Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

dexamethasone Related Abstracts

9 Dexamethasone: Impact on Testicular Activity

Authors: Sadi-Guettaf Hassiba, Hadj-Bekkouche Fatima

Abstract:

Dexamethasone (Dex) is a synthetic glucocorticoid that is used in therapy. However prolonged treatments with high doses are often required. This causes side effects that interfere with the activity of several endocrine systems, including the gonadotropic axis. The aim of our study is to determine the effect of Dex on testicular function in prepubertal Wistar rats. Newborn Wistar rats are submitted to intraperitoneal injection of Dex (1μg of Dex dissolved in NaCl 0.9% / 5g bw) for 20 days and then sacrificed at the age of 40days. A control group received NaCl 0.9%. The rat is weighed daily. The plasmatic levels of testosterone, LH and FSH were measured by radioimmunoassay. A histo-morphometric study was performed on sections of testis. Treated groups showed a significant decrease in body weight (p < 0.05), testis weight (p < 0.05) and plasma levels of testosterone (p < 0.05), of LH (P < .05) and FSH (p> 0.05). There is a reduction of seminiferous tubules average diameter and also of the seminiferous epithelium thickness with an increasing of lumen tubular. The diameter of the Leydig cells and Sertoli cell nucleus is also significantly reduced. Spermatogenesis is blocked at the stage round spermatid unlike witnesses or elongated spermatid stage is found. These results suggest that Dex administered during neonatal life influences testicular activity in the long term.

Keywords: rat, dexamethasone, FSH, testis, testosterone

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8 Evaluation of Insulin Sensitizing Effects of Different Fractions from Total Alcoholic Extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Bark in Dexamethasone-Induced Insulin Resistant Rats

Authors: Hasanpasha N. Sholapur, Basanagouda M.Patil

Abstract:

Alcoholic extract of the bark of Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO), (Moringaceae), has been evaluated experimentally in the past for its insulin sensitizing potentials. In order to explore the possibility of the class of phytochemical(s) responsible for this experimental claim, the alcoholic extract was fractionated into non-polar [petroleum ether (PEF)], moderately non-polar [ethyl acetate (EAF)] and polar [aqueous (AQF)] fractions. All the fractions and pioglitazone (PIO) as standard (10mg/kg were p.o., once daily for 11 d) were investigated for their chronic effect on fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, insulin, oral glucose tolerance and acute effect on oral glucose tolerance in dexamethasone-induced (1 mg/kg s.c., once daily for 11 d) chronic model and acute model (1 mg/kg i.p., for 4 h) respectively for insulin resistance (IR) in rats. Among all the fractions tested, chronic treatment with EAF (140 mg/kg) and PIO (10 mg/kg) prevented dexamethasone-induced IR, indicated by prevention of hypertriglyceridemia, hyperinsulinemia and oral glucose intolerance, whereas treatment with AQF (95 mg/kg) prevented hepatic IR but not peripheral IR. In acute study single dose treatment with EAF (140 mg/kg) and PIO (10 mg/kg) prevented dexamethasone-induced oral glucose intolerance, fraction PEF did not show any effect on these parameters in both the models. The present study indicates that the triterpenoidal and the phenolic class of phytochemicals detected in EAF of alcoholic extract of MO bark may be responsible for the prevention of dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in rats.

Keywords: insulin resistance, insulin, Moringa oleifera, dexamethasone, serum triglyceride, oral glucose tolerance test

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7 Hepatoprotective Effects of Parsley, Basil, and Chicory Aqueous Extracts against Dexamethasone-Induced in Experimental Rats

Authors: Walaa G. Hozayen, Hanan A. Soliman, Mohamed A. El-Desouky, Rasha R. Ahmed, Amal K . Khaliefa

Abstract:

Aim: The objective of this study is to investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract of parsley, basil, and chicory whole plant in normal and dexamethasone (Dex) rats. Materials and Methods: 50 female albino rats were used in this study and divided into 5 groups (for each 10). Group (1) fed basal diet and maintained as negative control group. Group (2) received Dex in a dose of (0.1 mg/kg b. wt.). Groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated with Dex along with three different plant extracts of parsley, basil, and chicory (2 g/kg b. wt.), (400 mg/kg b. wt.), and (100 mg/kg b. wt.), respectively. Results: All these groups were treated given three times per week for 8 consecutive weeks. Dex-induced alterations in the levels of serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and cardiovascular indices and serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, liver thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) levels increased, while high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and liver glutathione (GSH) levels decreased. On the other hand, plant extracts succeeded to modulate these observed abnormalities resulting from Dex as indicated by the reduction of glucose, cholesterol, TBARS, and the pronounced improvement of the investigated biochemical and antioxidant parameters. Conclusions: It was concluded that probably, due to its antioxidant property, parsley, basil, and chicory extracts have hepatoprotective effects in Dex-induced in rats.

