Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

developing country Related Abstracts

14 Online Allocation and Routing for Blood Delivery in Conditions of Variable and Insufficient Supply: A Case Study in Thailand

Authors: Yue Wu, Pornpimol Chaiwuttisak, Honora Smith

Abstract:

Blood is a perishable product which suffers from physical deterioration with specific fixed shelf life. Although its value during the shelf life is constant, fresh blood is preferred for treatment. However, transportation costs are a major factor to be considered by administrators of Regional Blood Centres (RBCs) which act as blood collection and distribution centres. A trade-off must therefore be reached between transportation costs and short-term holding costs. In this paper we propose a number of algorithms for online allocation and routing of blood supplies, for use in conditions of variable and insufficient blood supply. A case study in northern Thailand provides an application of the allocation and routing policies tested. The plan proposed for daily allocation and distribution of blood supplies consists of two components: firstly, fixed routes are determined for the supply of hospitals which are far from an RBC. Over the planning period of one week, each hospital on the fixed routes is visited once. A robust allocation of blood is made to hospitals on the fixed routes that can be guaranteed on a suitably high percentage of days, despite variable supplies. Secondly, a variable daily route is employed for close-by hospitals, for which more than one visit per week may be needed to fulfil targets. The variable routing takes into account the amount of blood available for each day’s deliveries, which is only known on the morning of delivery. For hospitals on the variables routes, the day and amounts of deliveries cannot be guaranteed but are designed to attain targets over the six-day planning horizon. In the conditions of blood shortage encountered in Thailand, and commonly in other developing countries, it is often the case that hospitals request more blood than is needed, in the knowledge that only a proportion of all requests will be met. Our proposal is for blood supplies to be allocated and distributed to each hospital according to equitable targets based on historical demand data, calculated with regard to expected daily blood supplies. We suggest several policies that could be chosen by the decision makes for the daily distribution of blood. The different policies provide different trade-offs between transportation and holding costs. Variations in the costs of transportation, such as the price of petrol, could make different policies the most beneficial at different times. We present an application of the policies applied to a realistic case study in the RBC at Chiang Mai province which is located in Northern region of Thailand. The analysis includes a total of more than 110 hospitals, with 29 hospitals considered in the variable route. The study is expected to be a pilot for other regions of Thailand. Computational experiments are presented. Concluding remarks include the benefits gained by the online methods and future recommendations.

Keywords: online algorithm, blood distribution, developing country, insufficient blood supply

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13 Computer Based Model for Collaborative Research as a Panacea for National Development in Third World Countries

Authors: M. A. Rahman, A. O. Enikuomehin

Abstract:

Sharing commitment to reach a common goal in research by harnessing available resources from two or more parties can simply be referred to as collaborative research. Asides from avoiding duplication of research, the benefits often accrued from such research alliances include time economy as well as expenses reduction in completing such studies. Likewise, it provides an avenue to produce a wider horizon of scientific knowledge sequel to gathering of skills, knowledge and resources. In institutions of higher learning and research institutes, it often gives scholars an opportunity to strengthen the teaching and research capacity of their various institutions. Between industries and institutions, collaborative research breeds promising relationship that could be geared towards addressing different research problems such as producing and enhancing industrial-based products and services, including technological transfer. For Nigeria to take advantage of this collaboration, different issues like licensing of technology, intellectual property right, confidentiality, and funding among others, which could arise during this collaborative research programme, are identified in this paper. An important tool required to achieve this height in developing economy is the use of appropriate computer model. The paper highlights the costs of the collaborations and likewise stresses the need for evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of such collaborative research activities and proposes an appropriate computer model to assist in this regard.

