Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Detoxification Related Abstracts

5 Production of Ethanol from Mission Grass

Authors: Thanyalak Chaisuwan, Apanee Luengnaruemitchai, Sujitra Wongkasemjit, Darin Khumsupan, Tidarat Komolwanich, Sirirat Prasertwasu

Abstract:

Bioethanol production has become a subject of interest for many researchers due to its potential to replace fossil fuels. Since the most popular sources of bioethanol originate from food crops including corn and sugarcane, many people become more concerned with increasing demand for food supply. Lignocellulosic biomass, such as grass, could be a practical alternative to replace the conventional fossil fuels due to its low cost, renewability, and abundance in nature. Mission grass (Pennisetum polystachion) is one of the candidates for bioethanol production. This research is focused on the detoxification and fermentation of hydrolysate from mission grass. Glucose in the hydrolysate was detoxified by overliming process at various pH. Although overliming at pH 12 gave the highest yeast population, the ethanol yield was low due to glucose degradation. Overliming at pH 10 showed the highest yield of ethanol production. Various strains of Baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) will be utilized to produce ethanol at the optimal overliming pH.

Keywords: Detoxification, Lignocellulosic Biomass, Pennisetum polystachion, bioethanol production, overliming, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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4 Toxicity of the Chlorfenapyr: Growth Inhibition and Induction of Oxidative Stress on a Freshwater Protozoan, Paramecium Sp.

Authors: Houria Berrebbah, Houneïda Benbouzid, Mohammed-Réda Djebar

Abstract:

The toxicological impacts of the increasing number of synthetic compounds present in the aquatic environment are assessed predominantly in laboratory studies where test organisms are exposed to a range of concentrations of single compounds. The bio-indicator Paramecium sp., characterized by a short life cycle, rapid multiplication and normal behavior that may be affected by the presence of pollutants. We therefore investigated the inhibitory effect of a newly synthesized acaricide: the chlorfenapyr tested at concentrations of 250, 300, and 350 µM on a pure culture of Paramecium sp. during 6 day. Paramecia treated with different concentrations of Chlorfenapyr illustrate strong inhibition of cell growth from the second day of treatment. Low levels of glutathione, increased glutathione S-transferase and the decrease in respiratory metabolism, recorded in the presence of different concentrations of Chlorfenapyr, involve the activation of detoxification system.

Keywords: Detoxification, Paramecium sp, chlorfenapyr, oxidative enzymes

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3 New Challenge: Reduction of Aflatoxin M1 Residues in Cow’s Milk by MilBond Dietary Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate (HSCAS) and Its Effect on Milk Composition

Authors: A. Aly Salwa, H. Diekmann, S. Hafiz Ragaa, DG Abo Elhassan

Abstract:

This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Milbond (HSCAS) on aflatoxin M1 in artificially contaminated cows milk. Chemisorption compounds used in this experiment were MIlBond, hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS). Raw cow milk were artificially exposed to aflatoxin M1 in a concentration of 100 ppb) with addition of Nilbond at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 % at room temperature for 30 minutes. Aflatoxin M1 was decreased more than 95% by HSCAS at 2%. Milk composition consist of protein, fat, lactose, solid non fat and total solid were affected by addition of some adsorbents were not significantly affected (p 0.05). Tthis method did not involve degrading the toxin, milk may be free from toxin degradation products and is safe for consumption. In addition, the added material may be easily separated from milk after the substance adsorbs the toxin. Thus, this method should be developed by further researches for determining effects of these compounds on functional properties of milk. The ability of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to prevent or reduce the level of aflatoxin MI residues in milk is critically needed. This finding has important implications, because milk is ultimately consumed by humans and animals, and the reduction of aflatoxin contamination in the milk could have an important impact on their health.