Keywords: Antioxidants, hyperlipidemia, dexamethasone, hyperglycemia

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6 A Randomised Controlled Study to Compare Efficacy and Safety of Bupivacaine plus Dexamethasone Versus Bupivacaine plus Fentanyl for Caudal Block in Children

Authors: Ashwini Patil

Abstract:

Caudal block is one of the most commonly used regional anesthetic techniques in children. Currently, fentanyl is used as an adjuvant to bupivacaine to prolong analgesia but fentanyl is a narcotic. Dexamethasone, a glucocorticoid with strong anti-inflammatory effects provides improvement in post-operative analgesia and post-operative side effects. However, its analgesic efficacy and safety in comparison with fentanyl has not been extensively studied. So the objective of this randomized controlled study is to compare dexamethasone with fentanyl as an adjuvant to bupivacaine for caudal block in children in relation to the duration of caudal analgesia, post-operative analgesic requirement and incidence of post-operative nausea and vomiting. This study included 100 children, aged 1–6 years, undergoing lower abdominal surgeries. Patients were randomized into two groups, 50 each to receive a combination of dexamethasone 0.2 mg/kg along with 1 ml/kg bupivacaine 0.25% (group A) or combination of fentanyl (1 ug/kg) along with 1ml/kg bupivacaine 0.25% (group B). In the post-operative period, pain was assessed using a Modified Objective Pain Scale (MOPS) until 12 hr after surgery and rescue analgesia is administered when MOPS score 4 or more is recorded. Residual motor block, number of analgesic doses required within 24 hr after surgery, sedation scores, intra-operative and post-operative hemodynamic variables, post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and other adverse effects were recorded. Data is analysed using unpaired t test and Significance level of P< 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Group A showed a significantly longer time to first analgesic requirement than group B (p<0.05). The number of rescue analgesic doses required in the first 24 h was significantly less in group A (p<0.05). Group A showed significantly lower MOPS scores than group B(p<0.05). Intra-operative and post-operative hemodynamic variables, Modified Bromage Scale scores, and sedation scores were comparable in both the groups. Group A showed significantly fewer incidences of PONV compared with group B(p<0.05). This study reveals that adding dexamethasone to bupivacaine prolongs the duration of postoperative analgesia and decreases the incidence of PONV as compared to combination of fentanyl to bupivacaine after a caudal block in pediatric patients.

Keywords: Pediatric, dexamethasone, bupivacaine, caudal analgesia

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5 Attenuation of Endotoxin Induced Hepatotoxicity by Dexamethasone, Melatonin and Pentoxifylline in White Albino Mice: A Comparative Study

Authors: Ammara Khan

Abstract:

Sepsis is characterized by an overwhelming surge of cytokines and oxidative stress to one of many factors, gram-negative bacteria commonly implicated. Despite major expansion and elaboration of sepsis pathophysiology and therapeutic approach; death rate remains very high in septic patients due to multiple organ damages including hepatotoxicity.The present study was aimed to ascertain the adequacy of three different drugs delivered separately and collectively- low dose steroid-dexamethasone (3mg/kg i.p) ,antioxidant-melatonin(10 mg/kg i.p) ,and phosphodiesterases inhibitor - pentoxifylline (75 mg/kg i.p)in endotoxin-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Endotoxin/lipopolysaccharides induced hepatotoxicity was reproduced in mice by giving lipopolysaccharide of serotype E.Coli intraperitoneally. The preventive role was questioned by giving the experimental agent half an hour prior to LPS injection whereas the therapeutic potential of the experimental agent was searched out via post-LPS delivering. The extent of liver damage was adjudged via serum alanine aminotransferases (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) estimation along with a histopathological examination of liver tissue. Dexamethasone is given before (Group 3) and after LPS (group 4) significantly attenuated LPS generated liver injury.Pentoxifylline generated similar results and serum ALT; AST histological alteration abated considerably (p≤ 0.05) both in animals subjected to pentoxifylline pre (Group 5) and post-treatment(Group 6). Melatonin was also prosperous in aversion (Group 7) and curation (Group 8) of LPS invoked hepatotoxicity as evident by lessening of augmented ALT (≤0.01) and AST (≤0.01) along with restoration of pathological changes in liver sections (p≤0.05). Combination therapies with dexamethasone in conjunction with melatonin (Group 9), dexamethasone together with pentoxifylline (Group 10), and pentoxifylline along with melatonin (Group 11) after LPS administration tapered LPS evoked hepatic dysfunction statistically considerably. In conclusion, both melatonin and pentoxifylline set up promising results in endotoxin-induced hepatotoxicity and can be used therapeutic adjuncts to conventional treatment strategies in sepsis-induced liver failure.

