Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Dialysis Related Abstracts

7 Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Polycystic Kidney Disease Using ANN

Authors: G. Anjan Babu, G. Sumana, M. Rajasekhar


Many inherited diseases and non-hereditary disorders are common in the development of renal cystic diseases. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a disorder developed within the kidneys in which grouping of cysts filled with water like fluid. PKD is responsible for 5-10% of end-stage renal failure treated by dialysis or transplantation. New experimental models, application of molecular biology techniques have provided new insights into the pathogenesis of PKD. Researchers are showing keen interest for developing an automated system by applying computer aided techniques for the diagnosis of diseases. In this paper a multi-layered feed forward neural network with one hidden layer is constructed, trained and tested by applying back propagation learning rule for the diagnosis of PKD based on physical symptoms and test results of urinanalysis collected from the individual patients. The data collected from 50 patients are used to train and test the network. Among these samples, 75% of the data used for training and remaining 25% of the data are used for testing purpose. Furthermore, this trained network is used to implement for new samples. The output results in normality and abnormality of the patient.

Keywords: Hereditary, Pathogenesis, Transplantation, Dialysis, polycystic

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6 Inclusion Body Refolding at High Concentration for Large-Scale Applications

Authors: H. J. Jördening, J. Gabrielczyk, J. Kluitmann, T. Dammeyer


High-level expression of proteins in bacteria often causes production of insoluble protein aggregates, called inclusion bodies (IB). They contain mainly one type of protein and offer an easy and efficient way to get purified protein. On the other hand, proteins in IB are normally devoid of function and therefore need a special treatment to become active. Most refolding techniques aim at diluting the solubilizing chaotropic agents. Unfortunately, optimal refolding conditions have to be found empirically for every protein. For large-scale applications, a simple refolding process with high yields and high final enzyme concentrations is still missing. The constructed plasmid pASK-IBA63b containing the sequence of fructosyltransferase (FTF, EC from Bacillus subtilis NCIMB 11871 was transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) Rosetta. The bacterium was cultivated in a fed-batch bioreactor. The produced FTF was obtained mainly as IB. For refolding experiments, five different amounts of IBs were solubilized in urea buffer with protein concentration of 0.2-8.5 g/L. Solubilizates were refolded with batch or continuous dialysis. The refolding yield was determined by measuring the protein concentration of the clear supernatant before and after the dialysis. Particle size was measured by dynamic light scattering. We tested the solubilization properties of fructosyltransferase IBs. The particle size measurements revealed that the solubilization of the aggregates is achieved at urea concentration of 5M or higher and confirmed by absorption spectroscopy. All results confirm previous investigations that refolding yields are dependent upon initial protein concentration. In batch dialysis, the yields dropped from 67% to 12% and 72% to 19% for continuous dialysis, in relation to initial concentrations from 0.2 to 8.5 g/L. Often used additives such as sucrose and glycerol had no effect on refolding yields. Buffer screening indicated a significant increase in activity but also temperature stability of FTF with citrate/phosphate buffer. By adding citrate to the dialysis buffer, we were able to increase the refolding yields to 82-47% in batch and 90-74% in the continuous process. Further experiments showed that in general, higher ionic strength of buffers had major impact on refolding yields; doubling the buffer concentration increased the yields up to threefold. Finally, we achieved corresponding high refolding yields by reducing the chamber volume by 75% and the amount of buffer needed. The refolded enzyme had an optimal activity of 12.5±0.3 x104 units/g. However, detailed experiments with native FTF revealed a reaggregation of the molecules and loss in specific activity depending on the enzyme concentration and particle size. For that reason, we actually focus on developing a process of simultaneous enzyme refolding and immobilization. The results of this study show a new approach in finding optimal refolding conditions for inclusion bodies at high concentrations. Straightforward buffer screening and increase of the ionic strength can optimize the refolding yield of the target protein by 400%. Gentle removal of chaotrope with continuous dialysis increases the yields by an additional 65%, independent of the refolding buffer applied. In general time is the crucial parameter for successful refolding of solubilized proteins.

