Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 70

developing countries Related Abstracts

70 A Theory of Vertical Partnerships Model as Responsive Failure in Alternative Arrangement for Infrastructural Development in the Third World Countries: A Comparative Public Administration Analysis

Authors: Cyril Ekuaze

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This paper was instigated by a set of assumption drawn at the introduction to a research work on alternative institutional arrangements for sustaining rural infrastructure in developing countries. Of one of such assumption is the one held that, a problem facing developing countries is the sustaining of infrastructural investment long enough to allow the facility to at least repay the cost of the development as been due to insufficient maintenance. On the contrary, this work argues that, most international partnerships relation with developing nations in developing infrastructures is “vertical modeling” with the hierarchical authority and command flow from top to bottom. The work argued that where international donor partners/agencies set out infrastructural development agenda in the developing nations without cognizance of design suitability and capacity for maintenance by the recipient nations; and where public administrative capacity building in the field of science, technology and engineering requisite for design, development and sustenance of infrastructure in the recipient countries are negated, prospective output becomes problematic.

Keywords: developing countries, vertical partnerships, responsive failure, infrastructural development

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69 A Comparative Study of the Challenges of E-Learning in Nigerian Universities

Authors: J. N. Anene, A. A. Bello, C. C. Anene

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The paper carried out a comparative study of the challenges of e-learning in Nigerian universities. The purpose of the study was to determine if there was a significant difference in the challenges faced by students in e-learning in Nigerian Universities. A total of two hundred and twenty-eight students from nine universities constituted the sample for the study. A simple random sampling technique was employed in selecting thirty–two students from one of each university in the six geo-political zones of Nigeria. The questionnaire based on 'yes or no' and column charts constituted the instrument employed in the study. Percentages were used to analyse 'yes or no' while column charts were used to compare responds of the students. The finding of the study revealed that majority of students in all the universities under study claimed that their universities lacked appropriate software, that good quality educational content online was lacking, they also agreed that sustainability of e-learning was not prioritized, that they had no access to appropriate content for ICT-enhanced learning and training and that they had access to affordable and reliable computers. For lecturers, the computer certification should be the first on the list of promotion requirements. The finding of the study revealed that students from seven out of nine universities confirmed that their universities lack of appropriate software whereas the other two claimed that they have appropriate software. Also, out of nine universities, two disagreed to the fact that good quality educational content online lacked, whereas seven agreed that they lacked good quality educational content online. The finding of the study also revealed that most of the respondents in almost all the university under study agreed that sustainability of e-learning was not prioritized. The study recommended among other that the Nigerian Government should make concerted effort to provide the enablement for all lecturers and students to become computer literate. This should be done within a time frame, and at the end of the computer course, certificates should be issued, and no student should graduate in his or her field of study without passing the computer course.

Keywords: e-Learning, ICT, developing countries, computer literacy

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68 Analysis of the Impacts and Challenges of Conventional Solid Waste Management in Urban Centers of Developing Countries

Authors: Haruna Abdu Usman, J. Mohammed Umar, U. M. Bashir

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Solid waste management continued to be the biggest threat to the sustainability of urban centers of developing countries. Most streets corners of these urban centers are characterized by heaps of uncollected wastes at drains, public spaces and road sides destroying the aesthetic qualities and environmental ecosystems of these cities. Also, harboring disease vectors and rodents putting the health of the populace at risk, thus posing a serious challenge to the municipalities who are in most cases responsible for the solid waste management in these cities. The typical or commonest method adapted by these agencies in dealing with the solid waste management is the conventional approach; focusing mainly on waste collection ,treatment(composting and incineration)and disposal giving little consideration to the 3RS, of waste reduce, re-used and recycled. The resultant consequence being huge budget spending in solid waste management as high as 80% but little collection rate as low as 50%. This paper attempt to analyze the impacts and effects of the conventional solid waste management practices on the stakeholders in solid waste management; the municipal authorities, the communities, formal and informal waste managers, the NGOs and CBOs and suggests appropriate measures that would lessen the effects.

Keywords: developing countries, Solid Waste, conventional waste management, waste stakeholders

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67 Financial Information and Collective Bargaining: Conflicting or Complementing

Authors: Humayun Murshed, Shibly Abdullah

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The research conducted in early seventies apparently assumed the existence of a universal decision model for union negotiators and furthermore tended to regard financial information as a ‘neutral’ input into a rational decision-making process. However, research in the eighties began to question the neutrality of financial information as an input in collective bargaining rather viewing it as a potentially effective means for controlling the labour force. Furthermore, this later research also started challenging the simplistic assumptions relating particularly to union objectives which have underpinned the earlier search for universal union decision models. Despite the above developments there seems to be a dearth of studies in developing countries concerning the use of financial information in collective bargaining. This paper seeks to begin to remedy this deficiency. Utilising a case study approach based on two enterprises, one in the public sector and the other a multinational, the universal decision model is rejected and it is argued that the decision whether or not to use financial information is a contingent one and such a contingency is largely defined by the context and environment in which both union and management negotiators work. An attempt is also made to identify the factors constraining as well as promoting the use of financial information in collective bargaining, these being regarded as unique to the organizations within which the case studies are conducted.