Keywords: model, developing country, collaborative research, computerization

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12 Immigration as a Promoting Factor of Innovation in Developing Countries: Evidence from Thai Manufacturers

Authors: Piriya Pholphirul, Pungpond Rukumnuaykit

Abstract:

Contrary to studies of other migrant-receiving countries, most of which are developed countries, this paper examines impacts of immigrant workers on innovative capacities in Thailand, which is not only a representative of a receiving country that is a developing country but also a country where the majority of its immigrant workers are unskilled. Analysis of firm-level survey data in Thailand finds that employing unskilled and cheap labor from neighboring countries, namely, Myanmar, the Lao PDR, and Cambodia, is like adopting a kind of “labor-saving technology” which actually impedes firms’ R&D investment. Contrary to developed countries in which immigrants are found to boost innovation and promote sustainable growth, in Thailand, even though employing unskilled immigrant workers helps firms maintain their cost competitiveness in the short run, its negative impacts on R&D investment tend to hamper improvements in productivity and thus diminish global competitiveness in the long run. Employing skilled or educated migrants, on the other hand, complements technological progress and encourages firms to innovate more quickly. In addition, the paper finds that providing government incentives and promoting access to financing have become effective tools in facilitating Thai firms’ investment in innovation.

Keywords: Innovation, Immigration, Thailand, developing country

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11 Achieving Supply Chain Competitiveness through Successful Buyer-Supplier Relationships

Authors: Kamran Rashid, Tashfeen M. Azhar, Asad-ur-Rahman Wahla

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Current research aims to understand the role of successful buyer-supplier relationship in achieving supply chain competitiveness in a developing country perspective. Five hypotheses are developed to test structural model. Survey data is collected from the manufacturing sector of Pakistan. Analysis is conducted using Partial Least Squares (PLS) Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) through Smart PLS version 2.0 M3. Results demonstrate positive impact of effective supplier selection, buyer-supplier engagement, and information sharing capability on success of buyer supplier relationship. This successful buyer supplier relationship drives the supply chain firm financial and market performance. Additional analyses with large sample sizes are required in other developing countries to cross validate the results. Current study provides empirical evidence of the role of successful buyer supplier relationship in achieving supply chain competitiveness.

Keywords: Supply Chain Management, developing country, supply chain competitiveness, successful buyer-supplier relationship

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10 Effective Microorganisms as a Sustainable Environment Product and Their Application: A Study in Pakistan

Authors: Jaffar Hussain, Farman Ali Shah

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As we know that Pakistan is the developing country so it adopts new technologies for progress. In last three decays, some new technologies were introduced in the world in which Effective Microorganism was one of them. Microorganisms are one of the most power full living forces on earth. Originally, EM was developed as an odor control, farm, and animal health, human health many industrial treatments. Effective Microorganism is an organic fertilizer that contains a mixture of co-existing valuable microorganism composed from the environment. There are vast application of the EM in the world in which the researchers are explained in literature .In Pakistan work on EM technologies are under process, researcher are doing work to make them most valuable. At that time the application of EM are in agriculture, water treatment, to increase Cement strength, improving saline soil etc. Effective microorganisms are environmentally friendly , not-naturally organized, not chemically synthesized, not dangerous and not pathogenic.

Keywords: Agriculture, technologies, Pakistan, developing country, researchers, effective microorganism

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9 An Empirical Investigation of Mobile Banking Services Adoption in Pakistan

Authors: Aijaz A. Shaikh, Richard Glavee-Geo, Heikki Karjaluoto

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Adoption of Information Systems (IS) is receiving increasing attention such that its implications have been closely monitored and studied by the IS management community, industry and professional gatekeepers. Building on previous research regarding the adoption of technology, this paper develops and validates an integrated model of the adoption of mobile banking. The model originates from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). This paper intends to offer a preliminary scrutiny of the antecedents of the adoption of mobile banking services in the context of a developing country. Data was collected from Pakistan. The findings showed that an integrated TAM and TPB model greatly explains the adoption intention of mobile banking; and perceived behavioural control and its antecedents play a significant role in predicting adoption Theoretical and managerial implications of findings are presented and discussed.