Keywords: Dialysis, refolding, solubilization, inclusion body

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5 Cognitive Impairment in Chronic Renal Patients on Hemodialysis

Authors: Fabiana Souza Orlandi, Juliana Gomes Duarte, Gabriela Dutra Gesualdo


Chronic renal disease (CKD), accompanied by hemodialysis, causes chronic renal failure in a number of situations that compromises not only physical, personal and environmental aspects, but also psychological, social and family aspects. Objective: To verify the level of cognitive impairment of chronic renal patients on hemodialysis. Methodology: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. The present study was performed in a Dialysis Center of a city in the interior of the State of São Paulo. The inclusion criteria were: being 18 years or older; have a medical diagnosis of CKD; being in hemodialysis treatment in this unit; and agree to participate in the research, with the signature of the Informed Consent (TCLE). A total of 115 participants were evaluated through the Participant Characterization Instrument and the Addenbrooke Cognitive Exam - Revised Version (ACE-R), being scored from 0 to 100, stipulating the cut-off note for the complete battery <78 and subdivided into five domains: attention and guidance; memory; fluency; language; (66.9%) and caucasian (54.7%), 53.7 (±14.8) years old. Most of the participants were retired (74.7%), with incomplete elementary schooling (36.5%) and the average time of treatment was 46 months. Most of the participants (61.3%) presented impairment in the area of attention and orientation, 80.4% in the spatial visual domain. Regarding the total ACE-R score, 75.7% of the participants presented scores below the established cut grade. Conclusion: There was a high percentage (75.7%) below the cut-off score established for ACE-R, suggesting that there may be some cognitive impairment among these participants, since the instrument only performs a screening on cognitive health. The results of the study are extremely important so that possible interventions can be traced in order to minimize impairment, thus improving the quality of life of chronic renal patients.

Keywords: Cognition, Dialysis, chronic renal insufficiency, adult health

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4 Evaluation of the Pain of Patients with Chronic Renal Disease in Hemodialysis

Authors: Fabiana Souza Orlandi, Izabel Cristina Chavez Gomes, Barbara Isabela De Paula Morais, Ana Carolina Ottaviani


Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is considered a public health problem. Patients who present CKD in their more advanced stages usually present several biopsychosocial changes, which may include pain. Pain can be considered subjective and personal, and its perception is characterized as a multidimensional experience. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level and descriptors of pain of adults and elderly patients with chronic kidney disease, through the Multidimensional Pain Evaluation Scale (EMADOR). This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. The sample consisted of 100 subjects with CKD in hemodialysis treatment at a Renal Replacement Therapy Service in the interior of the state of São Paulo. Data were collected through an individual interview, using a Sociodemographic Characterization and Multidimensional Pain Evaluation Scale (EMADOR). All ethical precepts were respected. The majority of the respondents were men (61.0%), white (56.0%) and with a high school education (34.0%). Regarding the pain of the individuals, 89 patients reported pain, with Chronic Pain predominating (50.0%, n = 50), followed by Acute Pain (39.0%, n = 39). Of the subjects who presented acute pain most of the 89.0% described the pain felt as unbearable, and of those who presented chronic pain, 35.0% described the pain felt as painful, unbearable and uncomfortable. It was concluded that there was a significant presence of pain, being the chronic pain dominant in the studied population. Faced with such factors, the present study motivates researches in this population, in order to establish interventions with the objective of improving the quality of life of these individuals.

Keywords: Evaluation, Pain, Dialysis, Chronic kidney disease

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3 Spectrum of Acute Kidney Injury in Obstetrics

Authors: Amandeep Kaur, Vanita Suri, Seema Chopra, Shalini Gainder, Minakshi Rohilla


Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) associated with pregnancy is a serious medical complication which can lead to significant maternal as well as perinatal morbidity and mortality. Material and methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology department and dialysis unit of Nephrology department of PGIMER, Chandigarh from July 2013 to June 2014. Forty antenatal/postnatal/postabortal patients who fulfilled the AKIN criteria were enrolled in the study. All patients were followed up till 3 months postpartum. Results: Majority of the patients 23/40 (57.5%) with AKI presented in postpartum period, 14/40 (35%) developed AKI in antenatal period, and 3/40 (7.5%) were postabortal. AKI was attributable mostly to sepsis in 11/40 (27.5%) and PPH in 5/40 (12.5%). Hypertension and its complications causing AKI included eclampsia in 5/40 (12.5%) followed by 3/40 (7.5%) as HELLP syndrome and abruption placentae in 2/40(5%) patients. Three patients each (7.5%) had AFLP, TMA, and HEV as the cause of AKI. Renal replacement therapy in the form of hemodialysis was the treatment in majority of them (28 (70%)). After the acute event, 25 (62.5%) had complete recovery of their renal functions at 3 months follow up. Maternal mortality was seen in 25% (n=10) of the study patients. Conclusion: Timely initiation of RRT in patients with AKI associated with pregnancy has a good maternal outcome in the form of complete recovery of renal functions in 62.5% (25/40) of patients.

