. As a part of this activity, laminar characterization (leaves being the most important characters in assessing climate change impact) initially resulted in classification of more than thousands collections belonging to ten families like Acanthaceae, Aizoaceae, Amaranthaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Anacardeaceae, Apocynaceae, Asteraceae, Aristolochiaceae, Berseraceae and Bignoniaceae etc. Taxonomic diversity indices has also been worked out being one of the important domain of biodiversity informatics approaches. The digitization process also encompasses workflows which incorporate automated systems to enable us to expand and speed up the digitisation process. The digitisation workflows used to be on a modular system which has the potential to be scaled up. As they are being developed with a geo-referencing tool and additional quality control elements and finally placing specimen images and data into a fully searchable, web-accessible database. Our effort in this paper is to elucidate the role of BIs, present effort of database development of the existing botanical collection of institute repository. This effort is expected to be considered as a part of various global initiatives having an effective biodiversity information facility. This will enable access to plant biodiversity data that are fit-for-use by scientists and decision makers working on biodiversity conservation and sustainable development in the region and iso-climatic situation of the world.

Keywords: Climate Change, Digitization, Biodiversity Informatics, herbarium, laminar characters, web accessible interface

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7 Smart Development Proposals for an Indian Village

Authors: J. E. M. Macwan, D. A. Pastagia, Reeta Meena

Abstract:

Government of Gujarat (India) wishes to create smart villages to improve the quality of life. The significance of these efforts will result into higher rural productivity. The main aim of this research is to identify, design and propose implementable planning solutions suited for an Indian village set up. The methodology adopted is to create a database by conducting onsite study as well as gathering public opinion to help researchers to satisfy rural needs. The outcome of this research exercise is a planning design preparation and channelizing funds in right direction for a result oriented better village shape. The proposals are accepted after slight modifications by the stakeholders. Planning solutions were designed through public participatory approach. To control rural Urban migration, villagers were offered better quality of life.

Keywords: Digitization, smart village, development plan, gram panchayats

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6 The Essence and Attribution of Intellectual Property Rights Generated in the Digitization of Intangible Cultural Heritage

Authors: Jiarong Zhang

Abstract:

Digitizing intangible cultural heritage is a complex and comprehensive process from which sorts of intellectual property rights may be generated. Digitizing may be a repacking process of cultural heritage, which creates copyrights; recording folk songs and indigenous performances can create 'related rights'. At the same time, digitizing intangible cultural heritage may infringe the intellectual property rights of others unintentionally. Recording religious rituals of indigenous communities without authorization can violate the moral right of the ceremony participants of the community; making digital copies of rock paintings may infringe the right of reproduction. In addition, several parties are involved in the digitization process: indigenous peoples, museums, and archives can be holders of cultural heritage; companies and research institutions can be technology providers; internet platforms can be promoters and sellers; the public and groups above can be beneficiaries. When diverse intellectual property rights versus various parties, problems and disputes can arise easily. What are the types of intellectual property rights generated in the digitization process? What is the essence of these rights? Who should these rights belong to? How to use intellectual property to protect the digitalization of cultural heritage? How to avoid infringing on the intellectual property rights of others? While the digitization has been regarded as an effective approach to preserve intangible cultural heritage, related intellectual property issues have not received the attention and full discussion. Thus, parties involving in the digitization process may face intellectual property infringement lawsuits. The article will explore those problems from the intersection perspective of intellectual property law and cultural heritage. From a comparative approach, the paper will analysis related legal documents and cases, and shed some lights of those questions listed. The findings show, although there are no intellectual property laws targeting the cultural heritage in most countries, the involved stakeholders can seek protection from existing intellectual property rights following the suggestions of the article. The research will contribute to the digitization of intangible cultural heritage from a legal and policy aspect.

