Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

determinants Related Abstracts

22 Household Level Determinants of Rural-Urban Migration in Bangladesh

Authors: Shamima Akhter, Siegfried Bauer

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyze the migration process of the rural population of Bangladesh. Heckman Probit model with sample selection was applied in this paper to explore the determinants of migration and intensity of migration at farm household level. The farm survey was conducted in the central part of Bangladesh on 160 farm households with migrant and on 154 farm households without migrant including a total of 316 farm households. The results from the applied model revealed that main determinants of migration at farm household level are household age, economically active males and females, number of young and old dependent members in the household and agricultural land holding. On the other hand, the main determinants of intensity of migration are availability of economically adult male in the household, number of young dependents and agricultural land holding.

Keywords: Migration, determinants, Heckman Probit model, rural-urban

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
21 The Determinants and Effects of R&D Outsourcing in Korean Manufacturing Firm

Authors: Sangyun Han, Minki Kim

Abstract:

R&D outsourcing is a strategy for acquiring the competitiveness of firms as an open innovation strategy. As increasing total R&D investment of firms, the ratio of amount of R&D outsourcing in it is also increased in Korea. In this paper, we investigate the determinants and effects of R&D outsourcing of firms. Through analyzing the determinants of R&D outsourcing and effect on firm’s performance, we can find some academic and politic issues. Firstly, in the point of academic view, distinguishing the determinants of R&D outsourcing is linked why the firms do open innovation. It can be answered resource based view, core competence theory, and etc. Secondly, we can get some S&T politic implication for transferring the public intellectual properties to private area. Especially, for supporting the more SMEs or ventures, government can get the basement and the reason why and how to make the policies.

Keywords: R&D, Outsourcing, determinants, effects

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
20 Determinants of Child Malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Habtamu Fufa, Yemane Berhane

Abstract:

Child under nutrition has long-term consequences for intellectual ability, economic productivity, reproductive performance and susceptibility to metabolic and cardiovascular disease. The unacceptably high prevalence of malnutrition in young children of the region has not changed much over the last decades, which could make the achievement of the corresponding Millennium Development Goals very unlikely. Despite the well-documented problems of child malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa, there is few systematic review of evidences on determinants of child malnutrition in the region. The current available evidence on determinants of child under nutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa is systematically reviewed. The method used in searching relevant literature was using bio medical databases PUBMED, Google scholar and the website of the World Health Organization on nutrition using the following key words: "Determinants “, "Child Malnutrition", and "Sub- Saharan Africa". The search was limited to articles published in and after 1995 up to date. In all the reviewed articles, the data were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis and or odds ratios for significance of determinants in child malnutrition. Synthesis of 40 published articles from various countries of the region is done and noted that household economic status, maternal education, disease, breastfeeding practices, age and sex of a child, birth interval and residential areas were found to be determinants of child under nutrition. Poverty remains the main factor of malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa and poor education of parents aggravates the malnutrition through perpetuation of poor nutrition practices. Male children under five years are the most affected ones. Understanding of these determinants of poor nutritional attainment would provide insights in designing interventions for reducing the high levels of child malnutrition in this region. Large-scale multi-sectoral community-based interventions are urgently needed for a sustainable improvement of child nutritional & health status in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Keywords: health status, Sub-Saharan Africa, determinants, child malnutrition

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
19 Customer’s Choice of a Bank: An Empirical Enquiry from the Banked Ghanaian

Authors: Emmanuel Larbi Offei, Felix Agyei-Sasu, Maura Naa Densua Ashong

Abstract:

Ghana has 26 universal banks and several banking and non-banking financial institutions operating in the country. The growing number of banks has heightened competition among banks to attract and retain customers more customers to ensure sustainability. Hence the need to identify and understand factors that influences customers’ choice of banks cannot be overemphasised. This study investigates the determinants of bank selection criteria by banking customers in Ghana. Four banks were purposively sampled for this study namely Barclays, Standard Chartered, Sahel Sahara and Unibank. Convenience sampling was then used to select 114 bank customers in Accra and interviewed. Questionnaires were used to collect data that were analysed in tables and charts with the use of STATA software. The findings of the study revealed that quick/prompt services and complaint handling, safety of funds, networked branches, easy access to functional Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) and low/moderate service charges were the major determinants of customers’ choice of banks. The results further show that 89.5 percent of all deposits are held in either current or savings accounts. About 22.1 percent of the respondents indicated that they have plans of changing their banks in the near future because they are not satisfied with their banks. A gender analysis of the choice criteria showed differences between the choice criteria of the male as compared to the female. The study recommends that banks in Ghana should focus on products and policies that will not compromise on the safety of funds of their customers. Again, banks must address customer complaints and dissatisfactions as promptly as possible by taking pragmatic steps to address administrative bureaucracies and infrastructural challenges that prolong the duration of banking transactions.

