Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Developmental Disabilities Related Abstracts

4 Functional Analysis of Barriers in Disability Care Research: An Integrated Developmental Approach

Authors: Asma Batool

Abstract:

Immigrant families raising a child with developmental disabilities in Canada encounter many challenges during the process of disability care. Starting from the early screening of their child for diagnosis followed by challenges associated with treatment, access and service utilization. A substantial amount of research focuses on identifying barriers. However, the functional aspects of barriers in terms of their potential influences on parents and children with disabilities are unexplored yet. This paper presents functional analysis of barriers in disability care research by adopting a method of integrated approach. Juxtaposition of two developmental approaches, Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model and parents ‘transformational process model is generating multiple hypotheses to be considered while empirically investigating causal relationships and mediating or moderating factors among various variables related with disability care research. This functional analysis suggests that barriers have negative impacts on the physical and emotional development of children with disabilities as well as on the overall quality of family life (QOFL). While, barriers have facilitating impacts on parents, alternatively, the process of transformation in parents expedite after experiencing barriers. Consequently, parents reconstruct their philosophy of life and experience irreversible but continuous developmental change in terms of transformations simultaneously with their developing child and may buffer the expected negative impacts of barriers on disabled child and QOFL. Overall, this paper is suggesting implications for future research and parents’ transformations are suggesting potential pathways to minimize the negative influences of barriers that parents experience during disability care, hence improving satisfaction in QOFL in general.

Keywords: Developmental Disabilities, barriers in disability care, parents’ transformations, quality of family life

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3 Parental Involvement and Students' Outcomes: A Study in a Special Education School in Singapore

Authors: E. Er, Y. S. Cheng

Abstract:

The role of parents and caregivers in their children’s education is pivotal. Parental involvement (PI) is often associated with a range of student outcomes. This includes academic achievements, socioemotional development, adaptive skills, physical fitness and school attendance. This study is the first in Singapore to (1) explore the relationship between parental involvement and student outcomes; (2) determine the effects of family structure and socioeconomic status (SES) on parental involvement and (3) investigate factors that inform involvement in parents of children with specific developmental disabilities. Approval for the study was obtained from Nanyang Technological University’s Institutional Review Board in Singapore. The revised version of a comprehensive theoretical model on parental involvement was used as the theoretical framework in this study. Parents were recruited from a SPED school in Singapore which caters to school-aged children (7 to 21 years old). Pearson’s product moment correlation, analysis of variance and multiple regression analyses were used as statistical techniques in this study. Results indicate that there are significant associations between parental involvement and educational outcomes in students with developmental disabilities. Next, SES has a significant impact on levels of parental involvement. In addition, parents in the current study reported being more involved at home, in school activities and the community, when teachers specifically requested their involvement. Home-based involvement was also predicted by parents’ perceptions of their time and energy, efficacy and beliefs in supporting their child’s education, as well as their children’s invitations to be more involved. An interesting and counterintuitive inverse relationship was found between general school invitations and parental involvement at home. Research findings are further discussed, and suggestions are put forth to increase involvement for this specific group of parents.

Keywords: autism, Developmental Disabilities, Intellectual Disabilities, parental involvement, Singapore

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2 Effectiveness of Parent Coaching Intervention for Parents of Children with Developmental Disabilities in the Home and Community

Authors: Elnaz Alimi, Keriakoula Andriopoulos, Sam Boyer, Weronika Zuczek

Abstract:

Occupational therapists can use coaching strategies to guide parents in providing therapy for their children with developmental disabilities. Evidence from various fields has shown increased parental self-efficacy and positive child outcomes as benefits of home and community-based parent coaching models. A literature review was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of parent coaching interventions delivered in home and community settings for children with developmental disabilities ages 0-12, on a variety of parent and child outcomes. CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, PubMed, OTseeker were used as databases. The inclusion criteria consisted of: children with developmental disabilities ages 0-12 and their parents, parent coaching models conducted in the home and community, and parent and child outcomes. Studies were excluded if they were in a language other than English and published before 2000. Results showed that parent coaching interventions led to more positive therapy outcomes in child behaviors and symptoms related to their diagnosis or disorder. Additionally, coaching strategies had positive effects on parental satisfaction with therapy, parental self-efficacy, and family dynamics. Findings revealed decreased parental stress and improved parent-child relationships. Further research on parent coaching could involve studying the feasibility of coaching within occupational therapy specifically, incorporating cultural elements into coaching, qualitative studies on parental satisfaction with coaching, and measuring the quality of life outcomes for the whole family.

Keywords: Pediatrics, Occupational therapy, Developmental Disabilities, coaching model

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1 Determining Current and Future Training Needs of Ontario Workers Supporting Persons with Developmental Disabilities

Authors: Erin C. Rodenburg, Jennifer McWhirter, Andrew Papadopoulos

Abstract:

Support workers for adults with developmental disabilities promote the care and wellbeing of a historically underserved population. Poor employment training and low work satisfaction for these disability support workers are linked to low productivity, poor quality of care, turnover, and intention to leave employment. Therefore, to improve the lives of those within disability support homes, both client and caregiver, it is vital to determine where improvements to training and support for those providing direct care can be made. The current study aims to explore disability support worker’s perceptions of the training received in their employment at the residential homes, how it prepared them for their role, and where there is room for improvement with the aim of developing recommendations for an improved training experience. Responses were collected from 85 disability support workers across 40 Ontario group homes. Findings suggest most disability support workers within the 40 support homes feel adequately trained in their responsibilities of employment. For those who did not feel adequately trained, the main issues expressed were a lack of standardization in training, a need for more continuous training, and a move away from trial and error in performing tasks to support clients with developmental disabilities.

Keywords: training, Developmental Disabilities, disability workers, support homes

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