Keywords: Intellectual Property, Digitization, Copyright, Intangible cultural heritage, internet platforms

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5 Impact of Digitization and Diversification in Reducing Volatility in Art Markets

Authors: Nishi Malhotra

Abstract:

Art has developed as a mode of investment and saving. Art and culture of any nation is the source of foreign direct investment (FDI) generation and growth development. Several intermediaries and skill-building organizations thrive on at and culture for their earnings. Indian art market has grown to Rs. 2000 Crores. Art establishment houses access to privileged information is the main reason for arbitrariness and volatility in the market. The commercialization of art and development of the markets with refinement in the taste of the customers have led to the development of art as an investment avenue. Investors keen on investing in these products can do so, and earnings from art are taxable too, like any other capital asset. This research paper is aimed at exploring the role of art and culture as an investment avenue in India and reasons for increasing volatilities in the art market. Based on an extensive literature review and secondary research, a benchmarking study has been conducted to capture the growth of the art as an investment avenue. These studies indicate that during the financial crisis of 2008-10, the art emerged as an alternative investment avenue. The paper aims at discussing the financial engineering of various art funds and instruments. Based on secondary data available from Sotheby’s, Christies, Bonham, there is a positive correlation between strategic diversification and increasing return in the Art market. Similarly, digitization has led to disintermediation in the art markets and also helped to increase the market base. The data clearly enumerates the growing interest of the Indian investor towards art as an investment option. Much like any other broad asset class, art market too thrives on excess returns provided by diversification. Many financial intermediaries and art funds have emerged, to offer valuable investment planning advisory to a genuine investor. This paper clearly highlights the increasing returns of strategic diversification and its impact on reducing volatility in the art markets. Moreover, with coming up of e-auctions and websites, investors are able to analyse art more objectively. Digitization and commercialization of art have definitely helped in reducing volatility in world art markets.

Keywords: Art, Digitization, diversification, investment avenue

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4 A Case Study of the Digital Translation of the Lucy Lloyd and Wilhelm Bleek |Xam and !Kun Notebooks into The Digital Bleek and Lloyd

Authors: F. Saptouw

Abstract:

This paper will examine the digitization process of the |Xam and !Kun notebooks, authored by Lucy Lloyd, Dorothea Bleek and Wilhelm Bleek, and their collaborators |a!kunta, ||kabbo, ≠kasin, Dia!kwain, !kweiten ta ||ken, |han≠kass'o, !nanni, Tamme, |uma, and Da during the 19th century. Detail will be provided about the status of the archive, the creation of the digital archive and selected research projects linked to the archive. The Digital Bleek and Lloyd project is an example of institutional collaboration by the University of Cape Town, University of South Africa, Iziko South African Museum, the National Library of South Africa and the Western Cape Provincial Archives and Records Service. The contemporary value of the archive will be discussed in relation to its current manifestation as a collection of archival and digital objects, each with its own set of properties and archival risk factors. This tension between the two ways to access the archive will be interrogated to shed light on the slippages between the digital object and the archival object. The primary argument is that the process of digitization generates an ontological shift in the status of the archival object. The secondary argument is an engagement with practices to curate the encounters with these ontologically shifted objects and how to relate to each as a contemporary viewer. In conclusion this paper will argue for regarding these archival objects according to the interpretive framework utilized to engage secular relics.

Keywords: Digitization, archive, curatorship, museum practice

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3 Systematic Mapping Study of Digitization and Analysis of Manufacturing Data

Authors: R. Clancy, M. Ahern, D. O’Sullivan, K. Bruton

Abstract:

The manufacturing industry is currently undergoing a digital transformation as part of the mega-trend Industry 4.0. As part of this phase of the industrial revolution, traditional manufacturing processes are being combined with digital technologies to achieve smarter and more efficient production. To successfully digitally transform a manufacturing facility, the processes must first be digitized. This is the conversion of information from an analogue format to a digital format. The objective of this study was to explore the research area of digitizing manufacturing data as part of the worldwide paradigm, Industry 4.0. The formal methodology of a systematic mapping study was utilized to capture a representative sample of the research area and assess its current state. Specific research questions were defined to assess the key benefits and limitations associated with the digitization of manufacturing data. Research papers were classified according to the type of research and type of contribution to the research area. Upon analyzing 54 papers identified in this area, it was noted that 23 of the papers originated in Germany. This is an unsurprising finding as Industry 4.0 is originally a German strategy with supporting strong policy instruments being utilized in Germany to support its implementation. It was also found that the Fraunhofer Institute for Mechatronic Systems Design, in collaboration with the University of Paderborn in Germany, was the most frequent contributing Institution of the research papers with three papers published. The literature suggested future research directions and highlighted one specific gap in the area. There exists an unresolved gap between the data science experts and the manufacturing process experts in the industry. The data analytics expertise is not useful unless the manufacturing process information is utilized. A legitimate understanding of the data is crucial to perform accurate analytics and gain true, valuable insights into the manufacturing process. There lies a gap between the manufacturing operations and the information technology/data analytics departments within enterprises, which was borne out by the results of many of the case studies reviewed as part of this work. To test the concept of this gap existing, the researcher initiated an industrial case study in which they embedded themselves between the subject matter expert of the manufacturing process and the data scientist. Of the papers resulting from the systematic mapping study, 12 of the papers contributed a framework, another 12 of the papers were based on a case study, and 11 of the papers focused on theory. However, there were only three papers that contributed a methodology. This provides further evidence for the need for an industry-focused methodology for digitizing and analyzing manufacturing data, which will be developed in future research.

Keywords: Manufacturing, Analytics, Digitization, Industry 4.0

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2 An Era of Arts: Examining Intersection of Technology and Museums

Authors: Vivian Li

Abstract:

With the rapid development of technology, virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) are becoming increasingly prominent in our lives. Museums have led the way in digitization, offering their collections to the wider public through the open internet, which is dramatically changing our experience of art. Technology is also being implemented into our physical art-viewing experience, enabling museums to capture historical sites while creating a more immersive experience for patrons. This study takes a qualitative approach, examining secondary sources and synthesizing information from interviews with field professionals to answer the question: to what extent is the contemporary perception of art transformed by the digitization of art museums? The findings establish that museums are becoming increasingly open with their collections, utilizing digitization to spread their intellectual content to people worldwide and to diversify their audiences. The use of VR and AR is also enabling museums to preserve and showcase historical artifacts and sites in a more interactive and user-focused way. Technology is also crafting new forms of art and art museums. Ultimately, the intersection of technology and museums is not changing the definition of art but rather offering new modes for the public to experience and learn about arts and history.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Art, Technology, Digitization, Museums

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1 When Digital Innovation Augments Cultural Heritage: An Innovation from Tradition Story

Authors: Danilo Pesce, Emilio Paolucci, Mariolina Affatato

Abstract:

Looking at the future and at the post-digital era, innovations commonly tend to dismiss the old and replace it with the new. The aim of this research is to study the role that digital innovation can play alongside the information chain within the traditional sectors and the subsequent value creation opportunities that actors and stakeholders can exploit. By drawing on a wide body of literature on innovation and strategic management and by conducting a case study on the cultural heritage industry, namely Google Arts & Culture, this study shows that technology augments complements, and amplifies the way people experience their cultural interests and experience. Furthermore, the study shows a process of democratization of art since museums can exploit new digital and virtual ways to distribute art globally. Moreover, new needs arose from the 2020 pandemic that hit and forced the world to a state of cultural fasting and caused a radical transformation of the paradigm online vs. onsite. Finally, the study highlights the capabilities that are emerging at different stages of the value chain, owing to the technological innovation available in the market. In essence, this research underlines the role of Google in allowing museums to reach users worldwide, thus unlocking new mechanisms of value creation in the cultural heritage industry. Likewise, this study points out how Google provides value to users by means of increasing the provision of artworks, improving the audience engagement and virtual experience, and providing new ways to access the online contents. The paper ends with a discussion of managerial and policy-making implications.

Keywords: Big Data, Digitization, Digital transformation, digital platforms, Google Arts and Culture, stakeholders’ interests

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