Keywords: developing countries, Financial information, Collective bargaining, disclosures

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66 Current Challenges Associated with Women Education in Pakistan and the Proposed Solutions

Authors: Sanam Mujahid, Aliza Ahmad

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Women education and empowerment has fundamental importance in the development of a civilized society however, in a developing country like Pakistan, there are serious challenges in this regard. Herein, we summarize the findings of 2012 study which revealed the key problems associated with women education and their proposed solutions. A survey tool was used to question female students and female faculty members in 20 different public sector universities of all four provinces of Pakistan. In this study, 1755 female students and 410 female faculty members responded. In addition to survey, semi-structured interview were also conducted with 25 female students and 10 female faculty members. Respondents of the survey emphasize the lack of adequate educational institutions in nearby vicinity, social exclusion including gender discrimination, shortage of female teachers, lack of resources and inefficient government policies are the major factors that influence female education. To solve these problems, the main recommendations by respondents include safe and secure learning environment for females in educational institutions, community and parental support, well qualified and sufficient number of female teachers. One of the most important proposals was the participation of females at policy level. Current study will provide a general layout to design the future educational strategies for promoting women education in all regions of Pakistan thus, developing towards modern educated society.

Keywords: developing countries, Pakistan, women education, education strategies

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65 Human Capital Development: A Pivotal for Sustainable Development in Developing Countries

Authors: Yusuf Ismaila

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The developing countries are characterized by inefficient production systems and unequal distribution of wealth. Developing countries are largely populated, yet under developed. This can be attributed partly to the unplanned efforts towards the development of human capital through education and training. In the developed nations a huge attention is accorded to indices such as life expectancy, literacy, infant mortality, education, and the efficient delivery of social services. This is the reason why many developing countries have been scored low by the United Nations in terms of its human development indicators. The population growth continued to expand far beyond the rate of economic growth, a situation that gave rise to increasing poverty. This paper examines the effect of selected human development indicators on the economic development. Thus human capital development is one of the fundamental solutions to enter the international arena. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were used to demonstrate the effect of selected human capital indices and related literatures were also reviewed for exposition of the human capital concept. It was found that there are no conscious efforts in human capital planning. This has therefore resulted to continuing dwindling of production system and poverty. Recommendations made to redress the situation include that human capital development should be planned and adequately funded in line with the needs of the economy and by applying international standards. Specifically, developing countries must invest necessary resources in developing human capital which tend to have a great impact on sustainable development. Information about the labour market should improve while government policy should favour labour mobility. HCD strategy must focus on improving the skills of the workforce, reducing the cost of doing business and making available the resources business needs to compete and thrive in a fast globalizing economy. There should be regular interaction of planners, employers and builders of human capital to facilitate the process of meaningful national development.

Keywords: Economic Development, Human Capital, Economic growth, developing countries

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64 Health Information Technology in Developing Countries: A Structured Literature Review with Reference to the Case of Libya

Authors: Jim S. Briggs, Haythem A. Nakkas, Philip J. Scott

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This paper reports a structured literature review of the application of Health Information Technology in developing countries, defined as the World Bank categories Low-income countries, Lower-middle-income, and Upper-middle-income countries. The aim was to identify and classify the various applications of health information technology to assess its current state in developing countries and explore potential areas of research. We offer specific analysis and application of HIT in Libya as one of the developing countries. Method: A structured literature review was conducted using the following online databases: IEEE, Science Direct, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Publication dates were set for 2000-2013. For the PubMed search, publications in English, French, and Arabic were specified. Using a content analysis approach, 159 papers were analyzed and a total number of 26 factors were identified that affect the adoption of health information technology. Results: Of the 2681 retrieved articles, 159 met the inclusion criteria which were carefully analyzed and classified. Conclusion: The implementation of health information technology across developing countries is varied. Whilst it was initially expected financial constraints would have severely limited health information technology implementation, some developing countries like India have nevertheless dominated the literature and taken the lead in conducting scientific research. Comparing the number of studies to the number of countries in each category, we found that Low-income countries and Lower-middle-income had more studies carried out than Upper-middle-income countries. However, whilst IT has been used in various sectors of the economy, the healthcare sector in developing countries is still failing to benefit fully from the potential advantages that IT can offer.