Keywords: Melatonin, hepatotoxicity, dexamethasone, endotoxin/lipopolysacchride, pentoxifylline

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4 Sub-Chronic Exposure to Dexamethasone Impairs Cognitive Function and Insulin in Prefrontal Cortex of Male Wistar Rats

Authors: A. Alli-Oluwafuyi, A. Amin, S. M. Fii, S. O. Amusa, A. Imam, N. T. Asogwa, W. I. Abdulmajeed, F. Olaseinde, B. V. Owoyele

Abstract:

Chronic stress or prolonged glucocorticoid administration impairs higher cognitive functions in rodents and humans. However, the mechanisms are not fully clear. Insulin and receptors are expressed in the brain and are involved in cognition. Insulin resistance accompanies Alzheimer’s disease and associated cognitive decline. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of sub-chronic administration of a glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (DEX) on behavior and biochemical changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC). Male Wistar rats were administered DEX (2, 4 & 8 mg/kg, IP) or saline for seven consecutive days and behavior was assessed in the following paradigms: “Y” maze, elevated plus maze, Morris’ water maze and novel object recognition (NOR) tests. Insulin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity were evaluated in homogenates of the prefrontal cortex. DEX-treated rats exhibited impaired prefrontal cortex function manifesting as reduced locomotion, impaired novel object exploration and impaired short- and long-term spatial memory compared to normal controls (p < 0.05). These effects were not consistently dose-dependent. These behavioral alterations were accompanied by a decrease in insulin concentration observed in PFC of 4 mg/kg DEX-treated rats compared to control (10μIU/mg vs. 50μIU/mg; p < 0.05) but not 2mg/kg. Furthermore, we report a modification of brain stress markers LDH and SOD (p > 0.05). These results indicate that prolonged activation of GCs disrupt prefrontal cortex function which may be related to insulin impairment. These effects may not be attributable to a non-specific elevation of oxidative stress in the brain. Future studies would evaluate mechanisms of GR-induced insulin loss.

Keywords: Memory, insulin, dexamethasone, prefrontal cortex

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3 Layer-by-Layer Coated Dexamethasone Microcrystals for Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease Therapy

Authors: Murtada Ahmed Oshi, Jin-Wook Yoo

Abstract:

Layer-by-layer (LBL) coating has gained popularity for drug delivery of therapeutic drugs. Herein we described a novel approach for enhancing the therapeutic efficiency of the locally administered dexamethasone (Dex) for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We utilized a LBL-coating technique on Dex microcrystals (DexMCs) with multiple layers of polyelectrolytes composed of poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), poly (sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and Eudragit® S100 (ES). The successful deposition of the layers onto DexMCs surfaces were confirmed through zeta potential measurement and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The surface morphology was investigated through scanning electron microscopy. The drug encapsulation efficiency was 95% with a mean particle size of 2 µm and negative surface charge (-40 mV). Moreover, in vitro drug release study showed a minimum release of the drug ( 15%) at an acidic condition during initial first 5 h, followed by sustained-release at an alkaline condition. For in vivo study, LBL-DxMCs were administered orally to ICR mice suffering from dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. LBL-DxMCs substantially enhanced anti-IBD activities as compared to DxMCs. Macroscopic, histological and biochemical (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and myeloperoxidase) examinations revealed marked improvements of colitis signs in the mice treated with LBL-DxMCs compared with those treated with DxMCs. Overall, LBL-DxMCs could be a suitable candidate for the treatment of IBD.

