Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

dielectric constant Related Abstracts

14 Electrical and Magnetoelectric Properties of (y)Li0.5Ni0.7Zn0.05Fe2O4 + (1-y)Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 Magnetoelectric Composites

Authors: S. U. Durgadsimi, S. Chouguleb, S. Belladc


(y) Li0.5Ni0.7Zn0.05Fe2O4 + (1-y) Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 magnetoelectric composites with y = 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 were prepared by a conventional standard double sintering ceramic technique. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the phase formation of ferrite, ferroelectric and their composites. logρdc Vs 1/T graphs reveal that the dc resistivity decreases with increasing temperature exhibiting semiconductor behavior. The plots of logσac Vs logω2 are almost linear indicating that the conductivity increases with increase in frequency i.e, conductivity in the composites is due to small polaron hopping. Dielectric constant (έ) and dielectric loss (tan δ) were studied as a function of frequency in the range 100Hz–1MHz which reveals the normal dielectric behavior except the composite with y=0.1 and as a function of temperature at four fixed frequencies (i.e. 100Hz, 1KHz, 10KHz, 100KHz). ME voltage coefficient decreases with increase in ferrite content and was observed to be maximum of about 7.495 mV/cmOe for (0.1) Li0.5Ni0.7Zn0.05Fe2O4 + (0.9) Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 composite.

Keywords: XRD, dielectric constant, dielectric loss, DC and AC conductivity, ME voltage coefficient

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13 Chemical Synthesis, Electrical and Antibacterial Properties of Polyaniline/Gold Nanocomposites

Authors: L. N. Shubha, M. Kalpana, P. Madhusudana Rao


Polyaniline/gold (PANI/Au) nanocomposite was prepared by in-situ chemical oxidation polymerization method. The synthesis involved the formation of polyaniline-gold nanocomposite, by in-situ redox reaction and the dispersion of gold nano particles throughout the polyaniline matrix. The nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TEM and UV-visible spectroscopy. The characteristic peaks in FTIR and UV-visible spectra confirmed the expected structure of polymer as reported in the literature. Further, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the formation of gold nano particles. The crystallite size of 30 nm for nanoAu was supported by the XRD pattern. Further, the A.C. conductivity, dielectric constant (€’(w)) and dielectric loss (€’’(w)) of PANI/Au nano composite was measured using impedance analyzer. The effect of doping on the conductivity was investigated. The antibacterial activity was examined for this nano composite and it was observed that PANI/Au nanocomposite could be used as an antibacterial agent.

Keywords: dielectric constant, dielectric loss, anti-microbial activity, AC-conductivity, polyaniline/gold (PANI/AU) nanocomposite

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12 Dielectric and Impedance Spectroscopy of Samarium and Lanthanum Doped Barium Titanate at Room Temperature

Authors: Sukhleen Bindra Narang, Dalveer Kaur, Kunal Pubby


Dielectric ceramic samples in the BaO-Re2O3-TiO2 ternary system were synthesized with structural formula Ba2-xRe4+2x/3Ti8O24 where Re= rare earth metal and Re= Sm and La where x varies from 0.0 to 0.6 with step size 0.1. Polycrystalline samples were prepared by the conventional solid state reaction technique. The dielectric, electrical and impedance analysis of all the samples in the frequency range 1KHz- 1MHz at room temperature (25°C) have been done to get the understanding of electrical conduction and dielectric relaxation and their correlation. Dielectric response of the samples at lower frequencies shows dielectric dispersion while at higher frequencies it shows dielectric relaxation. The ac conductivity is well fitted by the Jonscher law (σac = σdc+Aωn). The spectroscopic data in the impedance plane confirms the existence of grain contribution to the relaxation. All the properties are found out to be function of frequency as well as the amount of substitution.