Keywords: Hypertension, Dialysis, sepsis, AKI, renal parameters

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2 Dialysis Access Surgery for Patients in Renal Failure: A 10-Year Institutional Experience

Authors: Hansraj Bookun, Daniel Thompson, Muhammad Peerbux, Sophie Cerutti


Introduction: Dialysis access is a key component of the care of patients with end stage renal failure. In our institution, a combined service of vascular surgeons and nephrologists are responsible for the creation and maintenance of arteriovenous fisultas (AVF), tenckhoff cathethers and Hickman/permcath lines. This poster investigates the last 10 years of dialysis access surgery conducted at St. Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne. Method: A cross-sectional retrospective analysis was conducted of patients of St. Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne (Victoria, Australia) utilising data collection from the Australasian Vascular Audit (Australian and New Zealand Society for Vascular Surgery). Descriptive demographic analysis was carried out as well as operation type, length of hospital stays, postoperative deaths and need for reoperation. Results: 2085 patients with renal failure were operated on between the years of 2011 and 2020. 1315 were male (63.1%) and 770 were female (36.9%). The mean age was 58 (SD 13.8). 92% of patients scored three or greater on the American Society of Anesthiologiests classification system. Almost half had a history of ischaemic heart disease (48.4%), more than half had a history of diabetes (64%), and a majority had hypertension (88.4%). 1784 patients had a creatinine over 150mmol/L (85.6%), the rest were on dialysis (14.4%). The most common access procedure was AVF creation, with 474 autologous AVFs and 64 prosthetic AVFs. There were 263 Tenckhoff insertions. We performed 160 cadeveric renal transplants. The most common location for AVF formation was brachiocephalic (43.88%) followed by radiocephalic (36.7%) and brachiobasilic (16.67%). Fistulas that required re-intervention were most commonly angioplastied (n=163), followed by thrombectomy (n=136). There were 107 local fistula repairs. Average length of stay was 7.6 days, (SD 12). There were 106 unplanned returns to theatre, most commonly for fistula creation, insertion of tenckhoff or permacath removal (71.7%). There were 8 deaths in the immediately postoperative period. Discussion: Access to dialysis is vital for patients with end stage kidney disease, and requires a multidisciplinary approach from both nephrologists, vascular surgeons, and allied health practitioners. Our service provides a variety of dialysis access methods, predominately fistula creation and tenckhoff insertion. Patients with renal failure are heavily comorbid, and prolonged hospital admission following surgery is a source of significant healthcare expenditure. AVFs require careful monitoring and maintenance for ongoing utility, and our data reflects a multitude of operations required to maintain usable access. The requirement for dialysis is growing worldwide and our data demonstrates a local experience in access, with preferred methods, common complications and the associated surgical interventions.

Keywords: Nephrology, Dialysis, Vascular Surgery, fistula

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1 Hemodialysis Technique in a Diabetic Population

Authors: Hansraj Bookun, Daniel Thompson, Muhammad Peerbux, Sophie Cerutti


Introduction: Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause end stage renal failure in Australia, responsible for 36% of cases. Patients who require dialysis may be suitable for haemodialysis through an arteriovenous fistula (AVF), and preoperatively careful planning is required to select suitable vessels for a long-lasting fistula that provides suitable dialysis access. Due to high levels of vascular disease in diabetic patients, we sought to investigate whether there is a difference in the types of autologous AVFs created for diabetic patients in renal failure compared to their non-diabetic counterparts. Method: Data was collected from the Australasian Vascular Audit, for all vascular surgery completed at St. Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne between 2011-2020. Patients were selected by operative type, creation of AVF, and compared in two groups, diabetic patients and patients without diabetes. Chi-squared test was utilised to determine significance. Results: Data analysis is ongoing and will be complete with updated abstract in time for the conference. Discussion: Diabetic nephropathy is the cause for roughly a third of end stage renal failure in Australia. Diabetic patients present with a unique set of challenges when it comes to dialysis access due to increased risk of peripheral vascular disease and arterial calcification. Care must be taken in the creation of fistulas to minimise complications and increase the chance of long-lasting access. Our study investigates the difference in autologous AVFs between diabetics and non-diabetics, and results may be used to influence location of fistula creation. Further research may be used to investigate patency rates of fistulas in diabetics vs non-diabetics which would further influence treatment decisions.

Keywords: Diabetes, Dialysis, fistula, renal access

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