Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Digital Divide Related Abstracts

12 E-government Status and Impact on Development in the Arab Region

Authors: Sukaina Al-Nasrawi, Maysoun Ibrahim

Abstract:

Information and communication technologies (ICT) have affected recent public administration and governance. Electronic Government (e-government) services were developed to simplify government procedures and improve interaction with citizens on one hand and to create new governance models to empower citizens and involve them in the decision-making process while increasing transparency on another hand. It is worth noting that efficient governance models enable sustainable development at the social and economic levels. Currently, the status of e-government national strategies and implementation programs vary from one country to another. This variance in the development levels of e-government initiatives and applications noted the digital divide between countries of the same region, thereby highlighting the difficulty to reach regional integration. Many Arab countries realized the need for a well-articulated e-government strategy and launched national e-government initiatives. In selected Arab countries, the focus of e-government initiatives and programs shifted from the provision of services to advanced concepts such as open data initiatives. This paper aims at over viewing the e-government achievements of Arab countries and areas for enhancement, and share best practices in the area.of the best e-government programmes from the Arab region the world. It will also shed the light on the impact of the information society in general and e-government, in specific, on the social and economic development in the Arab region.

Keywords: Development, e-Government, Digital Divide, Services, citizens, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), Arab region

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11 University Clusters Using ICT for Teaching and Learning

Authors: M. Roberts Masillamani

Abstract:

There is a phenomenal difference, as regard to the teaching methodology adopted at the urban and the rural area colleges. However, bright and talented student may be from rural back ground even. But there is huge dearth of the digitization in the rural areas and lesser developed countries. Today’s students need new skills to compete and successful in the future. Education should be combination of practical, intellectual, and social skills. What does this mean for rural classrooms and how can it be achieved. Rural colleges are not able to hire the best resources, since the best teacher’s aim is to move towards the city. If city is provided everywhere, then there will be no rural area. This is possible by forming university clusters (UC). The University cluster is a group of renowned and accredited universities coming together to bridge this dearth. The UC will deliver the live lectures and allow the students’ from remote areas to actively participate in the classroom. This paper tries to present a plan of action of providing a better live classroom teaching and learning system from the city to the rural and the lesser developed countries. This paper titled “University Clusters using ICT for teaching and learning” provides a true concept of opening live digital classroom windows for rural colleges, where resources are not available, thus reducing the digital divide. This is different from pod casting a lecture or distance learning and eLearning. The live lecture can be streamed through digital equipment to another classroom. The rural students can collaborate with their peers and critiques, be assessed, collect information, acquire different techniques in assessment and learning process. This system will benefit rural students and teachers and develop socio economic status. This will also will increase the degree of confidence of the Rural students and teachers. Thus bringing about the concept of ‘Train the Trainee’ in reality. An educational university cloud for each cluster will be built remote infrastructure facilities (RIF) for the above program. The users may be informed, about the available lecture schedules, through the RIF service. RIF with an educational cloud can be set by the universities under one cluster. This paper talks a little more about University clusters and the methodology to be adopted as well as some extended features like, tutorial classes, library grids, remote laboratory login, research and development.

Keywords: Education, e-Learning, Digital Divide, Rural, Digital Learning, ICT, lesser developed countries, library grids, live classroom windows, RIF, university clusters and urban

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10 Factors Underlying the Digital Divide for Disabled People: Focus on a Korean Case Study

Authors: Soungwan Kim

Abstract:

This study identifies factors underlying the digital divide that is faced by the disabled. The results of its analysis showed that the digital divide in PC use is affected by age, number of years of education, employment status, and household income of more than KRW 3 million. The digital divide in smart device use is affected by sex, age, number of years of education, time when disability struck, and household income of more than KRW 3 million. Based on these results, this study proposes methods for bridging the digital divide faced by the disabled.