Keywords: Inflammatory Bowel Disease, dexamethasone, polyelectrolytes, LBL-coating

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2 Evaluation of Phonophoresis with Dexamethasone in Treatment of Hypertrophic Burn Scar

Authors: Alireza Pishgahi, Mohammad Rahbar, Javad Shokri, Shahla Dareshiri, Yaghoub Salekzamani, Fariba Eslamian

Abstract:

Background and Objectives: Hypertrophic scars are one of the complications following a burn injury. Intralesional corticosteroid injection is an invasive method for treatment of this complication. We had design a single blinded randomized control trial to deliver dexamethasone by phonophoresis and evaluate its efficacy on hypertrophic burn scars characteristics. Material and Methods: 56 cases of hypertrophic burn scar due to burn injury allocated randomly to dexamethasone and control group. Individuals in case group received 10 sessions of dexamethasone 0.4% phonophoresis. Patients in control group had placebo phonophoresis (ultrasound with normal routine aquatic gel without any dexamethasone) with the same protocol. At the beginning of study and one week after last session, hypertrophic scar characteristics and pruritus were measured by ‘Vancouver Scar Scale’, and ‘5-D Pruritus Scale’ respectively in both groups. Results: Despite mild improvement in Vancouver Scar Scale score one week after intervention in dexamethasone phonophoresis group in comparison to control subjects, but this difference was not significant (p=0.08). Pruritus score perceived subjectively were significantly lower one week after intervention in dexamethasone groups in comparison to control subjects (p=0.00). Conclusion: Dexamethasone phonophoresis is a safe and effective treatment method for burn hypertrophic scar pruritus, but its efficacy for scar characteristics improvement needs to be evaluated by larger studies with long-term follow-up period.

Keywords: dexamethasone, phonophoresis, hypertrophic scar, pruritus

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1 Effect of Preoperative Single Dose Dexamethasone and Lignocaine on Post-Operative Quality of Recovery and Pain Relief after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Authors: Surender Singh, Gurjeet Khurana, Poonam Arora, Praveendra K. Sachan

Abstract:

Introduction: Post-operative quality of recovery is the key outcome in the perspective of anesthesiologist. It is directly related to patient satisfaction. This is unsurprising, considering most aspects of a poor quality recovery after surgery will impair satisfaction with care. This study was thus undertaken to evaluate effects of Dexamethasone and Lignocaine on Quality of Recovery using QoR- 40 questionnaire and compare their effects. Material and methods: After obtaining the ethical committee approval and written informed consent, 67 patients of 18-60 years, ASA grade I and II scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated into two groups. Group I of 34 patients received 2mg/kg lignocaine diluted to 10ml with normal saline. Group 2 of 33 patients received 0.1 mg/kg I/V Dexamethasone diluted to 10ml with normal saline. QoR-40 was assessed on pre-operative day, and again QoR-40 was assessed at 24 hr post-operative day-1. Postoperative pain scores, nausea and vomiting and shoulder pain were secondary outcomes. Results: The Global QoR-40 was more than 180 at 24 hr in both the groups. The Dexamethasone group had higher Global QoR-40 than lignocaine group 187.94 v/s 182.85. Amongst dimensions of QoR-40 Dexamethasone had statistically better physical comfort, physical independence, and pain relief as compared to Lignocaine. Positive items had excellent responses in Dexamethasone group. Headache, backache and sore throat were also less severe in Dexamethasone group as compared to Lignocaine group. Dexamethasone group had lower VAS compared to lignocaine group. Similarly, there was less fentanyl consumption in dexamethasone group (364.08 ± 127.31) in postoperative period when compared to the lignocaine group (412.31 ± 147.8). Group receiving dexamethasone had 36% increase in appetite compared to lignocaine group (17.6%), which facilitated early oral feeding. Frequency of PONV was less in group-2 at different time interval as compared to group 1. Total episode of PONV were 18 in group 1 and 7 in group 2. Statistically significant difference was seen among two groups (p value= 0.007). Use of antiemetic was more in group 1 as compared to group 2 at all the times, though it was not statistically significant at different time intervals. Antiemetics were administered to 18 patients in group 1 as compared to 5 patients in group 2 postoperatively. Statistically significant difference (p value= 0.011) was seen in total antiemetic consumption. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that pre-operative administration of a single dose of dexamethasone enhanced the quality of recovery after laparoscopic cholecystectomy as compared to Lignocaine bolus dose.

Keywords: dexamethasone, lignocaine, QoR-40 questionnaire, quality of recovery

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