Keywords: Competition, banks, determinants, Ghana, customers’ choice

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
18 Policy Innovation and its Determinants: A Literature Review

Authors: Devasheesh Mathur

Abstract:

The presentation reviews the literature on the phenomenon of policy innovation. Policy innovation refers to a shift in the way policy is made or executed. The paper covers comprehensively on the definition and also the various types of policy innovations. The emphasis is on the antecedents or the determinants of innovation in policies. The author has then made an effort to discover the knowledge gap in the field of policy innovation so as to identify the future scope of research. The objective is to lend more clarity in the area of policy innovation and help in creating a framework for policy-makers as well as academics.

Keywords: Policy Innovation, determinants, literature review, antecedents

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
17 Determinants of Pupils' Performance in the National Achievement Test in Public Elementary Schools of Cavite City

Authors: Florenda B. Cardinoza

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine the determinants of Grade III and grade VI pupils’ performance in the National Achievement Test in the Division of Cavite City, School Year 2011-2012. Specifically, the research aimed to: (1) describe the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of age, sex, birth order, family size, family income, and occupation of parents; (2) determine the level of attitude towards NAT; and (3) describe the degree of relationship between the following variables: school support, teachers’ support, and lastly family support for the pupils’ performance in 2012 NAT. The study used the descriptive-correlation research method to investigate the determinants of pupils’ performance in the National Achievement Test of Public Elementary Schools in the Division of Cavite City. The instrument used in data gathering was a self-structured survey. The NAT result for SY 2011-2012 provided by NETRC and DepEd Cavite City was also utilized. The statistical tools used to process and analyze the data were frequency distribution, percentage, mean, standard deviation, Kruskall Wallis, Mann-Whitney, t-test for independent samples, One-way ANOVA, and Spearman Rank Correlational Coefficient. Results revealed that there were more female students than males in the Division of Cavite City; out of 659 respondents, 345 were 11 years old and above; 390 were females; 283 were categorized as first child in the family; 371 of the respondents were from small family; 327 had Php5000 and below family income; 450 of the fathers’ respondents were non professionals; and 431 of the mothers respondents had no occupation. The attitude towards NAT, with a mean of 1.65 and SD of .485, shows that respondents considered NAT important. The school support towards NAT, with a mean of 1.89 and SD of .520, shows that respondents received school support. The pupils had a very high attitude towards teachers’ support in NAT with a mean of 1.60 and SD of .572. Family support, with t-test of 16.201 with a p-value of 0.006, shows significant at 5 percent level. Thus, the determinants of pupils’ performance in NAT in terms of family support for NAT preparation is not significant according to their family income. The grade level, with the t-test is 4.420 and a p-value of 0.000, is significant at 5 percent level. Therefore, the determinants of pupils’ performance in NAT in terms of grade level for NAT preparation vary according to their grade level. For the determinants of pupils’ performance of NAT sample test for attitude towards NAT, school support, teachers’ support, and family support were noted highly significant with a p value of 0.000.

Keywords: Test, Performance, National, Public, determinants, achievement, pupils'

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
16 Environmental Variables as Determinants of Students Achievement in Biology Secondary Schools in South West Nigeria

Authors: Ayeni Margaret Foluso, K. A. Omotayo

Abstract:

This study investigated the impact of selected environmental variables as determinants of students’ achievements in biology in secondary schools. The selected environmental variables are class size and laboratory adequacy. The purpose was to find out whether these environmental variables can bring about improvement in the learning of biology by Senior Secondary School Students. The study design used was descriptive research of the survey type. Two instruments were used that is, Biology Achievement Test and School Environment Questionnaire .The population of the study consisted of all Biology students in both public and private Senior Secondary Schools class III (SSIII) in all the three selected states in South West Nigeria. A sample of 900 Biology students and 45 Biology Teachers from both public and private Senior Secondary Schools Class III were used. Two research hypotheses were generated for the study. The data collected were subjected to both descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation; and the inferential statistics of regression Analyses was employed to test the hypotheses formulated. From the results, it was revealed that the selected environmental variables had influence on the students’ achievement in biology.