Keywords: Digital Divide, digital divide for the disabled, information accessibility for PCs and smart devices, information accessibility

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9 Digitalization: The Uneven Geography of Information and Communication Technology (ICTS) CTSoss Four Major States in India

Authors: Sanchari Mukhopadhyay

Abstract:

Today, almost the entire realm of human activities are becoming increasingly dependent on the power of information, where through ICTs it is now possible to cater distances and avail various services at a few clicks. In principle, ICTs are thus expected to blur location-specific differences and affiliations of development and bring in an inclusive society at the wake of globalization. However, eventually researchers and policy analysts realized that ICTs are also generating inequality in spite of the hope for an integrated world and widespread social well-being. Regarding this unevenness, location plays a major role as often ICT development is seen to be concentrated into pockets, leaving behind large tracks as underprivileged. Thus, understanding the spatial pattern of ICT development and distribution is significant in relation to exploring the extent to which ICTs are fulfilling the promises or reassuring the existing divisions. In addition, it is also profoundly crucial to investigate how regions are connecting and competing both locally and globally. The focus of the research paper is to evaluate the spatial structure of ICT led development in India. Thereby, it attempts to understand the state level (four selected states) pattern of ICT penetration, the pattern of diffusion across districts with respect to large urban centres and the rural-urban disparity of technology adoption. It also tries to assess the changes in access dynamisms of ICTs as one move away from a large metropolitan city towards the periphery. In brief, the analysis investigates into the tendency towards the uneven growth of development through the identification of the core areas of ICT advancement within the country and its diffusion from the core to the periphery. In order to assess the level of ICT development and rural-urban disparity across the districts of selected states, two indices named ICT Development Index and Rural-Urban Digital Divide Index have been constructed. The study mostly encompasses the latest Census (2011) of the country and TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India) in some cases.

Keywords: Digital Divide, diffusion, ICT development, core-periphery

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8 Hacking the Spatial Limitations in Bridging Virtual and Traditional Teaching Methodologies in Sri Lanka

Authors: Manuela Nayantara Jeyaraj

Abstract:

Having moved into the 21st century, it is way past being arguable that innovative technology needs to be incorporated into conventional classroom teaching. Though the Western world has found presumable success in achieving this, it is still a concept under battle in developing countries such as Sri Lanka. Reaching the acme of implementing interactive virtual learning within classrooms is a struggling idealistic fascination within the island. In order to overcome this problem, this study is set to reveal facts that limit the implementation of virtual, interactive learning within the school classrooms and provide hacks that could prove the augmented use of the Virtual World to enhance teaching and learning experiences. As each classroom moves along with the usage of technology to fulfill its functionalities, a few intense hacks provided will build the administrative onuses on a virtual system. These hacks may divulge barriers based on social conventions, financial boundaries, digital literacy, intellectual capacity of the staff, and highlight the impediments in introducing students to an interactive virtual learning environment and thereby provide the necessary actions or changes to be made to succeed and march along in creating an intellectual society built on virtual learning and lifestyle. This digital learning environment will be composed of multimedia presentations, trivia and pop quizzes conducted on a GUI, assessments conducted via a virtual system, records maintained on a database, etc. The ultimate objective of this study could enhance every child's basic learning environment; hence, diminishing the digital divide that exists in certain communities.

Keywords: Digital Divide, Digitization, Digital Learning, Sri Lanka, teaching methodologies

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7 Impact of Web 2.0 on Digital Divide in Azad Jammu and Kashmir

Authors: Sana Shokat, Rabia Riaz, Raja Shoaib Hussain, Saba Shabir

Abstract:

Digital divide is usually measured in terms of gap between those who can efficiently use new technological tools, such as Internet, and those who cannot. It is also hypothesized that web 2.0 tools motivate people to use technology i.e. Social networking sites can play an important role in bridging digital gap. This study was to determine the presence of digital divide in urban and rural areas of district Muzaffrabad, Azad Jammu & Kashmir taking internet usage as the key element. A cross-sectional community based survey was conducted involving 384 respondents from city Muzaffrabad and village Garhi Doppta. The existence of digital divide was accessed on the basis of the questionnaires given. Chi- square test was used to find the association of different demographic and ICT related factors with internet usage. Age based and area based divide still exist among the targeted population but gender based digital divide is vanishing from the intended area of study. Outcomes of the survey also revealed that web 2.0-based web sites are also becoming popular and attracting people to use internet. Trend of using internet and communication technologies can be increased by solving the highlighted problems.

