Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

diclofenac Related Abstracts

6 Randomized Controlled Study of the Antipyretic Efficacy of Oral Paracetamol, Intravenous Paracetamol, and Intramuscular Diclofenac

Authors: Firjeeth C. Paramba, Vamanjore A. Naushad, Nishan K. Purayil, Osama H. Mohammed, Prem Chandra

Abstract:

Background: Fever is a common problem in adults visiting the emergency department. Extensive studies have been done in children comparing the efficacy of various antipyretics. However, studies on the efficacy of antipyretic drugs in adults are very scarce. To the best of our knowledge, no controlled trial has been carried out comparing the antipyretic efficacy of paracetamol (oral and intravenous) and intramuscular diclofenac in adults. Methods: In this parallel-group, open-label trial, participants aged 14–75 years presenting with fever who had a temperature of more than 38.5°C were enrolled and treated. Participants were randomly allocated to receive treatment with 1,000 mg oral paracetamol (n=145), 1,000 mg intravenous paracetamol (n=139), or 75 mg intramuscular diclofenac (n=150). The primary outcome was degree of reduction in mean oral temperature at 90 minutes. The efficacy of diclofenac versus oral and intravenous paracetamol was assessed by superiority comparison. Analysis was done using intention to treat principles. Results: After 90 minutes, all three groups showed a significant reduction in mean temperature, with intramuscular diclofenac showing the greatest reduction (−1.44 ± 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] −1.4 to −2.5) and oral paracetamol the least (−1.08 ± 0.51, 95% CI −0.99 to −2.2). After 120 minutes, there was a significant difference observed in the mean change from baseline temperature between the three treatment groups (P, 0.0001). Significant changes in temperature were observed in favor of intramuscular diclofenac over oral and intravenous paracetamol at each time point from 60 minutes through 120 minutes inclusive. Conclusion: Both intramuscular diclofenac and intravenous paracetamol showed superior antipyretic activity than oral paracetamol. However, in view of its ease of administration, intramuscular diclofenac can be used as a first-choice antipyretic in febrile adults in the emergency department.

Keywords: Emergency Department, antipyretic, intramuscular, intravenous, paracetamol, diclofenac

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5 Antimicrobial Efficacy of Some Antibiotics Combinations Tested against Some Molecular Characterized Multiresistant Staphylococcus Clinical Isolates, in Egypt

Authors: Nourhan Hussein Fanaki, Hoda Mohamed Gamal El-Din Omar, Nihal Kadry Moussa, Eva Adel Edward Farid

Abstract:

The resistance of staphylococci to various antibiotics has become a major concern for health care professionals. The efficacy of the combinations of selected glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) with gentamicin or rifampicin, as well as that of gentamicin/rifampicin combination, was studied against selected pathogenic staphylococcus isolated from Egypt. The molecular distribution of genes conferring resistance to these four antibiotics was detected among tested clinical isolates. Antibiotic combinations were studied using the checkerboard technique and the time-kill assay (in both the stationary and log phases). Induction of resistance to glycopeptides in staphylococci was tried in the absence and presence of diclofenac sodium as inducer. Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the effect of glycopeptides on the ultrastructure of the cell wall of staphylococci. Attempts were made to cure gentamicin resistance plasmids and to study the transfer of these plasmids by conjugation. Trials for the transformation of the successfully isolated gentamicin resistance plasmid to competent cells were carried out. The detection of genes conferring resistance to the tested antibiotics was performed using the polymerase chain reaction. The studied antibiotic combinations proved their efficacy, especially when tested during the log phase. Induction of resistance to glycopeptides in staphylococci was more promising in presence of diclofenac sodium, compared to its absence. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the thickening of bacterial cell wall in staphylococcus clinical isolates due to the presence of tested glycopeptides. Curing of gentamicin resistance plasmids was only successful in 2 out of 9 tested isolates, with a curing rate of 1 percent for each. Both isolates, when used as donors in conjugation experiments, yielded promising conjugation frequencies ranging between 5.4 X 10-2 and 7.48 X 10-2 colony forming unit/donor cells. Plasmid isolation was only successful in one out of the two tested isolates. However, low transformation efficiency (59.7 transformants/microgram plasmid DNA) of such plasmids was obtained. Negative regulators of autolysis, such as arlR, lytR and lrgB, as well as cell-wall associated genes, such as pbp4 and/or pbp2, were detected in staphylococcus isolates with reduced susceptibility to the tested glycopeptides. Concerning rifampicin resistance genes, rpoBstaph was detected in 75 percent of the tested staphylococcus isolates. It could be concluded that in vitro studies emphasized the usefulness of the combination of vancomycin or teicoplanin with gentamicin or rifampicin, as well as that of gentamicin with rifampicin, against staphylococci showing varying resistance patterns. However, further in vivo studies are required to ensure the safety and efficacy of such combinations. Diclofenac sodium can act as an inducer of resistance to glycopeptides in staphylococci. Cell-wall thickness is a major contributor to such resistance among them. Gentamicin resistance in these strains could be chromosomally or plasmid mediated. Multiple mutations in the rpoB gene could mediate staphylococcus resistance to rifampicin.