Keywords: Implementation, developing countries, Health Information Technology, Developed Countries, Failure, Libya, factors, success

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63 Most Important Educational Planning Issues in the Developing Countries

Authors: Naeem Khan

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In 1971 Williams in his essay titled "What Educational Planning is About in Higher Education" defined educational planning as "planning in education, as in anything else consist essentially of deciding, in advance, what you want, to do and how you are going to do in". In the “World Year book of Education”. While Anderson and Bowman in 1976 in their joint article titled "Theoretical Considerations in Educational Planning" defined it as "the process of preparing a set of decisions for future action pertaining in education". There are so many other definitions which are related to educational planning in which every one stress on the importance of educational planning. But developing countries face a lot of problems related to the educational planning and this paper is to discuss few of them.

Keywords: Educational Planning, developing countries, Problems, education system

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62 Territorial Marketing as a Tool to Overcome the "Underdevelopment Whirlpools": Prospective Directions and Experiences of Developing Countries

Authors: E. G. Popkova, I. A. Morozova, T. N. Litvinova

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As a result, numerous studies of economic systems the authors have identified and substantiated the existence of a“underdevelopment whirlpool” is a phenomenon of considerable differentiation level of economic development in developed and developing countries. This article reflects the relationship “underdevelopment whirlpools” marketing areas as a tool to overcome them. The article presents the author's recommendations for dealing with “underdevelopment whirlpools”. Based on the experience of successful developing countries showing strong economic growth, the author analyzes possible future direction of overcoming the “underdevelopment whirlpools”. The author details the aspect of increasing product through the positioning of the territory as a way out of the “underdevelopment whirlpools”.

Keywords: developing countries, Developed Countries, underdevelopment whirlpool, disparities of economic growth, marketing territories

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61 Impact of Microfinance in Promoting Rural Economic Growth in Nigeria

Authors: Udeh Anastasia Ifeoma

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The need to develop the rural areas in developing countries where there have been decades of neglect are on the increase. It is against this background that this paper examined the impact of micro finance contribution to Nigeria’s gross domestic product. Time series data for 12-years period 1999-2010 were collated from Central Bank of Nigeria published annual reports. The least squares (LS) regression was used to analyze the data. The result revealed that microfinance activities have negative and non-significant contribution to gross domestic product in Nigeria. The paper recommends that rural poverty is often a product of poor infrastructural facilities; therefore government should make a conscious effort towards industrializing the rural areas thereby motivating the micro finance institutions to locate their offices and extend credit facilities to rural areas thereby improving rural economic growth.

Keywords: Microfinance, developing countries, Nigeria, rural economic growth

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60 The Politics of Renewable Energy Generation and Its Challenges: A Case Study of Iran

Authors: Naresh Kumar Verma

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Nuclear energy being adapted as a renewable energy source and its production by developing countries has turned into a major strategic concern and politics by the developed world. The West seem to be the sole proprietor of such energy source and any country opting for such energy production either face significant hurdles or geopolitical challenges in developing such energy source. History of West Asia is full of interference by external powers which has been integral in the incessant conflict in the region. Whether it was the creation of Israel, the Gulf war of 1991, or the invasion of Iraq in 2003, and more recently the Iranian nuclear conundrum, the soil of West Asia has always been a witness to the play of extra regional powers game. Iran, being a theocratic state has been facing such threats and challenges, regarding its intentions and its capability in such energy production. The paper will try to assess the following issues: -Politics of Renewable Energy Generation. -Geographical and strategic significance of Iran’s nuclear programme. -Challenges in the path of Iran developing nuclear energy as a RE source. -The interests of the regional and extra-regional actors in challenging Iranian Nuclear Programme.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Nuclear Energy, developing countries, Geopolitics, Iran

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59 Design and Simulation on Technology Capabilities in Developing countries, Design and Engineering Approach

Authors: S. Abedi, M. R. Soroush, M. Mousakhani

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According to studies in the field of technology capabilities we identify the most important indicators to evaluate the level of "Design and Engineering" capabilities. Since the technology development correlates with the level of technology capabilities trying to promote its key importance. In this research by using FDM, the right combination of D&E capabilities indicators according to the auto industry is presented. Finally, with modeling evaluation of D&E capabilities by using FIS and check its reliability, five levels were determined to evaluate the D&E capabilities. We have analyzed 80 companies in auto industry and determined D&E capabilities of each level. Field of company activity indicators has been divided into four categories, Suspension group, Electrical group, Engine groups and trims group. The results show that half of the surveyed companies had D&E capabilities in Level 1 and 2 or in other words very low and low level of D&E.