Keywords: theory of planned behavior, technology acceptance model, developing country, mobile banking service adoption

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8 Nutrition Program Planning Based on Local Resources in Urban Fringe Areas of a Developing Country

Authors: Oktia Woro Kasmini Handayani, Bambang Budi Raharjo, Efa Nugroho, Bertakalswa Hermawati

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Obesity prevalence and severe malnutrition in Indonesia has increased from 2007 to 2013. The utilization of local resources in nutritional program planning can be used to program efficiency and to reach the goal. The aim of this research is to plan a nutrition program based on local resources for urban fringe areas in a developing country. This research used a qualitative approach, with a focus on local resources including social capital, social system, cultural system. The study was conducted in Mijen, Central Java, as one of the urban fringe areas in Indonesia. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques are used to determine participants. A total of 16 participants took part in the study. Observation, interviews, focus group discussion, SWOT analysis, brainstorming and Miles and Huberman models were used to analyze the data. We have identified several local resources, such as the contributions from nutrition cadres, social organizations, social financial resources, as well as the cultural system and social system. The outstanding contribution of nutrition cadres is the participation and creativity to improve nutritional status. In addition, social organizations, like the role of the integrated health center for children (Pos Pelayanan Terpadu), can be engaged in the nutrition program planning. This center is supported by House of Nutrition to assist in nutrition program planning, and provide social support to families, neighbors and communities as social capitals. The study also reported that cultural systems that show appreciation for well-nourished children are a better way to improve the problem of balanced nutrition. Social systems such as teamwork and mutual cooperation can also be a potential resource to support nutritional programs and overcome associated problems. The impact of development in urban areas such as the introduction of more green areas which improve the perceived status of local people, as well as new health services facilitated by people and companies, can also be resources to support nutrition programs. Local resources in urban fringe areas can be used in the planning of nutrition programs. The expansion of partnership with all stakeholders, empowering the community through optimizing the roles of nutrition care centers for children as our recommendation with regard to nutrition program planning.

Keywords: urban fringe, developing country, local resources, nutrition program

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7 The Potential of ‘Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency for Cities’ in Developing Country: Evidence of Myanmar

Authors: Kazuhisa Iki, Riken Homma, Theingi Shwe, Juko Ito

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The growing cities of the developing country are characterized by rapid growth and poor infrastructure management inviting and accelerating relative environmental problems. Even though the movements of the sustainability had already been developed around the world, it is still increasing in the developing countries to plant sustainable practices. Aligned with the sustainable development actions, many sustainable assessment tools are also developed to rate and evaluate the sustainability performances through the building to community level. Among them, CASBEE is developed by Japanese organizations and is recognized as one of the international well-known assessment tools. The main purpose of the study is to find out the potential of CASBEE tool reflecting sustainability city level performances in developing countries. The research framework was designed with three major phases: Quantitative Approach, Qualitative Approach and Evaluation Reflection. The first two approaches were based on the investigation of tool’s contents and indicators by means of three sustainable dimensions and sustainability categories. To know the reality and reflection on developing country, Pathein City from Myanmar was selected and evaluated by 2012 version of CASBEE for Cities. The evaluation practices went through assigned indicators and the evaluation outcome presents the performances of Pathein city’s environmental efficiency as a very good in current conditions. The results of this study indicate that the indicators of this tool have balance coverage among three dimensions of sustainability but it has not yet counted enough for some indicators like location, infrastructure and institution which are relative to society dimension. In the developing countries’ cities, the most critical issues on development such as affordable housing and heritage preservation which are already planted in Pathein City but the tool does not account for those issues. Moreover, in some of the indicators, the benchmark and the weighting coefficient are strongly linked to the system birth region. By means of this study, it can be stated that CASBEE for Cities would be potential for delivering sustainable city level development in developing country especially in Myanmar along with further inclusion of the indicators.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, developing country, assessment tool, CASBEE, Myanmar, Pathein city

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6 Household Food Wastage Assessment: A Case Study in South Africa

Authors: Fhumulani R. Ramukhwatho, Roelien du Plessis, Suzan H. H. Oelofse

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There are a growing number of scientific papers, journals and reports on household food waste, the reason being that food waste has become a significant global issue that is costing billions of Rands in resources. To reduce food waste in a sustainable manner, it requires an understanding of the generation of food waste. This paper assesses household food wastage in the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality (CTMM). A total of 210 interviewed participants using face-to-face interviews based on a structured questionnaire and the actual weighing of households’ food wasted was quantified using a weighing kitchen scale. Fifty-nine percent of respondents agreed that they wasted food, while 41% thought they did not waste food at all. Households wasted an average total of 6 kg of food waste per week per household. The study concluded that households buy and prepare more food that ends up wasted.