Keywords: Transmission Electron Microscopy, Polymerase chain reaction, Glycopeptides, diclofenac, combinations, induction

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4 Impect of Human on Prey of Birds in North West Rajasthan

Authors: Dau Lal Bohra, Sradha Vyas

Abstract:

Bird species are already showing climate-related changes in the dates they migrate and breed, and in the timing of other key life-history events. Treats of feeding managements raptors have performed important ecological, traditional and aesthetic functions throughout the Indian subcontinent. The declines in India result from elevated adult and juvenile mortality, and low breeding success. The widespread and rapid pattern of declines, i.e. in all areas irrespective of habitat or protection status suggest that persecution through shooting or poisoning, whilst important at a local scale, are unlikely to have caused the declines. A mass killing of several species of vultures in the Indian subcontinent over the last two decades is largely blamed on the presence of a drug. Veterinary diclofenac caused an unprecedented decline in South Asia’s Gyps vulture populations, with some species declining by more than 97% between 1992 and 2007. Veterinary diclofenac causes renal failure in vultures, and killed tens of millions of such birds in the Indian sub-continent. The drug was finally banned there for veterinary purposes in 2006. This drug is now ‘a global problem’ threatening many vulnerable birds of prey. Recently, stappe eagles are also susceptible to veterinary diclofenac, effectively increasing the potential threat level, and the risks for European biodiversity. Steppe eagles are closely related with golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetus), imperial eagles (Aquila heliaca) and Spanish imperial eagles (Aquila adalberti), and all these species scavenge opportunistically on carcasses throughout their range. The Spanish imperial eagle, considered Vulnerable at global level, is now particularly at risk, due to the availability of diclofenac in Spain. These findings strengthen the case for banning veterinary diclofenac across. From year 2011 to 2014 more than 300 hundred birds dead in jorbeer, Bikaner. Now, with unequivocal evidence that this veterinary drug can cause a much wider impact on Europe´s biodiversity, it is time for action – please ban diclofenac human brand also in multi-dose vial from market.

Keywords: diclofenac, mortility, prey of birds, Rajasthan

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3 Biodegradation of Carbamazepine and Diclofenac by Bacterial Strain Labrys Portucalensis

Authors: P. M. L. Castro, V. S. Bessa, I. S. Moreira, S. Murgolo, C. Piccirillo, G. Mascolo

Abstract:

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the environment has been a topic of increasing concern. Pharmaceuticals are not completely mineralized in the human body and are released on the sewage systems as the pharmaceutical itself and as their “biologically active” metabolites through excretion, as well as by improper elimination and disposal. Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are not designed to remove these emerging pollutants and they are thus released into the environment. The antiepileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ) and the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory diclofenac (DCF) are two widely used pharmaceuticals, frequently detected in water bodies, including rivers and groundwater, in concentrations ranging from ng L 1 to mg L 1. These two compounds were classified as medium to high-risk pollutants in WWTP effluents and surface waters. Also, CBZ has been suggested as a molecular marker of wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater and the European Union included DCF in the watch list of substances Directive to be monitored. In the present study, biodegradation of CBZ and DCF by the bacterial strain Labrys portucalensis F11, a strain able to degrade other pharmaceutical compounds, was assessed; tests were performed with F11 as single carbon and energy source, as well as in presence of 5.9mM of sodium acetate. In assays supplemented with 2.0 and 4.0 µM of CBZ, the compound was no longer detected in the bulk medium after 24hr and 5days, respectively. Complete degradation was achieved in 21 days for 11.0 µM and in 23 days for 21.0 µM. For the highest concentration tested (43.0 µM), 95% of degradation was achieved in 30days. Supplementation with acetate increased the degradation rate of CBZ, for all tested concentrations. In the case of DCF, when supplemented as a single carbon source, approximately 70% of DCF (1.7, 3.3, 8.4, 17.5 and 34.0 µM) was degraded in 30days. Complete degradation was achieved in the presence of acetate for all tested concentrations, at higher degradation rates. The detection of intermediates produced during DCF biodegradation was performed by UPLC-QTOF/MS/MS, which allowed the identification of a range of metabolites. Stoichiometric liberation of chorine occurred and no metabolites were detected at the end of the biodegradation assays suggesting a complete mineralization of DCF. Strain Labrys portucalensis F11 proved to be able to degrade these two top priority environmental contaminants and may be potentially useful for biotechnological applications/environment remediation.

Keywords: Pharmaceuticals, biodegradation, diclofenac, carbamazepine

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2 Histopathological Alterations in Liver of Mice Exposed to Different Doses of Diclofenac Sodium

Authors: Deepak Mohan, Sushma Sharma

Abstract:

Diclofenac sodium, a member of the acetic acid family of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, is used to retard inflammation, arthritis pain and ankylosing spondylitis. The drug is known to cause severe injury in different tissues due to formation of reactive oxygen species. The present study is focused on the effect of different doses of diclofenac (4 mg/kg/body weight and 14 mg/kg/body weight on histoarchitecture of the liver from 7-28 days of the investigation. Diclofenac administration resulted in distorted hepatic degeneration and formation of wide areas in the form of sinusoidal gaps. Hepatic fibrosis noticed in different stages of investigation could be attributed to chronic inflammation and reactive oxygen species which results in deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The abrupt degenerative changes observed during later stages of the experiment showed maximum damage to the liver, and there was enlargement of sinusoidal gaps accompanied by maximum necrosis in the tissues.

Keywords: arthritis, diclofenac, sinusoidal, histoarchitecture

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1 Electrophoretic Changes in Testis and Liver of Mice after Exposure to Diclofenac Sodium

Authors: MOHAMMAD ASIF, Deepak Mohan, Sushma Sharma

Abstract:

Diclofenac sodium being one of the most common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is normally used as painkiller and to reduce inflammation. The drug is known to alter the enzymatic activities of acid and alkaline phosphatase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminases. The drug also results in change in the concentration of proteins and lipids in the body. The present study is an attempt to study different biochemical changes electrophoretically due to administration of different doses of diclofenac (4mg/kg/body weight and 14mg/kg/body weight) on liver and testes of mice from 7-28 days of investigation. Homogenization of the tissue was done, supernatant separated was loaded in the gel and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was conducted. Diclofenac administration resulted in alterations of all these biochemical parameters which were observed in native polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic studies. The severe degenerative changes as observed during later stages of the experiment showed correlation with increase or decrease in the activities of all the enzymes studied in the present investigation. Image analysis of gel in liver showed a decline of 7.4 and 5.3 % in low and high dose group after 7 days whereas a decline of 9.6 and 7.5% was registered after 28 days of investigation. Similar analysis for testis also showed an appreciable decline in the activity of alkaline phosphatase after 28 days. Gel analysis of serum was also performed to find a correlation in the enzymatic activities between the tissue and blood.

Keywords: Inflammation, diclofenac, polyacrylamide, phosphatase

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