Keywords: developing countries, D&E capabilities, technology capabilities, auto industry

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58 Corporate Social Responsibility Practices of Local Large Firms in the Developing Economies: The Case of the East Africa Region

Authors: Lilian Kishimbo

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This study aims to examine Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices of local large firms of East Africa region. In this study CSR is defined as all actions that go beyond obeying minimum legal requirements as espoused by other authors. Despite the increase of CSR literature empirical evidence clearly demonstrate an imbalance of CSR studies in the developing countries . Moreover, it is evident that most of the research on CSR in developing economies emerges from large fast-growing economies or BRICS members (i.e. Brazil, India, China and South Africa), and Indonesia and Malaysia and a further call for more research in Africa is particularly advocated. Taking Africa as an example, there are scanty researches on CSR practices, and the few available studies are mainly from Nigeria and South Africa leaving other parts of Africa for example East Africa underrepresented. Furthermore, in the face of globalization, experience shows that literature has focused mostly on multinational companies (MNCs) operating in either North-North or North-South and less on South-South indigenous local firms. Thus the existing literature in Africa shows more studies of MNCs and little is known about CSR of local indigenous firms operating in the South particularly in the East Africa region. Accordingly, this paper explores CSR practices of indigenous local large firms of East Africa region particularly Kenya and Tanzania with the aim of testing the hypothesis that do local firms of East Africa region engage in similar CSR practices as firms in other parts of the world?. To answer this question only listed local large firms were considered based on the assumption that they are large enough to engage. Newspapers were the main source of data and information collected was supplemented by business Annual Reports for the period 2010-2012. The research finding revealed that local firms of East Africa engage in CSR practices. However, there are some differences in the set of activities these firms prefers to engage in compared to findings from previous studies. As such some CSR that were given priority by firms in East Africa were less prioritized in the other part of the world including Indonesia. This paper will add knowledge to the body of CSR and experience of CSR practices of South-South indigenous firms where is evidenced to have a relative dearth of literature on CSR. Finally, the paper concludes that local firms of East Africa region engage in similar activities like other firms globally. But firms give more priority to some activities such education and health related activities. Finally, the study intends to assist policy makers at firm’s levels to plan for long lasting projects related to CSR for their stakeholders.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, developing countries, Africa, Kenya, Tanzania, indigenous firms

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57 The Imperative of Indigenous Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Development in the Globalized Economy

Authors: Innocent Felix Idoko

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The development of indigenous entrepreneurship is critical to the achievement of sustainable development in the internationalized economy. Sustainable development implies a continuous stimulus of growth and improvement of an economy in a fairly stable manner. The paradigms of a globalization are numerous to mention. However, to a great extent, these are trade-offs and dilemmas for indigenous entrepreneurship, particularly in the developing economies with infant industries that are essentially crucial to development. This paper analyses the pros and cons of globalization as relates to the complementary role of both foreign and indigenous entrepreneurs, the conflict of values between globalization and protectionism for local entrepreneurship. Using analytical and descriptive approach, the views of academicians, research fellows, literature reviews and both the theories of the mercantilists and those of free trade mainstream economists, and the G20, the paper concludes that there is a legitimate need for protectionism for domestic entrepreneurship in the developing economies as doing otherwise amount to stifling them.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Sustainable Development, Globalization, developing countries, infant-industries, protectionism

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56 Overcoming Urban Challenges through Culture and Social Sustainability in Caracas’ Barrios

Authors: Gabriela Quintana Vigiola

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Social sustainability is an issue scarcely addressed by different authors, being one of its key factors the psychosocial processes of sense of place, sense of community and appropriation. In Caracas’s barrios (Venezuela) these were developed through sharing the construction of the place and different struggles that brought the neighbours together. However, one of the main problems they face is criminal violence, hence being its social sustainability threatened and affected by it. This matter can be addressed by acknowledging communities’ sense of place and engaging in cultural events.

Keywords: developing countries, Social Sustainability, Caracas’ barrios, cultural engagement

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55 A Corporate Social Responsibility View on Bribery Control in Business Relationships

Authors: Irfan Ameer

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Bribery control in developing countries is the biggest challenge for multinational enterprises (MNEs). Bribery practices are socially embedded and institutionalized, and therefore may achieve collective legitimacy in the society. MNEs often have better and strict norms, codes and standards about such corrupt practices. Bribery in B2B sales relationships has been researched but studies focusing on the role of firm in controlling bribery are scarce. The main objective of this paper is to explore MNEs strategies to control bribery in an environment where bribery is institutionalized. This qualitative study uses narrative approach and focuses on key events, actors and their role in controlling bribery in B2B sales relationships. The context of this study is pharmaceutical industry of Pakistan and data is collected through 23 episodic interviews supported by secondary data. The Corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature e.g. CSR three domain model and CSR pyramid is used to make sense of MNEs strategies to control bribery in developing countries. Results show that MNEs’ bribery control strategies are rather emerging based on the role of some key stakeholders and events which shape bribery strategies. Five key bribery control strategies were found through which MNEs can control both demand and supply side of bribery: bribery related codes development; bribery related codes implementation; focusing on competitive advantage; find mutually beneficial ethical solution; and collaboration with ethical stakeholders. The results also highlight the problems associated with each strategy. Study is unique in a sense that it focuses on stakeholders having unethical interests and provides guidelines to MNEs in controlling bribery practices in B2B sales relationships.

