Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

diffusion coefficient Related Abstracts

7 Characterization of Sorption Behavior and Mass Transfer Properties of Four Central Africa Tropical Woods

Authors: Merlin Simo Tagne, Romain Rémond

Abstract:

This study provides the sorption isotherm, its hysteresis and their mass transfer properties of four Central Africa Tropical woods largely used for building construction: frake, lotofa, sapelle and ayous. Characterization of these three species in particular and Central Africa tropical woods, in general, was necessary to develop conservation and treatment of wood after first transformation using the drying. Isotherms were performed using a dynamic vapor sorption apparatus (Surface Measurement Systems) at 20 and 40°C. The mass diffusivity was determined in steady state using a specific vapometer. Permeability was determined using a specialized device developed to measure over a wide range of permeability values. Permeability and mass transfer properties are determined in the tangential direction with a ‘false’ quartersawn cutting (sapelle and lotofa) and in the radial direction with a ‘false’ flatsawn cutting (ayous and frake). The sample of sapelle, ayous and frake are heartwood when lotofa contains as well as heartwood than sapwood. Results obtained showed that the temperature effect on sorption behavior was low than relative humidity effect. We also observed a low difference between the sorption behavior of our woods and hysteresis of sorption decreases when the temperature increases. Hailwood-Horrobin model’s predicts the isotherms of adsorption and desorption of ours woods and parameters of this model are proposed. Results on the characterization of mass transfer properties showed that, in the steady state, mass diffusivity decreases exponentially when basal density increases. In the phase of desorption, mass diffusivity is great than in the phase of adsorption. The permeability of ours woods are greater than Australian hardwoods but lower than temperate woods. It is difficult to define a relationship between permeability and mass diffusivity.

Keywords: tropical woods, sorption isotherm, diffusion coefficient, gas permeability, Central Africa

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6 Axial, Bending Interaction Diagrams of Reinforced Concrete Columns Exposed to Chloride Attack

Authors: Rita Greco, Giuseppe Carlo Marano

Abstract:

Chloride induced reinforcement corrosion is widely accepted to be the most frequent mechanism causing premature degradation of reinforced concrete members, whose economic and social consequences are growing up continuously. Prevention of these phenomena has a great importance in structural design, and modern Codes and Standard impose prescriptions concerning design details and concrete mix proportion for structures exposed to different external aggressive conditions, grouped in environmental classes. This paper focuses on reinforced concrete columns load carrying capacity degradation over time due to chloride induced steel pitting corrosion. The structural element is considered to be exposed to marine environment and the effects of corrosion are described by the time degradation of the axial-bending interaction diagram. Because chlorides ingress and consequent pitting corrosion propagation are both time-dependent mechanisms, the study adopts a time-variant predictive approach to evaluate the residual strength of corroded reinforced concrete columns at different lifetimes. Corrosion initiation and propagation process is modelled by taking into account all the parameters, such as external environmental conditions, concrete mix proportion, concrete cover and so on, which influence the time evolution of the corrosion phenomenon and its effects on the residual strength of RC columns.

Keywords: Concrete Structures, Marine Environment, diffusion coefficient, pitting corrosion, strength deterioration, surface chloride concentration

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5 Influence of High Hydrostatic Pressure Application (HHP) and Osmotic Dehydration (DO) as a Pretreatment to Hot –Air Drying of Abalone (Haliotis Rufescens) Cubes

Authors: Teresa Roco, Mario Perez Won, Roberto Lemus-Mondaca, Sebastian Pizarro

Abstract:

This research presents the simultaneous application of high hydrostatic pressure application (HHP) and osmotic dehydration (DO) as a pretreatment to hot –air drying of abalone cubes. The drying time was reduced to 6 hours at 60ºC as compared to the abalone drying by only a 15% NaCl osmotic pretreatment and at an atmospheric pressure that took 10 hours to dry at the same temperature. This was due to the salt and HHP saturation since osmotic pressure increases as water loss increases, thus needing a more reduced time in a convective drying, so water effective diffusion in drying plays an important role in this research. Different working conditions as pressure (350-550 MPa), pressure time ( 5-10 min), salt concentration, NaCl 15% and drying temperature (40-60ºC) will be optimized according to kinetic parameters of each mathematical model (Table 1). The models used for drying experimental curves were those corresponding to Weibull, Logarithmic and Midilli-Kucuk, but the latest one was the best fitted to the experimental data (Figure 1). The values for water effective diffusivity varied from 4.54 – to 9.95x10-9 m2/s for the 8 curves (DO+HHP) whereas the control samples (neither DO nor HHP) varied among 4.35 and 5.60x10-9 m2/s, for 40 and 60°C, respectively and as to drying by osmotic pretreatment at 15% NaCl from 3.804 to 4.36x10-9 m2/s at the same temperatures. Finally as to energy and efficiency consumption values for drying process (control and pretreated samples) it was found that they would be within a range of 777-1815 KJ/Kg and 8.22–19.20% respectively. Therefore, a knowledge concerning the drying kinetic as well as the consumption energy, in addition to knowledge about the quality of abalones subjected to an osmotic pretreatment (DO) and a high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) are extremely important to an industrial level so that the drying process can be successful at different pretreatment conditions and/or variable processes.