Keywords: Impedance spectroscopy, dielectric constant, dielectric ceramics, loss tangent, AC conductivity

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11 A Comparative Study of Substituted Li Ferrites Sintered by the Conventional and Microwave Sintering Technique

Authors: Ibetombi Soibam


Li-Zn-Ni ferrite having the compositional formula Li0.4-0.5xZn0.2NixFe2.4-0.5xO4 where x = 0.02 ≤ x ≤0.1 in steps of 0.02 was fabricated by the citrate precursor method. In this method, metal nitrates and citric acid was used to prepare the gel which exhibit self-propagating combustion behavior giving the required ferrite sample. The ferrite sample was given a pre-firing at 650°C in a programmable conventional furnace for 3 hours with a heating rate of 5°C/min. A series of the sample was finally given conventional sintering (CS) at 1040°C after the pre-firing process. Another series was given microwave sintering (MS) at 1040°C in a programmable microwave furnace which uses a single magnetron operating at 2.45 GHz frequency. X- ray diffraction pattern confirmed the spinel phase structure for both the series. The theoretical and experimental density was calculated. It was observed that densification increases with the increase in Ni concentration in both the series. However, samples sintered by microwave technique was found to be denser. The microstructure of the two series of the sample was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Dielectric properties have been investigated as a function of frequency and composition for both series of samples sintered by CS and MS technique. The variation of dielectric constant with frequency show dispersion for both the series. It was explained in terms of Koop’s two layer model. From the analysis of dielectric measurement, it was observed that the value of room temperature dielectric constant decreases with the increase in Ni concentration for both the series. The microwave sintered samples show a lower dielectric constant making microwave sintering suitable for high-frequency applications. The possible mechanisms contributing to all the above behavior is being discussed.

Keywords: dielectric constant, ferrites, microwave sintering, citrate precursor

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10 Surface Thermodynamics Approach to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M-TB) – Human Sputum Interactions

Authors: J. L. Chukwuneke, C. H. Achebe, S. N. Omenyi


This research work presents the surface thermodynamics approach to M-TB/HIV-Human sputum interactions. This involved the use of the Hamaker coefficient concept as a surface energetics tool in determining the interaction processes, with the surface interfacial energies explained using van der Waals concept of particle interactions. The Lifshitz derivation for van der Waals forces was applied as an alternative to the contact angle approach which has been widely used in other biological systems. The methodology involved taking sputum samples from twenty infected persons and from twenty uninfected persons for absorbance measurement using a digital Ultraviolet visible Spectrophotometer. The variables required for the computations with the Lifshitz formula were derived from the absorbance data. The Matlab software tools were used in the mathematical analysis of the data produced from the experiments (absorbance values). The Hamaker constants and the combined Hamaker coefficients were obtained using the values of the dielectric constant together with the Lifshitz equation. The absolute combined Hamaker coefficients A132abs and A131abs on both infected and uninfected sputum samples gave the values of A132abs = 0.21631x10-21Joule for M-TB infected sputum and Ã132abs = 0.18825x10-21Joule for M-TB/HIV infected sputum. The significance of this result is the positive value of the absolute combined Hamaker coefficient which suggests the existence of net positive van der waals forces demonstrating an attraction between the bacteria and the macrophage. This however, implies that infection can occur. It was also shown that in the presence of HIV, the interaction energy is reduced by 13% conforming adverse effects observed in HIV patients suffering from tuberculosis.

Keywords: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, macrophage, dielectric constant, absorbance, hamaker coefficient, lifshitz formula, van der waals forces

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9 Microwave Dielectric Constant Measurements of Titanium Dioxide Using Five Mixture Equations