Keywords: developing countries, Bribery, CSR, narrative research, B2B sales, MNEs

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54 Qualitative Case Study Research in Accounting: Challenges and Prospects the Libyan Case Study

Authors: Bubaker F. Shareia

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Much of the literature on research design has focussed on research conducted in developed, uni-cultural or primarily English speaking countries. Studies of qualitative case study research, the challenges and prospects have been embedded in Western/Euro-centric society and social theories. Although there have been some theoretical studies, few empirical studies have been conducted to explore the nature of the challenges of qualitative case study in developing countries. These challenges include accessibility to organizations, conducting interviews in developing countries, accessing documents and observing official meetings, language and cultural challenges, the use of consent forms, issues affecting access to companies, respondent issues and data analysis. The author, while conducting qualitative case study research in Libya, faced all these issues. The discussion in this paper examines these issues in order to make a contribution toward the literature in this area.

Keywords: Accounting, Challenges, developing countries, Libya, prospects, qualitative case study

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53 Media Coverage on Child Sexual Abuse in Developing Countries

Authors: Hayam Qayyum

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Print and Broadcast media are considered to be the most powerful social change agents and effective medium that can revolutionize the deter society into the civilized, responsible, composed society. Beside all major roles, imperative role of media is to highlight the human rights’ violation issues in order to provide awareness and to prevent society from the social evils and injustice. So, by pointing out the odds, media can lessen the magnitude of happenings within the society. For centuries, the “Silent Crime” i.e. Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) is gulping down the developing countries. This study will explore that how the appropriate Print and Broadcast media coverage can eliminate Child Sexual Abuse from the society. The immense challenge faced by the journalists today; is the accurate and ethical reporting and appropriate coverage to disclose the facts and deliver right message on the right time to lessen the social evils in the developing countries, by not harming the prestige of the victim. In case of CSA most of the victims and their families are not in favour to expose their children to media due to family norms and respect in the society. Media should focus on in depth information of CSA and use this coverage is to draw attention of the concern authorities to look into the matter for reforms and reviews in the system. Moreover, media as a change agent can bring such issue into the knowledge of the international community to make collective efforts with the affected country to eliminate the ‘Silent Crime’ from the society. The model country selected for this research paper is South Africa. The purpose of this research is not only to examine the existing reporting patterns and content of print and broadcast media coverage of South Africa but also aims to create awareness to eliminate Child Sexual abuse and indirectly to improve the condition of stake holders to overcome this social evil. The literature review method is used to formulate this paper. Trends of media content on CSA will be identified that how much amount and nature of information made available to the public through the media General view of media coverage on child sexual abuse in developing countries like India and Pakistan will also be focused. This research will be limited to the role of print and broadcast media coverage to eliminate child sexual abuse in South Africa. In developing countries, CSA issue needs to be addressed on immediate basis. The study will explore the CSA content of the most influential broadcast and print media outlets of South Africa. Broadcast media will be comprised of TV channels and print media will be comprised of influential newspapers. South Africa is selected as a model for this research paper.

Keywords: developing countries, child sexual abuse, South Africa, print and broadcast media

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52 The Role of Health Tourism in Enhancing the Quality of life and Cultural Transmission in Developing Countries

Authors: Fatemeh Noughani, Seyd Mehdi Sadat

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Medical tourism or travel therapy is travelling from one country to another to be under medical treatment, utilizing the health factors of natural sector like mineral water springs and so on. From 1990s medical tourism around the world developed and grew because of different factors like globalization and free trade in the fields of health services, changes in exchange rates in the world economy (which caused the desirability of Asian countries as a medical tourist attraction) in a way that currently there is a close competition in this field among famous countries in medical services to make them find a desirable place in medical tourism market of the world as a complicated and growing industry in a short time. Perhaps tourism is an attractive industry and a good support for the economy of Iran, if we try to merge oil earnings and tourism industry it would be better and more constructive than putting them in front of each other. Moving from oil toward tourism economy especially medical tourism, must be one of the prospects of Iran's government for the oil industry to provide a few percent of the yearly earnings of the country. Among the achievements in medical tourism we can name the prevention of brain drain to other countries and an increase in employment rate for healthcare staff, increase in foreign exchange earnings of the country because of the tourists' staying and followed by increasing the quality of life and cultural transmission as well as empowering the medical human resources.