Keywords: determinants, school science, environmental variables, students’ achievement

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
15 Determinants of the Income of Household Level Coir Yarn Labourers in Sri Lanka

Authors: G. H. B. Dilhari, A. A. D. T. Saparamadu

Abstract:

Sri Lanka is one of the prominent countries for the coir production. The coir is one of the by-products of the coconut and the coir industry is considered to be one of the traditional industries in Sri Lanka. Because of the inherent nature of the coir industry, labourers play a significant role in the coir production process. The study has analyzed the determinants of the income of the household level coir yarn labourers. The study was conducted in the Kumarakanda Grama Niladhari division. Simple random sampling was used to generate a sample of 100 household level coir yarn labourers and structured questionnaire, personal interviews, and discussion were performed to gather the required data. The obtained data were statistically analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis test were performed for mean comparison. The findings revealed that the household level coir yarn industry is dominated by the female workers and it was identified that fewer numbers of workers have engaged in this industry as the main occupation. In addition to that, elderly participation in the industry is higher than the younger participation and most of them have engaged in the industry as a source of extra income. Level of education, the methods of engagement, satisfaction, engagement in the industry by the next generation, support from the government, method of government support, working hours per day, employed as a main job, number of completed units per day, suffering from job related diseases and type of the diseases were related with income level of household level coir yarn laboures. The recommendations as to flourish in future includes, technological transformation for coir yarn production, strengthening the raw material base and regulating the raw material supply, introduction of new technologies, markets and training programmes, the establishment of the labourers’ association, the initiation of micro credit schemes and better consideration about the job oriented diseases.

Keywords: Income, determinants, Sri Lanka, coir yarn

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
14 Analysis of Technical Efficiency and Its Determinants among Cattle Fattening Enterprises in Kebbi State, Nigeria

Authors: Gona Ayuba, Isiaka Mohammed, Kotom Mohammed Baba, Mohammed Aabubakar Maikasuwa

Abstract:

The study examined the technical efficiency and its determinants of cattle fattening enterprises in Kebbi state, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample of 160 fatteners between June 2010 and June 2011 using the multistage random sampling technique. Translog stochastic frontier production function was employed for the analysis. Results of the analysis show that technical efficiency indices varied from 0.74 to 0.98%, with a mean of 0.90%, indicating that there was no wide gap between the efficiency of best technical efficient fatteners and that of the average fattener. The result also showed that fattening experience and herd size influenced the level of technical efficiency at 1% levels. It is recommended that credit agencies should ensure that credit made available to the fatteners is monitored to ensure appropriate utilization.

Keywords: Cattle, technical efficiency, determinants, fattening enterprises

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
13 Banks' Financial Performance in Pakistan from 2012-2015

Authors: Saima Akbar

Abstract:

The global financial crisis severely and adversely impacted the Pakistanis’ financial setups with far-reaching consequences for its victims. This study aimed to analyze the various determinants of the banks’ financial performance in Pakistan. The stepwise multiple regression analysis and pre-post analysis were carried out in this regard by using SPSS ver 22. The study found that the assets quality is the most influential determinant of return over assets followed by bank size and solvency. Advances, liquidity, investments, and size have positive while poor assets quality and deposits have a negative impact on the return over assets. The comparison of the pre-crisis and post-crisis coefficient values of the independent variables revealed that the global financial crisis had exerted a significant impact on the relative ability of the financial performance determinants to explain variations in return over assets.

