Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Digitalization Related Abstracts

13 Digital Preservation in Nigeria Universities Libraries: A Comparison between University of Nigeria Nsukka and Ahmadu Bello University Zaria

Authors: Suleiman Musa, Shuaibu Sidi Safiyanu


This study examined the digital preservation in Nigeria university libraries. A comparison between the university of Nigeria Nsukka (UNN) and Ahmadu Bello University Zaria (ABU, Zaria). The study utilized primary source of data obtained from two selected institution librarians. Finding revealed varying results in terms of skills acquired by librarians before and after digitization of the two institutions. The study reports that journals publication, text book, CD-ROMS, conference papers and proceedings, theses, dissertations and seminar papers are among the information resources available for digitization. The study further documents that copyright issue, power failure, and unavailability of needed materials are among the challenges facing the digitization of library of the institution. On the basis of the finding, the study concluded that digitization of library enhances efficiency in organization and retrieval of information services. The study therefore recommended that software should be upgraded with backup, training of the librarians on digital process, installation of antivirus and enhancement of technical collaboration between the library and MIS.

Keywords: Libraries, Preservation, Digitalization, comparison

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12 Drivers of Digital Product Innovation in Firms: An Empirical Study of Technological, Organizational, and Environmental Factors

Authors: Anne Theresa Eidhoff, Sarah E. Stief, Markus Voeth, Sarah Gundlach


With digitalization increasingly changing the rules of competition, firms face the need to adapt and assimilate digital technologies in order to remain competitive. Firms can choose from various possibilities to integrate digital technologies including the option to embed digital technologies aiming to innovate products or to develop digital products. However, the question of which specific factors influence a firm’s decision to pursue digital product innovation remains unanswered in research. By adopting the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE)-framework we have designed a qualitative exploratory study including eleven German practitioners to investigate relevant contingency factors. Our results indicate that the most critical factors for a company’s decision to pursue digital product innovation can be found in the technological and environmental dimensions, namely customers, competitive pressure, technological change, as well as digitalization fit. 

Keywords: Digital Innovation, Product Innovation, Digitalization, TOE-framework

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11 Transform to Succeed: An Empirical Analysis of Digital Transformation in Firms

Authors: Anne Theresa Eidhoff, Sarah E. Stief, Markus Voeth


Despite all progress firms are facing the increasing need to adapt and assimilate digital technologies to transform their business activities in order to pursue business development. By using new digital technologies, firms can implement major business improvements in order to stay competitive and foster new growth potentials. The corresponding phenomenon of digital transformation has received some attention in previous literature in respect to industries such as media and publishing. Nevertheless, there is a lack of understanding of the concept and its organization within firms. With the help of twenty-three in-depth field interviews with German experts responsible for their company’s digital transformation, we examined what digital transformation encompasses, how it is organized and which opportunities and challenges arise within firms. Our results indicate that digital transformation is an inevitable task for all firms, as it bears the potential to comprehensively optimize and reshape established business activities and can thus be seen as a strategy of business development.

Keywords: Business Development, Digital transformation, Digitalization, digital strategies

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10 Interactive Systems in B2B Marketing: Perceptions of Sales Configurator Use

Authors: Tommi Mahlamaki, Mika Ojala


Digitalization is changing our lives in many ways. As consumers, we are accustomed using different online interactive sales systems. However, while many online selling sites offer systems that have evolved from simple selling functions, the change has not been as rapid in business-to-business (B2B) markets. This is because many B2B companies rely on personal sales and personal communication. The main objective of this research is to clarify perceptions towards digital interactive sales systems and, more specifically, sales configurators. It also aims to identify trends towards the use of sales configurators. To reach these objectives, an online questionnaire was created that targets Finnish B2B distributors who are, by definition, part of B2B markets. The questionnaire was sent to 340 distributors, and it was returned by 150 respondents. The results showed that 82% of respondents had heard about sales configurators, and 64% had used them. The results also showed that 48% of respondents felt that the use of sales configurators would increase in the future, while only 2% felt they would be used less. The future use of sales configurators was not seen as affecting the level of personal sales. In light of the results, we recommend that B2B companies create marketing strategies that integrate and complement traditional sales processes with digital interactive systems.