Keywords: Digital Divide, Information and Communication Technology, ICT, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Web2.0

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6 Digital Demands: Addressing the Digital Divide in Basic Education and Its Relation to Academic Performance and Aspirations

Authors: Jose Rodrigo Zubiri, Sofia Carmen Tomacruz

Abstract:

Amidst an increasingly digitalized society, information and communication technologies have been seamlessly integrated into the economic, social, and political life of individuals. Information has been regarded as a primary good, essential to the wellbeing and self-respect of individuals in society. The digital engagements of an individual play a key role in a variety of life outcomes ranging from academic performance to entrepreneurial success to health service uptake. As a result of varying degrees of access to the Internet and ICTs across populations and individuals, a digital divide emerges. Education, a sector pivotal to directing individual life trajectories, has been radically transformed with regards to the learning process and access to information and thus faces the implications of the digital divide, as new waves of inequalities are introduced in the classroom. As the period of basic education is critical to transitioning into civic life or higher education, digital inequalities are capable of aggravating pre-existing social inequalities. Through survey-questionnaires, conducted on 152 high school students from a Philippine public school, the study reveals the correlation of academic performance and aspirations (for their highest academic qualification) to access to digital technologies and the Internet, according to Van Dijk’s four measurements of digital poverty, namely: motivational access, material access, skills access, and usage access. The findings reveal a positive correlation for academic performance whereas no correlation was found between aspirations and digital access. In the study, significant correlational differences were also found between genders, specifically, in terms of skills access and academic performance.

Keywords: Education, Digital Divide, Inequality, ICTs, life trajectories

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5 Net Regularity and Its Ethical Implications on Internet Stake Holders

Authors: Nourhan Elshenawi

Abstract:

Net Neutrality (NN) is the principle of treating all online data the same without any prioritization of some over others. A research gap in current scholarship about “violations of NN” and the subsequent ethical concerns paves the way for the following research question: To what extent violations of NN entail ethical concerns and implications for Internet stakeholders? To answer this question, NR is examined using the two major action-based ethical theories, Kantian and Utilitarian, across the relevant Internet stakeholders. First some necessary IT background is provided that shapes how the Internet works and who the key stakeholders are. Following the IT background, the relationship between the stakeholders, users, Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and content providers is discussed and illustrated. Then some violations of NN that are currently occurring is covered, without attracting any attention from the general public from an ethical perspective, as a new term Net Regularity (NR). Afterwards, the current scholarship on NN and its violations are discussed, that are mainly from an economic and sociopolitical perspectives to highlight the lack of ethical discussions on the issue. Before moving on to the ethical analysis however, websites are presented as digital entities that are affected by NR and their happiness is measured using functionalism. The analysis concludes that NR is prone to an unethical treatment of Internet stakeholders in the perspective of both theories. Finally, the current Digital Divide in the world is presented to be able to better illustrate the implications of NR. The implications present the new Internet divide that will take place between individuals within society. Through answering the research question using ethical analysis, it attempts to shed some light on the issue of NR and what kind of society it would lead to. NR would not just lead to a divided society, but divided individuals that are separated by something greater than distance, the Internet.

Keywords: Digital Divide, Internet Law, net neutrality, internet service providers, digital entities, digital ontology, internet ethics, websites as beings

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4 Analyzing the Plausible Alternatives in Contracting the Societal Fissure Caused by Digital Divide in Sri Lanka

Authors: Manuela Nayantara Jeyaraj

Abstract:

'Digital Divide' is a concept that has existed in this paradigm ever since the discovery of the first-generation technologies. Before the turn of the century, it was basically used to describe the gap between those with telephone communication access and those without it. At present, it is plainly descriptive in itself to illustrate the cavity among those with Internet access and those without. Though the concept of digital divide has been merely lying in sight for as long as time itself, the friction it caused has not yet been fully realized to solve major crisis situations. Unlike well-developed countries, Sri Lanka is still in the verge of moving farther away from a developing country in the race towards reaching a developed state. Access to technological resources varies from region to region, even within the island itself, with one region having a considerable percentage of its community exposed to the Internet and its related technologies, and the other unaware of such. Thus, this paper intends to analyze the roots for the still-extant gap instigated based on the concept of ‘Digital Divide’ and explores the plausible potentials that could be brought about by narrowing this prevailing percentage among the population, specifically entrenching the advantages reaped towards an economic augmentation and culture or lifestyle revolution on the path towards development.