Keywords: Quality of Life, developing countries, Cultural Transmission, Health Tourism

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51 The Impact of Globalization on the Economic and Cultural Development of Nigeria: A Cost-Benefit Analysis

Authors: Odeh Ibn Iganga

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Globalization as a process is gradually taking mankind along a uniform path of ‘one world, one destiny’ whether coercively or voluntarily. As a phenomenon, it is gradually ascending the status of the New World Order ideology, questioning the fundamental assumptions of the state -centric system- independence, sovereignty, equality of states, non-interference in internal affairs etc. by the demands it makes of, and the attendant consequences upon all nations, especially the less developed and weaker states of the Third World. Thus one of the raging and contentious issues in contemporary development discourse is whether globalization comparatively favors developing economies of the third world countries generally and Africa in particular. Narrowing the issue home also is the contentious issue of whether globalization comparatively favors a developing economy like Nigeria. This paper examines the impact of globalization on the economic and cultural development of Nigeria (given her active and continued participation in the global process spanning a period of about 3 decades now). It reveals the negative and positive consequences of the process and concept of globalization on the economic and cultural development of Nigeria adjudging the country did not benefit much from globalization. The paper then recommends measures as to how the negative consequences could be reduced considerably and to make Nigeria benefit maximally from globalization.

Keywords: Globalization, developing countries, third world, economic and cultural growth

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50 Human Resource Management Challenges in Nigeria Under a Globalised Economy

Authors: Odeh Linus

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The pace of globalization is increasing continuously in terms of markets for goods and services, investment opportunities across borders amongst others. Enterprises face competition from all fronts. Human resource management is not left out in this transformation crusade as it has obligation to move along with the changing demands of the globalization process. One of the objectives of this paper is to show that effective managers should constantly be aware of the changes taking place in domestic (home country) environment, as well as around the globe (international and foreign environments) on HR issues and developments. By so doing, they can scan their environment on an ongoing basis, and when they detect opportunities and/or threats, they can transform their organization to seize the opportunities and/or combat or neutralize the threats as the case may be. In this presentation, problems, issues and trends in HRM practice in Nigeria in the current period were reviewed. The factors affecting HRM and its practice in a global context and what should be the direction of the profession and its practice in Nigeria constitute the main focus of this paper.

Keywords: Management, Human Resource, Globalization, developing countries

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49 Education System Development: Challenges and Barriers

Authors: Kumar Vikas

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Education is to be anticipated for Human resource development and then national development. However, in most of the developing countries, due to the inadequacy of resources it is almost unattainable to educate all of their citizens through on-campus teaching. Huge amount of money is necessary to establish the infrastructure for on-campus teaching which is out of the reach of the developing countries. In these circumstances, to educate their huge inhabitants the developing countries are to depend on open learning and distance education system. However, a question still stands: can the educators dissimulate knowledge to the learners smoothly through this new system of education? Some recent research shows that the graduates of the open and distance learning institutions in the developing countries are treated as second-grade graduates. This paper aims to identify the challenges or barriers in the development of distance and Open learning system in India and suggest possible alternatives may be followed to overcome the barriers.

Keywords: Distance Education, developing countries, Motivation, barriers, alternative solutions

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48 Service Blueprint for Improving Clinical Guideline Adherence via Mobile Health Technology

Authors: Y. O’Connor, C. Heavin, S. O’ Connor, J. Gallagher, J. Wu, J. O’Donoghue

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Background: To improve the delivery of paediatric healthcare in resource-poor settings, Community Health Workers (CHW) have been provided with a paper-based set of protocols known as Community Case Management (CCM). Yet research has shown that CHW adherence to CCM guidelines is poor, ultimately impacting health service delivery. Digitising the CCM guidelines via mobile technology is argued in extant literature to improve CHW adherence. However, little research exist which outlines how (a) this process can be digitised and (b) adherence could be improved as a result. Aim: To explore how an electronic mobile version of CCM (eCCM) can overcome issues associated with the paper-based CCM protocol (poor adherence to guidelines) vis-à-vis service blueprinting. This service blueprint will outline how (a) the CCM process can be digitised using mobile Clinical Decision Support Systems software to support clinical decision-making and (b) adherence can be improved as a result. Method: Development of a single service blueprint for a standalone application which visually depicts the service processes (eCCM) when supporting the CHWs, using an application known as Supporting LIFE (Low cost Intervention For disEase control) as an exemplar. Results: A service blueprint is developed which illustrates how the eCCM solution can be utilised by CHWs to assist with the delivery of healthcare services to children. Leveraging smartphone technologies can (a) provide CHWs with just-in-time data to assist with their decision making at the point-of-care and (b) improve CHW adherence to CCM guidelines. Conclusions: The development of the eCCM opens up opportunities for the CHWs to leverage the inherent benefit of mobile devices to assist them with health service delivery in rural settings. To ensure that benefits are achieved, it is imperative to comprehend the functionality and form of the eCCM service process. By creating such a service blueprint for an eCCM approach, CHWs are provided with a clear picture regarding the role of the eCCM solution, often resulting in buy-in from the end-users.