Authors: Jyh Sheen, Yong-Lin Wang


This research dedicates to find a different measurement procedure of microwave dielectric properties of ceramic materials with high dielectric constants. For the composite of ceramic dispersed in the polymer matrix, the dielectric constants of the composites with different concentrations can be obtained by various mixture equations. The other development of mixture rule is to calculate the permittivity of ceramic from measurements on composite. To do this, the analysis method and theoretical accuracy on six basic mixture laws derived from three basic particle shapes of ceramic fillers have been reported for dielectric constants of ceramic less than 40 at microwave frequency. Similar researches have been done for other well-known mixture rules. They have shown that both the physical curve matching with experimental results and low potential theory error are important to promote the calculation accuracy. Recently, a modified of mixture equation for high dielectric constant ceramics at microwave frequency has also been presented for strontium titanate (SrTiO3) which was selected from five more well known mixing rules and has shown a good accuracy for high dielectric constant measurements. However, it is still not clear the accuracy of this modified equation for other high dielectric constant materials. Therefore, the five more well known mixing rules are selected again to understand their application to other high dielectric constant ceramics. The other high dielectric constant ceramic, TiO2 with dielectric constant 100, was then chosen for this research. Their theoretical error equations are derived. In addition to the theoretical research, experimental measurements are always required. Titanium dioxide is an interesting ceramic for microwave applications. In this research, its powder is adopted as the filler material and polyethylene powder is like the matrix material. The dielectric constants of those ceramic-polyethylene composites with various compositions were measured at 10 GHz. The theoretical curves of the five published mixture equations are shown together with the measured results to understand the curve matching condition of each rule. Finally, based on the experimental observation and theoretical analysis, one of the five rules was selected and modified to a new powder mixture equation. This modified rule has show very good curve matching with the measurement data and low theoretical error. We can then calculate the dielectric constant of pure filler medium (titanium dioxide) by those mixing equations from the measured dielectric constants of composites. The accuracy on the estimating dielectric constant of pure ceramic by various mixture rules will be compared. This modified mixture rule has also shown good measurement accuracy on the dielectric constant of titanium dioxide ceramic. This study can be applied to the microwave dielectric properties measurements of other high dielectric constant ceramic materials in the future.

Keywords: Composites, dielectric constant, microwave measurement, mixture rules

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8 Structural and Electrical Characterization of Polypyrrole and Cobalt Aluminum Oxide Nanocomposites

Authors: Sutar Rani Ananda, M. V. Murugendrappa


To investigate electrical properties of conducting polypyrrole (PPy) and cobalt aluminum oxide (CAO) nanocomposites, impedance analyzer in frequency range of 100 Hz to 5 MHz is used. In this work, PPy/CAO nanocomposites were synthesized by chemical oxidation polymerization method in different weight percent of CAO in PPy. The dielectric properties and AC conductivity studies were carried out for different nanocomposites in temperature range of room temperature to 180 °C. With the increase in frequency, the dielectric constant for all the nanocomposites was observed to decrease. AC conductivity of PPy was improved by addition of CAO nanopowder.

Keywords: dielectric constant, dielectric loss, polypyrrole, AC conductivity

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7 Dielectric Properties of Ni-Al Nano Ferrites Synthesized by Citrate Gel Method

Authors: D. Ravinder, K. S. Nagaraju


Ni–Al ferrite with composition of NiAlxFe2-xO4 (x=0.2, 0.4 0.6, and 0.8, ) were prepared by citrate gel method. The dielectric properties for all the samples were investigated at room temperature as a function of frequency. The dielectric constant shows dispersion in the lower frequency region and remains almost constant at higher frequencies. The frequency dependence of dielectric loss tangent (tanδ) is found to be abnormal, giving a peak at certain frequency for mixed Ni-Al ferrites. A qualitative explanation is given for the composition and frequency dependence of the dielectric loss tangent.

Keywords: dielectric constant, ferrites, citrate method, lattice parameter

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6 Dielectric Study of Ethanol Water Mixtures at Different Concentration Using Hollow Channel Cantilever Platform