Keywords: Marketing, Interactive Systems, Digitalization, sales process

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9 Digitalization and High Audit Fees: An Empirical Study Applied to US Firms

Authors: Arpine Maghakyan


The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between the level of industry digitalization and audit fees, especially, the relationship between Big 4 auditor fees and industry digitalization level. On the one hand, automation of business processes decreases internal control weakness and manual mistakes; increases work effectiveness and integrations. On the other hand, it may cause serious misstatements, high business risks or even bankruptcy, typically in early stages of automation. Incomplete automation can bring high audit risk especially if the auditor does not fully understand client’s business automation model. Higher audit risk consequently will cause higher audit fees. Higher audit fees for clients with high automation level are more highlighted in Big 4 auditor’s behavior. Using data of US firms from 2005-2015, we found that industry level digitalization is an interaction for the auditor quality on audit fees. Moreover, the choice of Big4 or non-Big4 is correlated with client’s industry digitalization level. Big4 client, which has higher digitalization level, pays more than one with low digitalization level. In addition, a high-digitalized firm that has Big 4 auditor pays higher audit fee than non-Big 4 client. We use audit fees and firm-specific variables from Audit Analytics and Compustat databases. We analyze collected data by using fixed effects regression methods and Wald tests for sensitivity check. We use fixed effects regression models for firms for determination of the connections between technology use in business and audit fees. We control for firm size, complexity, inherent risk, profitability and auditor quality. We chose fixed effects model as it makes possible to control for variables that have not or cannot be measured.

Keywords: Digitalization, audit fees, auditor quality, Big4

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8 Digital Transformation of Lean Production: Systematic Approach for the Determination of Digitally Pervasive Value Chains

Authors: Peter Burggräf, Hanno Voet, Matthias Dannapfel, Patrick-Benjamin Bök, Jérôme Uelpenich, Julian Hoppe


The increasing digitalization of value chains can help companies to handle rising complexity in their processes and thereby reduce the steadily increasing planning and control effort in order to raise performance limits. Due to technological advances, companies face the challenge of smart value chains for the purpose of improvements in productivity, handling the increasing time and cost pressure and the need of individualized production. Therefore, companies need to ensure quick and flexible decisions to create self-optimizing processes and, consequently, to make their production more efficient. Lean production, as the most commonly used paradigm for complexity reduction, reaches its limits when it comes to variant flexible production and constantly changing market and environmental conditions. To lift performance limits, which are inbuilt in current value chains, new methods and tools must be applied. Digitalization provides the potential to derive these new methods and tools. However, companies lack the experience to harmonize different digital technologies. There is no practicable framework, which instructs the transformation of current value chains into digital pervasive value chains. Current research shows that a connection between lean production and digitalization exists. This link is based on factors such as people, technology and organization. In this paper, the introduced method for the determination of digitally pervasive value chains takes the factors people, technology and organization into account and extends existing approaches by a new dimension. It is the first systematic approach for the digital transformation of lean production and consists of four steps: The first step of ‘target definition’ describes the target situation and defines the depth of the analysis with regards to the inspection area and the level of detail. The second step of ‘analysis of the value chain’ verifies the lean-ability of processes and lies in a special focus on the integration capacity of digital technologies in order to raise the limits of lean production. Furthermore, the ‘digital evaluation process’ ensures the usefulness of digital adaptions regarding their practicability and their integrability into the existing production system. Finally, the method defines actions to be performed based on the evaluation process and in accordance with the target situation. As a result, the validation and optimization of the proposed method in a German company from the electronics industry shows that the digital transformation of current value chains based on lean production achieves a raise of their inbuilt performance limits.

Keywords: Value Chain, Lean Production, Digital transformation, Digitalization, Industrie 4.0

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7 Educational Turn towards Digitalization by Changing Leadership, Networks and Qualification Concepts

Authors: Patricia Girrbach


Currently, our society is facing a new and incremental upheaval technological revolution named digitalization. In order to face the relating challenges organizations have to be prepared. They need appropriate circumstances in order to cope with current issues concerning digital transformation processes. Nowadays digitalization emerged as top issues for companies and business leaders. In this context, it is a pressure on companies to have a positive, productive digital culture. And indeed, Organizations realize that they need to address this important issue. In this context 87 percent of organizations quote culture and engagement as one of their top challenges in terms of any change process, but especially in terms of the digital turn. Executives can give their company a competitive advantage and attract top talent by having a strong workplace culture that supports digitalization. Many current studies attest that fact. Digital-oriented companies can hire more easily, they have the lowest voluntary turnover rates, deliver better customer service, and are more profitable over the long run. Based on this background it is important to provide companies starting points and practical measurements how to reach this goal. The major findings are that firms need to make sense out of digitalization. In this context, they should focus on internal but also on external stakeholders. Furthermore, they should create certain working conditions and they should support the qualification of employees, e.g. by Virtual Reality. These measurements can create positive experiences in terms of digitalization in order to ensure the support of stuff in terms of the digital turn. Based on several current studies and literature research this paper provides concrete measurements for companies in order to enable the digital turn. Therefore, the aim of this paper is providing possible practical starting points which support both the education of employees by digitalization as well as the digital turn itself within the organization.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Industry 4.0, Digitalization, education 4.0