Keywords: Adherence, developing countries, community health workers, mobile clinical decision support systems, CDSS, service blueprint

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47 [Keynote Talk]: Swiss Scientific Society for Developing Countries: A Concept of Relationship

Authors: Jawad Alzeer

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Cultural setup is varied from country to country and nation to nation, but the ability to adapt successfully to the new cultural setup may pave the way toward the development of cultural intelligence. Overcoming differences may require to build up our personality with the ability to learn, exchange thoughts, and have a constructive dream. Adaptation processes can be accelerated if we effectively utilize our cultural diversity. This can be done through a unified body or society; people with common goals can collectively work to satisfy their values. Narrowing the gap between developed and developing countries is of prime importance. Many international organizations are trying to resolve these issues by rational and peaceful means. Failing to understand the cultural differences, mentalities, strengths and weaknesses of developed and developing countries led to the collapse of many partnerships. Establishment of a neutral body influenced by developed countries intellectuality and developing countries personality may offer a better understanding and reasonable solutions, suggestions, advice that may assist in narrowing gaps and promote-strengthening relationship between developed and developing countries. The key issues, goals, and potential concepts associated with initiating Swiss scientific society for developing countries as a model to facilitate integration of highly skilled scientists are discussed.

Keywords: Integration, developing countries, Cultural Diversity, Switzerland

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46 Constraints Women Academician's Participation at Administrative Positions in Higher Education of Developing Countries

Authors: Mahani Mokhtar, Bahieh Mohajeri, Mohamad Sharif Mustaf

Abstract:

Purpose: This paper attempts to set the stage for the exploration of female participation in administrative positions within non-western countries by reviewing the studies on female in administrative positions within non-western countries and suggesting guidelines for future studies in this area in developing countries. Methodology: The paper is based on a systematic review of papers that have been published in journals. Findings: The review focuses on constraints to female’s participation in higher education of developing countries (e.g. strong family responsibility, low levels of women faculty members, social values and gendered cultural factors). Practical Implications: Further guidelines for future examination of this field of study are suggested (e.g. adopting a different theoretical view).Value: The article is an initial attempt to gather knowledge about constraints of female administrators in higher education of developing countries. The subject has received less attention in studies on administration and gender. In addition, the article provides suggestions for future studies in order to understand women administrators’ experiences in different educational and cultural settings.

Keywords: Participation, developing countries, administrative position, female administrator

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45 Analysis of Street Utilization Patterns in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

Authors: I. D. Mngutyo, T. T. Gyuse, D. S. A. Alaci, J. Atser

Abstract:

Streets are public spaces that are meaningful to all people because of lack of restriction on streets. Studies show that conditions, activities and people contribute to the success of public spaces. Also, self-organization potential in activity patterns offers a prospect for the revitalization of an urban area. This potential is mostly ignored hence many African streets appear disorganized giving African urban areas an unplanned look. Therefore, this study aims to analyze street utilization patterns and explore the relationship between the pattern of street use and condition of streets in Makurdi.These activity patterns form a data base for the revitalization of public space. Three major and minor arterials streets in nine out of the eleven wards that make up the built up part of Makurdi were purposively selected as units for measurement. A street activity audit was done on streets for activities that can be observed. For activities that cannot be easily observed 4 questionnaires were randomly administered on each of the three streets giving a total of 108 questionnaires. Multivariate statistical tools such as factor analysis and regression will be used to show emerging streets activity patterns and spatial variation among the nine wards.