Authors: Maryam S. Ghoraishi, John E. Hawk, Thomas Thundat


Understanding liquid properties in small scale has become important in recent decades as immerging new microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices have been widely used for micro pumps, drug delivery, and many other laboratory-on-microchips analysis. Often in microfluidic devices, fluids are transported electrokinetically. Therefore, extensive knowledge of fluid flow, heat transport, electrokinetics and electrochemistry are key to successful lab on a chip design. Among different microfluidic devices, recently developed hollow channel cantilever offers an ideal platform to study different fluid properties simultaneously without drastic decrease in quality factor which normally occurs when traditional cantilevers operate in the liquid phase. Using hollow channel cantilever, we monitor changes in density and viscosity of liquid while simultaneously investigating dielectric properties of alcohol water binary mixtures. Considerable research has been conducted on alcohol-water mixtures since such a mixture is a typical prototype for biomolecules, Micelle formation, and structural stability of proteins (to name a few). Here we show that hollow channel cantilever can be employed to investigate dielectric properties of ethanol/water mixtures in different concentrations. We study dynamic amplitude shifts of hollow channel cantilever oscillation at different concentrations of ethanol/water for different voltages. Our results show how interactions between solute and solvent, and possibly cluster formation, could change dielectric properties and dipole reorientation of the mixture, as well as the resulting force on the hollow cantilever. For comparison, we also examine higher conductivity ionic mixtures of sodium sulfate solution under the same conditions as low conductivity ethanol/water mixtures. We will show the results from systematic investigation of solvent effects on dielectric properties of the binary mixture. We will also address the question of resolution limits in dielectric study of analyte molecules imposed by solvent concentrations.

Keywords: Low Frequency, dielectric constant, cantilever sensors, ethanol water mixtures

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5 Microwave Dielectric Properties and Microstructures of Nd(Ti₀.₅W₀.₅)O₄ Ceramics for Application in Wireless Gas Sensors

Authors: Yih-Chien Chen, Yue-Xuan Du, Min-Zhe Weng


Carbon monoxide is a substance produced by the incomplete combustion. It is toxic even at concentrations of less than 100ppm. Since it is colorless and odorless, it is difficult to detect. CO sensors have been developed using a variety of physical mechanisms, including semiconductor oxides, solid electrolytes, and organic semiconductors. Many works have focused on using semiconducting sensors composed of sensitive layers such as ZnO, TiO₂, and NiO with high sensitivity for gases. However, these sensors working at high temperatures increased their power consumption. On the other hand, the dielectric resonator (DR) is attractive for gas detection due to its large surface area and sensitivity for external environments. Materials that are to be employed in sensing devices must have a high-quality factor. Numerous researches into the fergusonite-type structure and related ceramic systems have explored. Extensive research into RENbO₄ ceramics has explored their potential application in resonators, filters, and antennas in modern communication systems, which are operated at microwave frequencies. Nd(Ti₀.₅W₀.₅)O₄ ceramics were synthesized herein using the conventional mixed-oxide method. The Nd(Ti₀.₅W₀.₅)O₄ ceramics were prepared using the conventional solid-state method. Dielectric constants (εᵣ) of 15.4-19.4 and quality factor (Q×f) of 3,600-11,100 GHz were obtained at sintering temperatures in the range 1425-1525°C for 4 h. The dielectric properties of the Nd(Ti₀.₅W₀.₅)O₄ ceramics at microwave frequencies were found to vary with the sintering temperature. For a further understanding of these microwave dielectric properties, they were analyzed by densification, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and by making microstructural observations.

Keywords: Sensors, dielectric constant, quality factor, dielectric resonators

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4 Heteromolecular Structure Formation in Aqueous Solutions of Ethanol, Tetrahydrofuran and Dimethylformamide

Authors: Sh. Gofurov, O. Ismailova, U. Makhmanov, A. Kokhkharov


The refractometric method has been used to determine optical properties of concentration features of aqueous solutions of ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide at the room temperature. Changes in dielectric permittivity of aqueous solutions of ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide in a wide range of concentrations (0÷1.0 molar fraction) have been studied using molecular dynamics method. The curves depending on the concentration of experimental data on excess refractive indices and excess dielectric permittivity were compared. It has been shown that stable heteromolecular complexes in binary solutions are formed in the concentration range of 0.3÷0.4 mole fractions. The real and complex part of dielectric permittivity was obtained from dipole-dipole autocorrelation functions of molecules. At the concentrations of C = 0.3 / 0.4 m.f. the heteromolecular structures with hydrogen bonds are formed. This is confirmed by the extremum values of excessive dielectric permittivity and excessive refractive index of aqueous solutions.