Keywords: Assessment, Food Waste, household, developing country

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5 Private University Students’ Travel Mode Choice Behaviour to University: Analysis in the Context of Dhaka City

Authors: Sharmin Nasrin

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Dhaka is the capital of Bangladesh. In Dhaka among other trips, significant percentages of trips comprise education trips. This paper explores significant factors for private university students’ education trip to the University. A paper pencil based survey has been conducted on Asia Pacific University student in Dhaka from May 2016 to July 2016. Participants were chosen randomly for the survey. Exploratory analysis showed that about 50% chose bus, 33% chose Rickshaw, 2% chose car and 15% chose to walk for travel to their University. Results from Multinomial Logit model revealed that travel cost, travel time and comfort are the significant factors for private university students to choose different modes. However, magnitude of coefficient of attribute comfort is significantly higher compared to travel cost and travel time. Result from this paper can be used by policymakers and Government agencies to provide more cost effective, comfortable journey to their University.

Keywords: developing country, Dhaka, private university student's education trip, mode choice mode

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4 Appropriate Technology: Revisiting the Movement in Developing Countries for Sustainability

Authors: Bhaskar Bhowmick, Jayshree Patnaik

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The economic growth of any nation is steered and dependent on innovation in technology. It can be preferably argued that technology has enhanced the quality of life. Technology is linked both with an economic and a social structure. But there are some parts of the world or communities which are yet to reap the benefits of technological innovation. Business and organizations are now well equipped with cutting-edge innovations that improve the firm performance and provide them with a competitive edge, but rarely does it have a positive impact on any community which is weak and marginalized. In recent times, it is observed that communities are actively handling social or ecological issues with the help of indigenous technologies. Thus, "Appropriate Technology" comes into the discussion, which is quite prevalent in the rural third world. Appropriate technology grew as a movement in the mid-1970s during the energy crisis, but it lost its stance in the following years when people started it to describe it as an inferior technology or dead technology. Basically, there is no such technology which is inferior or sophisticated for a particular region. The relevance of appropriate technology lies in penetrating technology into a larger and weaker section of community where the “Bottom of the pyramid” can pay for technology if they find the price is affordable. This is a theoretical paper which primarily revolves around how appropriate technology has faded and again evolved in both developed and developing countries. The paper will try to focus on the various concepts, history and challenges faced by the appropriate technology over the years. Appropriate technology follows a documented approach but lags in overall design and diffusion. Diffusion of technology into the poorer sections of community remains unanswered until the present time. Appropriate technology is multi-disciplinary in nature; therefore, this openness allows having a varied working model for different problems. Appropriate technology is a friendly technology that seeks to improve the lives of people in a constraint environment by providing an affordable and sustainable solution. Appropriate technology needs to be defined in the era of modern technological advancement for sustainability.

Keywords: Sustainability, Community, developing country, appropriate technology

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3 Need Assessments of Midwives in Public's Health Center (Puskesmas) at Sukabumi Municipal, Province of Jawa Barat, Indonesia