Keywords: urban Design, Urban, developing countries, revitalization, streets, utilization patterns, areas

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44 The Supply Chain Operation Reference Model Adaptation in the Developing Countries: An Empirical Study on the Egyptian Automotive Sector

Authors: Alaa Osman, Sara Elgazzar, Breksal Elmiligy

Abstract:

The Supply Chain Operation Reference (SCOR) model is considered one of the most widely implemented supply chain performance measurement systems (SCPMSs). Several studies have been proposed on the SCOR model adaptation in developed countries context; while there is a limited availability of previous work on the SCPMSs application generally and the SCOR model specifically in developing nations. This paper presents a research agenda on the SCOR model adaptation in the developing countries. It aims at investigating the challenges of adapting the SCOR model to manage and measure supply chain performance in developing countries. The research will exemplify the system in the Egyptian automotive sector to gain a comprehensive understanding of how the application of the SCOR model can affect the performance of automotive companies in Egypt, with a necessary understanding of challenges and obstacles faced the adaptation of the model in the Egyptian supply chain context. An empirical study was conducted on the Egyptian automotive sector in three companies considering three different classes: BMW, Hyundai and Brilliance. First, in-depth interviews were carried out to gain an insight into the implementation and the relevance of the concepts of supply chain management and performance measurement in the Egyptian automotive industry. Then, a formal survey was designed based on the SCOR model five main processes (plan, source, make, deliver and return) and best practices to investigate the challenges and obstacles faced the adaptation of the SCOR model in the Egyptian automotive supply chain. Finally, based on the survey results, the appropriate best practices for each process were identified in order to overcome the SCOR model adaptation challenges. The results showed that the implementation of the SCOR model faced different challenges and unavailability of the required enablers. The survey highlighted the low integration of end-to-end supply chain, lacks commitment for the innovative ideas and technologies, financial constraints and lack of practical training and support as the main challenges faced the adaptation of the SCOR model in the Egyptian automotive supply chain. The research provides an original contribution to knowledge by proposing a procedure to identify challenges encountered during the process of SCOR model adoption which can pave a way for further research in the area of SCPMSs adaptation, particularly in the developing countries. The research can help managers and organizations to identify obstacles and difficulties of the SCOR model adaptation, subsequently this can facilitate measuring the improved performance or changes in the organizational performance.

Keywords: developing countries, Supply Chain Performance, automotive sector, SCOR model

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43 Role of Judiciary in Developing Countries

Authors: Muhammad Saeed, Hamid Mustafa, Amir Shafiq, Asif Shahzad, Shabbar Mehmood

Abstract:

Administration of justice in a society is evolutionary process. In pre-modern societies vital organs that we consider separate today i.e. legislation, implementation and adjudication were controlled by a King, the sovereign authority. Whereas now it is recognized that Development of a country revolves in seven arenas i.e. Civil Society, Political Society, Economic Society, Legislature, Judiciary, Executive & Bureaucracy. Each society whether developing or developed, has need of institutions and structures that can resolve difference of opinions of private or public nature between contending parties. Administration of justice has a key-role in the development of the society. Through this paper, it is to highlight that an independent judiciary having the support of public opinion therefore is inevitable to wriggle out from such problems in order to restore and protect the fundamental rights, constitution and democratic political system in third world countries like Pakistan.

Keywords: developing countries, judicial activism, role of judiciary, present scenario

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42 The Effects of Transformational Leadership on Process Innovation through Knowledge Sharing

Authors: Sawsan J. Al-Husseini, Talib A. Dosa

Abstract:

Transformational leadership has been identified as the most important factor affecting innovation and knowledge sharing; it leads to increased goal-directed behavior exhibited by followers and thus to enhanced performance and innovation for the organization. However, there is a lack of models linking transformational leadership, knowledge sharing, and process innovation within higher education (HE) institutions in general within developing countries, particularly in Iraq. This research aims to examine the mediating role of knowledge sharing in the transformational leadership and process innovation relationship. A quantitative approach was taken and 254 usable questionnaires were collected from public HE institutions in Iraq. Structural equation modelling with AMOS 22 was used to analyze the causal relationships among factors. The research found that knowledge sharing plays a pivotal role in the relationship between transformational leadership and process innovation, and that transformational leadership would be ideal in an educational context, promoting knowledge sharing activities and influencing process innovation in the public HE in Iraq. The research has developed some guidelines for researchers as well as leaders and provided evidence to support the use of TL to increase process innovation within HE environment in developing countries, particularly in Iraq.

Keywords: Knowledge sharing, developing countries, Transformational leadership, Process innovation, structural equation modelling

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41 Infrastructural Barriers to Engaged Learning in the South Pacific: A Mixed-Methods Study of Cook Islands Nurses' Attitudes towards Health Information Technology

Authors: Jonathan Frank, Michelle Salmona

Abstract:

We conducted quantitative and qualitative analyses of nurses’ perceived ease of use of electronic medical records and telemedicine in the Cook Islands. We examined antecedents of perceived ease of use through the lens of social construction of learning, and cultural diffusion. Our findings confirmed expected linkages between PEOU, attitudes and intentions. Interviews with nurses suggested infrastructural barriers to engaged learning. We discussed managerial implications of our findings, and areas of interest for future research.

Keywords: developing countries, Health Information Technology, TAM, ICT4D

Procedia PDF Downloads 130