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6 Mobile Devices and E-Learning Systems as a Cost-Effective Alternative for Digitizing Paper Quizzes and Questionnaires in Social Work

Authors: K. Myška, L. Pilařová


The article deals with possibilities of using cheap mobile devices with the combination of free or open source software tools as an alternative to professional hardware and software equipment. Especially in social work, it is important to find cheap yet functional solution that can compete with complex but expensive solutions for digitizing paper materials. Our research was focused on the analysis of cheap and affordable solutions for digitizing the most frequently used paper materials that are being commonly used by terrain workers in social work. We used comparative analysis as a research method. Social workers need to process data from paper forms quite often. It is still more affordable, time and cost-effective to use paper forms to get feedback in many cases. Collecting data from paper quizzes and questionnaires can be done with the help of professional scanners and software. These technologies are very powerful and have advanced options for digitizing and processing digitized data, but are also very expensive. According to results of our study, the combination of open source software and mobile phone or cheap scanner can be considered as a cost-effective alternative to professional equipment.

Keywords: e-Learning, mobile devices, Digitalization, questionnaire

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
5 Information and Communication Technology Skills of Finnish Students in Particular by Gender

Authors: Antero J. S. Kivinen, Suvi-Sadetta Kaarakainen


Digitalization touches every aspect of contemporary society, changing the way we live our everyday life. Contemporary society is sometimes described as knowledge society including unprecedented amount of information people face daily. The tools to manage this information flow are ICT-skills which are both technical skills and reflective skills needed to manage incoming information. Therefore schools are under constant pressure of revision. In the latest Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) girls have been outperforming boys in all Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries and the gender gap between girls and boys is widest in Finland. This paper presents results of the Comprehensive Schools in the Digital Age project of RUSE, University of Turku. The project is in connection with Finnish Government Analysis, Assessment and Research Activities. First of all, this paper examines gender differences in ICT-skills of Finnish upper comprehensive school students. Secondly, it explores in which way differences are changing when students proceed to upper secondary and vocational education. ICT skills are measured using a performance-based ICT-skill test. Data is collected in 3 phases, January-March 2017 (upper comprehensive schools, n=5455), September-December 2017 (upper secondary and vocational schools, n~3500) and January-March 2018 (Upper comprehensive schools). The age of upper comprehensive school student’s is 15-16 and upper secondary and vocational school 16-18. The test is divided into 6 categories: basic operations, productivity software, social networking and communication, content creation and publishing, applications and requirements for the ICT study programs. Students have filled a survey about their ICT-usage and study materials they use in school and home. Cronbach's alpha was used to estimate the reliability of the ICT skill test. Statistical differences between genders were examined using two-tailed independent samples t-test. Results of first data from upper comprehensive schools show that there is no statistically significant difference in ICT-skill tests total scores between genders (boys 10.24 and girls 10.64, maximum being 36). Although, there were no gender difference in total test scores, there are differences in above mentioned six categories. Girls get better scores on school related and social networking test subjects while boys perform better on more technical oriented subjects. Test scores on basic operations are quite low for both groups. Perhaps these can partly be explained by the fact that the test was made on computers and majority of students ICT-usage consist of smartphones and tablets. Against this background it is important to analyze further the reasons for these differences. In a context of ongoing digitalization of everyday life and especially working life, the significant purpose of this analyses is to find answers how to guarantee the adequate ICT skills for all students.

