Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

diagenesis Related Abstracts

3 Carbonate Microfacies and Diagenesis of Klapanunggal Formation in Cileungsi District, Bogor Regency, West Java Province, Indonesia

Authors: Reghina Karyadi, Abdurrokhim, Lili Fauzielly


Administratively, the research area is located in Cileungsi District, Bogor Regency, West Java Province, Indonesia. Geographically, it located at 106° 56’ 1,9392” - 107° 1’ 27,8112” East Longitude and 6° 32’ 29,3712” - 6° 27’ 5,6124” South Latitude. This research is being held as a purpose to observe microfacies and limestone diagenesis that happened in the study area. Dominantly, the area fulfills of various hills that formed by carbonate and sediment stones which folded and faulted. The method that using in this research is analysis the outcrop data and petrography by using red alizarin for differentiating of minerals type. Microfacies type and diagenesis processes can be known from petrography analysis results like rock texture, rock structure, porosity, type of grain and fossils. The result of research shows that carbonate rocks in the study area can be divided into 3 types microfasies, which is Reef Microfacies (SMF 7), Shallow Water Microfacies (SMF 9), and Textural Inversion Microfacies (SMF 10). Whereas diagenesis process that happened is microbial micritization, compaction, neomorphism, cementation and dissolution process.

Keywords: limestone, carbonate, microfacies, diagenesis

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2 Research on Tight Sandstone Oil Accumulation Process of the Third Member of Shahejie Formation in Dongpu Depression, China

Authors: Hui Li, Xiongqi Pang


In recent years, tight oil has become a hot spot for unconventional oil and gas exploration and development in the world. Dongpu Depression is a typical hydrocarbon-rich basin in the southwest of Bohai Bay Basin, in which tight sandstone oil and gas have been discovered in deep reservoirs, most of which are buried more than 3500m. The distribution and development characteristics of deep tight sandstone reservoirs need to be studied. The main source rocks in study area are dark mudstone and shale of the middle and lower third sub-member of Shahejie Formation. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content of source rock is between 0.08-11.54%, generally higher than 0.6% and the value of S1+S2 is between 0.04–72.93 mg/g, generally higher than 2 mg/g. It can be evaluated as middle to fine level overall. The kerogen type of organic matter is predominantly typeⅡ1 andⅡ2. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro) is mostly greater than 0.6% indicating that the source rock entered the hydrocarbon generation threshold. The physical property of reservoir was poor, the most reservoir has a porosity lower than 12% and a permeability of less than 1×10⁻³μm. The rocks in this area showed great heterogeneity, some areas developed desserts with high porosity and permeability. According to SEM, thin section image, inclusion test and so on, the reservoir was affected by compaction and cementation during early diagenesis stage (44-31Ma). The diagenesis caused the tight reservoir in Huzhuangji, Pucheng, Weicheng Area while the porosity in Machang, Qiaokou, Wenliu Area was still over 12%. In the process of middle diagenesis phase stage A (31-17Ma), the reservoir porosity in Machang, Pucheng, Huzhuangji Area increased due to dissolution; after that the oil generation window of source rock was achieved for the first phase hydrocarbon charging (31-23Ma), formed the conventional oil deposition in Machang, Qiaokou, Wenliu, Huzhuangji Area and unconventional tight reservoir in Pucheng, Weicheng Area. Then came to stage B of middle diagenesis phase (17-7Ma), in this stage, the porosity of reservoir continued to decrease after the dissolution and led to a situation that the reservoirs were generally compacted. And since then, the second hydrocarbon filling has been processing since 7Ma. Most of the pools charged and formed in this procedure are tight sandstone oil reservoir. In conclusion, tight sandstone oil was formed in two patterns in Dongpu Depression, which could be concluded as ‘density fist then accumulation’ pattern and ‘accumulation fist next density’ pattern.

Keywords: diagenesis, accumulation process, dongpu depression, tight sandstone oil

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1 Diagenesis of the Permian Ecca Sandstones and Mudstones, in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: Implications for the Shale Gas Potential of the Karoo Basin

Authors: Temitope L. Baiyegunhi, Christopher Baiyegunhi, Kuiwu Liu, Oswald Gwavava


Diagenesis is the most important factor that affects or impact the reservoir property. Despite the fact that published data gives a vast amount of information on the geology, sedimentology and lithostratigraphy of the Ecca Group in the Karoo Basin of South Africa, little is known of the diagenesis of the potentially feasible shales and sandstones of the Ecca Group. The study aims to provide a general account of the diagenesis of sandstones and mudstone of the Ecca Group. Twenty-five diagenetic textures and structures are identified and grouped into three regimes or stages that include eogenesis, mesogenesis and telogenesis. Clay minerals are the most common cementing materials in the Ecca sandstones and mudstones. Smectite, kaolinite and illite are the major clay minerals that act as pore lining rims and pore-filling cement. Most of the clay minerals and detrital grains were seriously attacked and replaced by calcite. Calcite precipitates locally in pore spaces and partly or completely replaced feldspar and quartz grains, mostly at their margins. Precipitation of cements and formation of pyrite and authigenic minerals as well as little lithification occurred during the eogenesis. This regime was followed by mesogenesis which brought about an increase in tightness of grain packing, loss of pore spaces and thinning of beds due to weight of overlying sediments and selective dissolution of framework grains. Compaction, mineral overgrowths, mineral replacement, clay-mineral authigenesis, deformation and pressure solution structures occurred during mesogenesis. During rocks were uplifted, weathered and unroofed by erosion, this resulted in additional grain fracturing, decementation and oxidation of iron-rich volcanic fragments and ferromagnesian minerals. The rocks of Ecca Group were subjected to moderate-intense mechanical and chemical compaction during its progressive burial. Intergranular pores, matrix micro pores, secondary intragranular, dissolution and fractured pores are the observed pores. The presence of fractured and dissolution pores tend to enhance reservoir quality. However, the isolated nature of the pores makes them unfavourable producers of hydrocarbons, which at best would require stimulation. The understanding of the space and time distribution of diagenetic processes in these rocks will allow the development of predictive models of their quality, which may contribute to the reduction of risks involved in their exploration.

Keywords: diagenesis, Ecca Group, reservoir quality, Karoo Supergroup

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