Authors: Al Asyary, Meita Veruswati, Dian Ayyubi

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Sukabumi municipal has highest rank for maternal mortality in Indonesia with 102 by 100,000 live birth with almost 80% of birth were not attended by skilled birth attendant (SBA). Although universal health coverage has been implemented, availability and sufficiency of SBA, such as midwife in this developing country, are problematic agenda for the quality of public healthcare as well as decreasing maternal mortality rate. This study aims to describe the equal distribution of midwives in Sukabumi municipal as support of government’s program named Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that suppressed maternal mortality rate in Indonesia. We conducted an observational study with Workload Indicator of Staffing Need (WISN) analysis to present the dispersion of midwives by their activities and workloads in 37 Puskesmas. We also generated in-depth interview with several executive chief of health sections, including chief of health offices in Sukabumi municipal. It resulted inferentially that several activities in midwives’ program were differed at once of existing than needed condition ideally (ρ value = 0.002 < 0.05). Meanwhile, decision for midwives’ procurement and placement were held by un-systematically procedure such as based on where the midwife was staying, and it also progressed by neighborhood issue priorities. The absence of formal regulation in local government is a serious problem that indicated poor political commitment, while access to SBA shall be focused carefully.

Keywords: Health Policy, developing country, health professional resources, need assessment

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2 The Implementation of Science Park Policy and Their Impacts on Regional Economic Development in Emerging Economy Country: Case of Thailand

Authors: Muttamas Wongwanich, John R. Bryson, Catherine E. Harris

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Science parks are an essential component of localized innovation ecosystems. Science Parks have played a critical role in enhancing local innovation ecosystems in developed market economies. Attempts have been made to replicate best practice in other national contexts. To our best knowledge, the study about the development of Science Parks has not been undertaken on the economic impact on the developing countries. Further research is required to understand the adoption of Science Park policies in developing and emerging economies. This study explores the implementation of Science Park policy and its impacts on economic growth and development in Thailand, focusing on the relationship between universities and businesses. The Thailand context is essential. Thailand’s economy is dominated by agriculture and tourism. The Science Park policy is trying to develop an agriculturally orientated innovative ecosystem. Thailand established four Science Parks based on a policy that highlighted the importance of cooperation between government, HEIs, and businesses. These Science Parks are intended to increase small and medium enterprises’ (SMEs) innovativeness, employment, and regional economic growth by promoting collaboration and knowledge transfer between HEIs and the private sector. This study explores one regional Science Park in Thailand with an emphasis on understanding the implementation and operation of a triple helix innovation policy. The analysis explores the establishment of the Science Park and its impacts on firms and the regional economy through interviews with Science Parks directors, firms, academics, universities, and government officials. The analysis will inform Science Park policy development in Thailand to support the national objective to develop an innovation ecosystem based on the integration of technology with innovation policy, supporting technology-based SMEs in the creation of local jobs. The finding shows that the implementation of the Science Park policy in Thailand requires support and promotion from the government. The regional development plan must be related to the regional industry development strategy, considering the strengths and weaknesses of local entrepreneurs. The long time in granting a patent is the major obstacle in achieving the government’s aim in encouraging local economic activity. The regional Science Parks in Thailand are at the early stage of the operation plan. Thus, the impact on the regional economy cannot be measured and need further investigation in a more extended period. However, local businesses realize the vital of research and development (R&D). There have been more requests for funding support in doing R&D. Furthermore, there is the creation of linkages between businesses, HEIs, and government authorities as expected.

Keywords: Regional Development, Thailand, developing country, emerging economy, triple helix, science park

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1 The Impact of Election Observation on Electoral Reforms in Nigeria

Authors: Abubakar Sulaiman

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The paper examines how election observation influences electoral reforms in Nigeria. Over the years, election observation continues to play critical role in the electoral process specifically in Nigeria and Africa at large. Election observation keeps an eye on the electoral process and all the stakeholders during elections, to ensure that the process is fair to all contestants. While literature abound on this role of election observation on electoral process in Nigeria, scanty scholarly efforts have been made to appraise how election observation influences electoral reforms in Nigeria. Also, while election observation may play a role in ensuring that the electoral process is credible, specifically, its role in prvoking and eliciting various electoral reforms in the country has not been explored. The paper adopts the explanatory research design using secondary data and document analysis. Preliminary findings show that election observation has influenced electoral reforms in Nigeria in no small measure. The paper concludes that election observation is critical for result oriented electoral reforms in Nigeria, albeit, such reforms have to be implemented to the latter.

Keywords: election observation, developing country, electoral process, Electoral reforms

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