Keywords: determinants, pre-crisis, post-crisis, coefficient values

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
12 Determinants of Selenium Intake in a High HIV Prevalence Fishing Community in Bondo District, Kenya

Authors: Samwel Boaz Otieno, Fred Were, Ephantus Kabiru, Kaunda Waza

Abstract:

A study was done to establish determinants of selenium intake in a high HIV prevalence fishing community in the Pala Bondo district, Kenya. It was established that most of the respondents (61%) were small holder Farmers and Fishermen {χ2 (1, N=386) p<0.000}, and that most of them (91.2%) had up to college level education {χ2.(1, N=386) p<0.000}, while the number of males and females were not significantly different {χ (1, N=386) p=0.263} and 83.5% of respondents were married {χ2 (1, N=386) p=0.000}. The study showed that adults take on average 2.68 meals a day (N=382, SD=0.603), while children take 3.02 meals (N=386, SD=1.031) a day, and that in most households (82.6%) food is prepared by the women {χ2 (1, N=386) p=0.000} and further that 50% of foods eaten in that community are purchased {χ2 (1, N=386)=0.1818, p=0.6698}. The foods eaten by 75.2% of the respondents were Oreochromis niloticus, Lates niloticus, and Sorghum bicolour, 64.1% vegetables and that both children and adults eat same types of food, and further that traditional foods which have become extinct are mainly vegetables (46%). The study established that selenium levels in foods eaten in Pala sub-locations varies with traditional vegetables having higher levels of selenium; for example, Laurnea cornuta (148.5 mg/kg), Cleome gynandra (121.5 mg/kg), Vignia ungulata (21.97 mg/kg), while Rastrineobola argentea (51 mg/kg), Lates niloticus (0), Oreochromis niloticus (0) Sorgum bicolour (19.97 mg/kg), and Sorgum bicolour (0). The study showed that there is an inverse relationship between foods eaten and selenium levels {RR=1.21, p=0.000}, with foods eaten by 75.2% of respondents (Oreochromis niloticus/Lates niloticus) having no detectable selenium. The four soil types identified in the study area had varying selenium levels with pleat loam (13.3 mg/kg), sandy loam (10.7 mg/kg), clay (2.8 mg/kg) and loam (4.8 mg/kg). It was concluded from this study that for the foods eaten by most of the respondents the selenium levels were below Daily Reference Intake.

Keywords: Food, HIV, Fishing, Selenium, determinants

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
11 Seroprevalence and Determinants of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Christiana Frimpong, Mpundu Makasa, Lungowe Sitali, Charles Michelo

Abstract:

Background: Toxoplasmosis is a neglected zoonotic disease which is prevalent among pregnant women especially in Africa. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and determinants of the disease among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH). Method: A cross-sectional study was employed where 411 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at UTH were interviewed using closed-ended questionnaires. Their blood was also tested for Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using the OnSite Toxo IgG/IgM Combo Rapid Test cassettes by CTK Biotech, Inc, USA. Result: The overall seroprevalence of the infection (IgG) was 5.87%. There was no seropositive IgM result. Contact with cats showed 7.81 times the risk of contracting the infection in the pregnant women and being a farmer/being involved in construction work showed 15.5 times likelihood of contracting the infection. Socio-economic status of the pregnant women also presented an inverse relationship (showed association) with the infection graphically. However, though there were indications of the association between contact with cats, employment type as well as the socioeconomic status of the pregnant women with the infection, there was not enough evidence to suggest these factors as significant determining factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in our study population. Conclusion: There is a low prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Lusaka, Zambia. Screening for the infection among pregnant women can be done once or twice during pregnancy to help protect both mother and child from the disease. Health promotion among women of child bearing age on the subject is of immense importance in order to help curb the situation. Further studies especially that of case-control and cohort studies should be carried out in the country in order to better ascertain the extent of the condition nationwide.

Keywords: toxoplasmosis, Pregnant Women, determinants, Zambia, seroprevalence, University Teaching Hospital (UTH)

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
10 The Influence of Firm Characteristics on Profitability: Evidence from Italian Hospitality Industry

Authors: Elisa Menicucci, Guido Paolucci

Abstract:

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate the factors influencing profitability in the Italian hospitality industry during the period 2008-2016. Design/methodology/approach: This study examines the profitability and its determinants using a sample of 2366 Italian hotel firms. First, we use a multidimensional measure of profitability including attributes as return on equity, return on assets and occupancy rate. Second, we examine variables that are potentially related with performance and we sort these into five categories: market variables, business model, ownership structure, management education and control variables. Findings: The results show that financial crisis, business model and ownership structure influence profitability of hotel firms. Specific factors such as the internationalization, location, firm’s declaring accommodation as their primary activity and chain affiliation are associated positively with profitability. We also find that larger hotel firms have higher performance rankings, while hotels with higher operating cash flow volatility, greater sales volatility and a higher occurrence of losses have lower profitability. Research limitations/implications: Findings suggest the importance of considering firm specific factors to evaluate the profitability of a hotel firm. Results also provide evidence for academics to critically evaluate factors that would ensure profitability of hotels in developed countries such as Italy. Practical implications: This investigation offers valuable information and strategic implications for government, tourism policymakers, tourist hotel owners, hoteliers and tourism managers in their decision-making. Originality/value: This paper provides interesting insights into the characteristics and practices of profitable hotels in Italy. Few econometric studies empirically explored the determinants of performance in the European hospitality field so far. Therefore, this paper tries to close an important gap in the existing literature improving the understanding of profitability in the Italian hospitality industry.