Keywords: abalone, diffusion coefficient, pretreatments, convective drying, high pressure hydrostatic

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4 Kinetic Modelling of Drying Process of Jumbo Squid (Dosidicus Gigas) Slices Subjected to an Osmotic Pretreatment under High Pressure

Authors: Roberto Lemus-Mondaca, Mario Perez-Won, Constanza Olivares-Rivera, Fernanda Marin-Monardez

Abstract:

This research presents the simultaneous application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and osmotic dehydration (DO) as a pretreatment to hot –air drying of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) cubes. The drying time was reduced to 2 hours at 60ºC and 5 hours at 40°C as compared to the jumbo squid samples untreated. This one was due to osmotic pressure under high-pressure treatment where increased salt saturation what caused an increasing water loss. Thus, a more reduced time during convective drying was reached, and so water effective diffusion in drying would play an important role in this research. Different working conditions such as pressure (350-550 MPa), pressure time (5-10 min), salt concentration, NaCl (10 y 15%) and drying temperature (40-60ºC) were optimized according to kinetic parameters of each mathematical model. The models used for drying experimental curves were those corresponding to Weibull, Page and Logarithmic models, however, the latest one was the best fitted to the experimental data. The values for water effective diffusivity varied from 4.82 to 6.59x10-9 m2/s for the 16 curves (DO+HHP) whereas the control samples obtained a value of 1.76 and 5.16×10-9 m2/s, for 40 and 60°C, respectively. On the other hand, quality characteristics such as color, texture, non-enzymatic browning, water holding capacity (WHC) and rehydration capacity (RC) were assessed. The L* (lightness) color parameter increased, however, b * (yellowish) and a* (reddish) parameters decreased for the DO+HHP treated samples, indicating treatment prevents sample browning. The texture parameters such as hardness and elasticity decreased, but chewiness increased with treatment, which resulted in a product with a higher tenderness and less firmness compared to the untreated sample. Finally, WHC and RC values of the most treatments increased owing to a minor damage in tissue cellular compared to untreated samples. Therefore, a knowledge regarding to the drying kinetic as well as quality characteristics of dried jumbo squid samples subjected to a pretreatment of osmotic dehydration under high hydrostatic pressure is extremely important to an industrial level so that the drying process can be successful at different pretreatment conditions and/or variable processes.

Keywords: Modelling, high pressure, diffusion coefficient, jumbo squid, drying process, quality aspects

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3 A Parametric Study on Effects of Internal Factors on Carbonation of Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Abhishek Mangal, Kunal Tongaria, S. Mandal, Devendra Mohan

Abstract:

The carbonation of concrete is a phenomenon which is a function of various interdependent parameters. Therefore, in spite of numerous literature and database, the useful generalization is not an easy task. These interdependent parameters can be grouped under the category of internal and external factors. This paper focuses on the internal parameters which govern and increase the probability of the ingress of deleterious substances into concrete. The mechanism of effects of internal parameters such as microstructure for with and without supplementary cementing materials (SCM), water/binder ratio, the age of concrete etc. has been discussed. This is followed by the comparison of various proposed mathematical models for the deterioration of concrete. Based on existing laboratory experiments as well as field results, this paper concludes the present understanding of mechanism, modeling and future research needs in this field.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, carbonation, diffusion coefficient, microstructure of concrete

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2 Influence of Photophysical Parameters of Photoactive Materials on Exciton Diffusion Length and Diffusion Coefficient in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

Authors: Jai Singh, Douglas Yeboah

Abstract:

It has been experimentally demonstrated that exciton diffusion length in organic solids can be improved by fine-tuning the material parameters that govern exciton transfer. Here, a theoretical study is carried out to support this finding. We have therefore derived expressions for the exciton diffusion length and diffusion coefficient of singlet and triplet excitons using Förster resonance energy transfer and Dexter carrier transfer mechanisms and are plotted as a function of photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield, spectral overlap integral, refractive index and dipole moment of the photoactive material. We found that singlet exciton diffusion length increases with PL quantum yield and spectral overlap integral, and decreases with increase in refractive index. Likewise, the triplet exciton diffusion length increases when PL quantum yield increases and dipole moment decreases. The calculated diffusion lengths in different organic materials are compared with existing experimental values and found to be in reasonable agreement. The results are expected to provide insight in developing new organic materials for fabricating bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs) with better photoconversion efficiency.

Keywords: diffusion coefficient, Dexter carrier transfer, exciton diffusion length, Föster resonance energy transfer, photoactive materials, photophysical parameters

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1 Effect of Temperature on Pervaporation Performance of Ag-Poly Vinyl Alcohol Nanocomposite Membranes

Authors: Asmaa Selim, Peter Mizsey

Abstract:

Bio-ethanol is considered of higher potential as a green renewable energy source owing to its environmental benefits and its high efficiency. In the present study, silver nanoparticles were in-situ generated in a poly (vinyl alcohol) in order to improve its potentials for pervaporation of ethanol-water mixture using solution-casting. Effect of silver content on the pervaporation separation index and the enrichment factor of the membrane at 15 percentage mass water at 40ᵒC was reported. Pervaporation data for nanocomposite membranes showed around 100% increase in the water permeance values while the intrinsic selectivity decreased. The water permeances of origin crosslinked PVA membrane, and the 2.5% silver loaded PVA membrane are 26.65 and 70.45 (g/m².kPa.h) respectively. The values of total flux and water flux are closed to each other, indicating that membranes could be effectively used to break the azeotropic point of ethanol-water. Effect of temperature on the pervaporation performance, permeation parameter and diffusion coefficient of both water and ethanol was discussed. The negative heat of sorption ∆Hs values calculated on the basis of the estimated Arrhenius activation energy values indicating that the sorption process was controlled by Langmuir’s mode. The overall results showed that the membrane containing 0.5 mass percentage of Ag salt exhibited excellent PV performance.

Keywords: nanocomposite, Silver Nanoparticles, Pervaporation, diffusion coefficient, bio-ethanol, poly (vinyl alcohol)

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