Keywords: Molecular Dynamics, dielectric constant, aqueous solution, refractometric method

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3 Piezoelectric and Dielectric Properties of Poly(Vinylideneflouride-Hexafluoropropylene)/ZnO Nanocomposites

Authors: P. Hemalatha, Deepalekshmi Ponnamma, Mariam Al Ali Al-Maadeed


The Poly(vinylideneflouride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP)/ zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocomposites films were successfully prepared by mixing the fine ZnO particles into PVDF-HFP solution followed by film casting and sandwich techniques. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the structure and properties of the obtained nanocomposites. The dielectric properties of the PVDF-HFP/ZnO nanocomposites were analyzed in detail. In comparison with pure PVDF-HFP, the dielectric constant of the nanocomposite (1wt% ZnO) was significantly improved. The piezoelectric co-efficients of the nanocomposites films were measured. Experimental results revealed the influence of filler on the properties of PVDF-HFP and enhancement in the output performance and dielectric properties reflects the ability for energy storage capabilities.

Keywords: Hydrothermal, Organic Compounds, dielectric constant, nanoflowers

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2 Dielectric Spectroscopy Investigation of Hydrophobic Silica Aerogel

Authors: Sahin Yakut, Deniz Deger, Deniz Bozoglu, Kemal Ulutas


In recent years, silica aerogels have attracted great attention due to their outstanding properties, and their wide variety of potential applications such as microelectronics, nuclear and high-energy physics, optics and acoustics, superconductivity, space-physics. Hydrophobic silica aerogels were successfully synthesized in one-step by surface modification at ambient pressure. FT-IR result confirmed that Si-OH groups were successfully converted into hydrophobic and non-polar Si-CH3 groups by surface modification using trimethylchloro silane (TMCS) as co-precursor. Using Alpha-A High-Resolution Dielectric, Conductivity and Impedance Analyzer, AC conductivity of samples were examined at temperature range 293-423 K and measured over frequency range between 1-106 Hz. The characteristic relaxation time decreases with increasing temperature. The AC conductivity follows σ_AC (ω)=σ_t-σ_DC=Aω^s relation at frequencies higher than 10 Hz, and the dominant conduction mechanism is found to obey the Correlated Barrier Hopping (CBH) mechanism. At frequencies lower than 10 Hz, the electrical conduction is found to be in accordance with DC conduction mechanism. The activation energies obtained from AC conductivity results and it was observed two relaxation regions.

Keywords: Synthesis, Aerogel, dielectric constant, dielectric loss, relaxation time

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1 Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Neodymium and Erbium Doped Bismuth Ferrite Multifunctional Materials for Spintronic Devices

Authors: Ravinder Dachepalli, NAVEENA GADWALA, K. Vani


Nd and Er substituted bismuth nano crystalline multifunctional materials were prepared by citrate gel autocombution technique. The structural characterization was carried out by XRD and SEM. Electrical properties such are electrical conductivity and dielectric properties have been measured. Plots of electrical conductivity versus temperature increases with increasing temperature and shown a transition near Curie temperature. Dielectric properties such are dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent have been measured from 20Hz to 2 MHz at room temperature. Plots of dielectric constant versus frequency show a normal dielectric behaviour of multifunctional materials. Temperature dependence of magnetic properties of Bi-Nd and Bi-Er multi-functional materials were carried out by using Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The magnetization as a function of an applied field ±100 Oe was carried out at 3K and 360 K. Zero field Cooled (ZFC) and Field Cooled (FC) magnetization measurements under an applied field of 100Oe a in the temperature range of 5-375K. The observed results can be explained for spintronic devices.

Keywords: dielectric constant, Bi-Nd and Bi-Er Multifunctional Materia, Citrate Gel Auto combustion Technique, FC-ZFC magnetization

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