Keywords: Society, Digital Divide, Communication, Sri Lanka

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3 The Role of Intermediaries in E-Government Adoption in India: Bridging the Digital Divide

Authors: Amit Sachan, Rajiv Kumar, Arindam Mukherjee

Abstract:

Despite the transparency and benefits of e-government, and its potential to serve citizens better, there is low diffusion and adoption of e-government services in India. Limited access to computer and internet, lack of computer and internet skills, low trust in technology, and risk associated in using e-government services are major hindrances in e-government adoption in India. Despite a large number of citizens belonging to the non-adopter category, the government has made some services mandatory to be accessed online where citizens have no other choice. Also despite the digital divide, a large number of citizens prefer online access to government services. In such cases intermediaries like common service centers, internet café and services agents’ roles are significant for accessing e-government services. Hence research is needed to explore this. The study aims to investigate the role of intermediaries in online access to public services by citizens. Qualitative research methodology using semi-structured interview was used. The results show that intermediaries play an important role in bridging the digital divide. The study also highlights on what circumstances citizens are taking help of these intermediaries. The study then highlights its limitations and discusses scope for future study.

Keywords: e-Government, Digital Divide, India, Adoption, intermediaries

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2 Gender Differences in E-Society: The Case of Slovenia

Authors: Mitja Dečman

Abstract:

The ever-increasing presence and use of information and communication technology (ICT) influences the different social relationships of today's society. Gender differences are especially important from the viewpoint of modern society since ICT can either deepen the existing inequalities or diminish them. In a developed Western world, gender equality has been a well-focused area for decades in many parts of society including education, employment or politics and has led to a decrease in the inequality of women and men in these and other areas. The area of digital equality, or inequality for that matter, is one of the areas where gender differences still exist in many countries of the world. The research presented in this paper focuses on Slovenia, one of the smallest EU member states, being an average achiever in the area of e-society according to the many different European benchmarking indexes. On the other hand, Slovenia is working in an alignment with many European gender equality guidelines and showing good results. The results of our research are based on the analysis of survey data from 2014 to 2017 dealing with Slovenian citizens and their households and the use of ICT. Considering gender issues, the synthesis showed that cultural differences influence some measured ICT indicators but on the other hand the differences are low and only sometimes statistically significant.

Keywords: e-Society, Digital Divide, Gender Inequality, Slovenia

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1 The Digital Divide: Examining the Use and Access to E-Health Based Technologies by Millennials and Older Adults

Authors: Delana Theiventhiran, Wally J. Bartfay

Abstract:

Background and Significance: As the Internet is becoming the epitome of modern communications, there are many pragmatic reasons why the digital divide matters in terms of accessing and using E-health based technologies. With the rise of technology usage globally, those in the older adult generation may not be as familiar and comfortable with technology usage and are thus put at a disadvantage compared to other generations such as millennials when examining and using E-health based platforms and technology. Currently, little is known about how older adults and millennials access and use e-health based technologies. Methods: A systemic review of the literature was undertaken employing the following three databases: (i) PubMed, (ii) ERIC, and (iii) CINAHL; employing the search term 'digital divide and generations' to identify potential articles. To extract required data from the studies, a data abstraction tool was created to obtain the following information: (a) author, (b) year of publication, (c) sample size, (d) country of origin, (e) design/methods, (f) major findings/outcomes obtained. Inclusion criteria included publication dates between the years of Jan 2009 to Aug 2018, written in the English language, target populations of older adults aged 65 and above and millennials, and peer reviewed quantitative studies only. Major Findings: PubMed provided 505 potential articles, where 23 of those articles met the inclusion criteria. Specifically, ERIC provided 53 potential articles, where no articles met criteria following data extraction. CINAHL provided 14 potential articles, where eight articles met criteria following data extraction. Conclusion: Practically speaking, identifying how newer E-health based technologies can be integrated into society and identifying why there is a gap with digital technology will help reduce the impact on generations and individuals who are not as familiar with technology and Internet usage. The largest concern of all is how to prepare older adults for new and emerging E-health technologies. Currently, there is a dearth of literature in this area because it is a newer area of research and little is known about it. The benefits and consequences of technology being integrated into daily living are being investigated as a newer area of research. Several of the articles (N=11) indicated that age is one of the larger factors contributing to the digital divide. Similarly, many of the examined articles (N=5) identify that privacy concerns were one of the main deterrents of technology usage for elderly individuals aged 65 and above. The older adult generation feels that privacy is one of the major concerns, especially in regards to how data is collected, used and possibly sold to third party groups by various websites. Additionally, access to technology, the Internet, and infrastructure also plays a large part in the way that individuals are able to receive and use information. Lastly, a change in the way that healthcare is currently used, received and distributed would also help attribute to the change to ensure that no generation is left behind in a technologically advanced society.

Keywords: e-Health, Digital Divide, Older Adults, millennials

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