Keywords: Vocational Education, Basic Education, Gender Differences, Digitalization, ICT-skills, upper comprehensive education, upper secondary education

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4 Managing Business Processes in the Age of Digital Transformation: A Literature Review

Authors: Dalia Suša Vugec, Ana-Marija Stjepić


Today, digital transformation is one of the leading topics that occupy the attention of scientific circles and business experts. Organizational success is most often reflected through the successful managing of business processes. Given the growing market for digital innovations and its ever-increasing impact on business, organizations need to be prepared for organizational changes that come with the digital era. In order to maintain their competitive advantage in the global market, organizations must adapt their processes to new digitalization conditions. The main goal of this study is to point out the link between the digital transformation and the business process management concept. Therefore, in order to contribute to the scientific field that explores the potential relation between business process management concept and digital transformation, a literature review has been conducted. Papers have been searched within the Business Process Management Journal by keywords related to the term digital transformation. Selected papers have been analyzed according to the topic, type of publication, year of publication, keywords, etc. The results reveal a growing number of papers published on the topic of digital transformation to the Business Process Management Journal, but the lack of case studies. This paper contributes to the extension of academic literature in this important, yet insufficiently researched, scientific field that creates the bond between two strong concepts of digital transformation and business process management.

Keywords: Business Process Management, Digital transformation, Digitalization, process change

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3 Unravelling the Knot: Towards a Definition of ‘Digital Labor’

Authors: Marta D'Onofrio


The debate on the digitalization of the economy has raised questions about how both labor and the regulation of work processes are changing due to the introduction of digital technologies in the productive system. Within the literature, the term ‘digital labor’ is commonly used to identify the impact of digitalization on labor. Despite the wide use of this term, it is still not available an unambiguous definition of it, and this could create confusion in the use of terminology and in the attempts of classification. As a consequence, the purpose of this paper is to provide for a definition and to propose a classification of ‘digital labor’, resorting to the theoretical approach of organizational studies.

Keywords: Big Data, Organizational Studies, Digitalization, digital labor, data-driven algorithms

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2 Art and Science, Convergence in Women 5.0

Authors: Daniel J Patricio


Digital reality demands new ways of thinking, flexibility in learning, acquisition of new competences, visualizing reality under new approaches, generating open spaces, understanding dimensions in continuous change... We need an inclusive growth, where colors are not lacking, where lights do not give a distorted reality, where science is not half-truth. In carrying out this study, the documentary or bibliographic collection has been taken into account, providing a reflective and analytical analysis of current reality. In this context, deductive and inductive methods have been used on different multidisciplinary information sources. Women today and tomorrow are a strategic element in science and arts which, under the umbrella of sustainability, implies "meeting current needs without detriment to future generations". We must build a new scenarios, which qualifies "the feminine and the masculine" as an inseparable whole, encouraging cooperative behavior, …. nothing is exclusive or excluding; and that is where true respect for diversity must be based. We are all part of an ecosystem, which we will make more perfect, as long as there is a real balance in terms of gender. It is the time of "the lifting of the veil", in other words, it is the time to discover the pseudonyms, the women who painted, wrote, investigated, recorded advances,.... However, the current reality demands much more, we must remove doors where they are not needed: Mass processing of data, big data, needs to incorporate algorithms under the perspective of "the feminine". However, 35% of STEM students (science, technology, engineering and math) are women; they represent 28% of worldwide researchers (Unesco, 2018); in Spain women only reach 18% in these areas of knowledge. (Atenea Congress, 2019).Our way of innovating, is mediated by a biased vision from which we are not allowed to leave, focused on results to the detriment of sustainability. Historically, patterns of beauty and satisfaction have been imposed on us, by gender: the way we look, perceive, feel,... depending on the circumstances and interests of the moment. At the Arco Madrid 2019 (Contemporary Art Trade Fair) the presence of women was estimated at 26.2% according to the Association of Women in the Visual Arts. Maura Reilly shows that only a third of the artists represented by American galleries are women, in Spain it is estimated that 70% of the women studying Art History programs are women. The colors impoverish the gaze, highlight the gender gap and the silence of the feminine. Art records sensations in anticipation of the future, science will turn them into reality. The "technological singularity" demands that women occupy a prominent place both in the new forms of emotion and thought, as well as in experimentation, the development of new virtual models and, of course, in the scale of values of the so-called "5.0 society".

Keywords: Gender, Science, Art, Digitalization

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1 Arts and Cultural Heritage Digitalization in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects

Authors: Okechukwu Uzoma Nkwocha, Edward Uche Omeire


Information and communication technologies (ICT) undeniably, have expanded the sphere of arts and creativity. It proves to be an important tool for production, preservation, sharing and utilization of arts and cultural heritage. While art and heritage institutions around the globe are increasingly utilizing ICT for the promotion and sharing of their collections, the story seems different in most part of Africa. In this paper, we will examine the prospects and problems of utilizing ICT in promotion, preservation and sharing of arts and cultural heritage.

Keywords: Arts, Cultural Heritage, ICT, Digitalization

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