Keywords: Detoxification, aflatoxin M1, Hydrated sodium calcium aluminium silicate, raw cow milk

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2 Degradation and Detoxification of Tetracycline by Sono-Fenton and Ozonation

Authors: Chikang Wang, Jhongjheng Jian, Poming Huang

Abstract:

Among a wide variety of pharmaceutical compounds, tetracycline antibiotics are one of the largest groups of pharmaceutical compounds extensively used in human and veterinary medicine to treat and prevent bacterial infections. Because it is water soluble, biologically active, stable and bio-refractory, release to the environment threatens aquatic life and increases the risk posed by antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In practice, due to its antibacterial nature, tetracycline cannot be effectively destructed by traditional biological methods. Hence, in this study, two advanced oxidation processes such as ozonation and sono-Fenton processes were conducted individually to degrade the tetracycline for investigating their feasibility on tetracycline degradation. Effect of operational variables on tetracycline degradation, release of nitrogen and change of toxicity were also proposed. Initial tetracycline concentration was 50 mg/L. To evaluate the efficiency of tetracycline degradation by ozonation, the ozone gas was produced by an ozone generator (Model LAB2B, Ozonia) and introduced into the reactor with different flows (25 - 500 mL/min) at varying pH levels (pH 3 - pH 11) and reaction temperatures (15 - 55°C). In sono-Fenton system, an ultrasonic transducer (Microson VCX 750, USA) operated at 20 kHz combined with H₂O₂ (2 mM) and Fe²⁺ (0.2 mM) were carried out at different pH levels (pH 3 - pH 11), aeration gas and flows (air and oxygen; 0.2 - 1.0 L/min), tetracycline concentrations (10 - 200 mg/L), reaction temperatures (15 - 55°C) and ultrasonic powers (25 - 200 Watts), respectively. Sole ultrasound was ineffective on tetracycline degradation, where the degradation efficiencies were lower than 10% with 60 min reaction. Contribution of Fe²⁺ and H₂O₂ on the degradation of tetracycline was significant, where the maximum tetracycline degradation efficiency in sono-Fenton process was as high as 91.3% followed by 45.8% mineralization. Effect of initial pH level on tetracycline degradation was insignificant from pH 3 to pH 6 but significantly decreased as the pH was greater than pH 7. Increase of the ultrasonic power was slightly increased the degradation efficiency of tetracycline, which indicated that the hydroxyl radicals dominated the oxidation of tetracycline. Effects of aeration of air or oxygen with different flows and reaction temperatures were insignificant. Ozonation showed better efficiencies in tetracycline degradation, where the optimum reaction condition was found at pH 3, 100 mL O₃/min and 25°C with 94% degradation and 60% mineralization. The toxicity of tetracycline was significantly decreased due to the mineralization of tetracycline. In addition, less than 10% of nitrogen content was released to solution phase as NH₃-N, and the most degraded tetracycline cannot be full mineralized to CO₂. The results shown in this study indicated that both the sono-Fenton process and ozonation can effectively degrade the tetracycline and reduce its toxicity at profitable condition. The costs of two systems needed to be further investigated to understand the feasibility in tetracycline degradation.

Keywords: Detoxification, Mineralization, degradation, ozonation, sono-Fenton process, tetracycline

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1 Detoxification of Hazardous Organic/Inorganic Contaminants in Automobile Shredder Residue by Multi-Functioned Nano-Size Metallic Calcium Composite

Authors: Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati, Byoung Ho Lee, Yoshiharu Mitoma, Simion Cristian

Abstract:

In recent years, environmental nanotechnology has risen to the forefront and the new properties and enhanced reactivates offered by nanomaterial may offer a new, low-cost paradigm to solving complex environmental pollution problems. This study assessed the synthesis and application of multi-functioned nano-size metallic calcium (nMC) composite for detoxification of hazardous inorganic (heavy metals (HMs)/organic chlorinated/brominated compound (CBCs) contaminants in automobile shredder residue (ASR). ASR residues ball milled with nMC composite can achieve about 90-100% of HMs immobilization and CBCs decomposition. The results highlight the low quantity of HMs leached from ASR residues after treatment with nMC, which was found to be lower than the standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. The use of nMC composite in a mechanochemical process to treat hazardous ASR (dry conditions) is a simple and innovative approach to remediate hazardous inorganic/organic cross-contaminates in ASR.

Keywords: Detoxification, immobilization, nano-sized metallic calcium, automobile shredder residue, organic/inorganic contaminants

Procedia PDF Downloads 104