Keywords: Profitability, determinants, hotel firms, Italian hospitality industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
9 Determinants of Happiness and Its Relation towards Life Satisfaction among Adult Community of Kampung Jaya Bakti

Authors: Khairul Abid Awang

Abstract:

Happiness and life satisfaction are the vital components in assessing the well-being of the societies and their social progress. These components varies and changes within communities and across time. Thus, due to low level of happiness and life satisfaction, it might affect mental health status psychologically and generally disrupt the health pattern of the individual. Hence, this present study aims to identify the happiness determinants, assessing the happiness and life satisfaction level, as well as examine the relation between happiness among Kampung Jaya Bakti adult community. Quantitative and cross-sectional study with total of 100 observations of 18 years old and above was participated in this study. The study was done in a semi-rural village which is geocentric towards river that branched from South East Asia Sea. Several happiness and life satisfaction instruments was used, inclusive of Individual Determinants of Happiness Scale (IDoHS) that had been developed in this study, in order to identify the determinants of happiness in the area based on the listed determinants. The listed determinants in IDoHS are: i) Daily activities. ii) Adaptation. iii) Goals. iv) Life Events. v) Living condition. vi) Self-confidence. vii) Personality traits. viii) Religion. The results revealed that 98% of the respondents agreed that the listed determinants in IDoHS are statistically significant in determining the happiness. The happiness level revealed that 71 percent (%) of the respondents are ‘very happy’, followed by 26% (‘moderately happy’) and 3% (‘neutral’), while life satisfaction level revealed that 70% of the respondents are ‘very highly satisfied’, followed by 29% (‘highly satisfied’) and 1% (‘moderately satisfied’). Pearson Correlation (Pearson’s r) shows that; happiness determinants listed in IDoHS are affecting happiness level (Pearson’s r: .514, p < 0.01) and life satisfaction level (Pearson’s r: .504, p < 0.01) respectively, as well as happiness that are statistically significant in affecting life satisfaction (Pearson’s r: .653, p < 0.01; Pearson’s r; .546, p < 0.01). It is concluded that the listed determinants in IDoHS are the determinants that affecting happiness and it is also noted that happiness are affecting life satisfaction and vice versa.

Keywords: Happiness, Life Satisfaction, subjective well-being, determinants, adult community

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
8 An Investigation of Influential Factors in Adopting the Cloud Computing in Saudi Arabia: An Application of Technology Acceptance Model

Authors: Shayem Saleh ALresheedi, Lu Song Feng, Abdulaziz Abdulwahab M. Fatani

Abstract:

Cloud computing is an emerging concept in the technological sphere. Its development enables many applications to avail information online and on demand. It is becoming an essential element for businesses due to its ability to diminish the costs of IT infrastructure and is being adopted in Saudi Arabia. However, there exist many factors that affect its adoption. Several researchers in the field have ignored the study of the TAM model for identifying the relevant factors and their impact for adopting of cloud computing. This study focuses on evaluating the acceptability of cloud computing and analyzing its impacting factors using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) of technology adoption in Saudi Arabia. It suggests a model to examine the influential factors of the TAM model along with external factors of technical support in adapting the cloud computing. The proposed model has been tested through the use of multiple hypotheses based on calculation tools and collected data from customers through questionnaires. The findings of the study prove that the TAM model along with external factors can be applied in measuring the expected adoption of cloud computing. The study presents an investigation of influential factors and further recommendation in adopting cloud computing in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Cloud Computing, Adoption, determinants, acceptability

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
7 Determinants of Internationalization of Social Enterprises: A 20-Year Review

Authors: Xiaoqing Li

Abstract:

Social entrepreneurship drives the global movement as social enterprises create best ways to satisfy social needs through connecting international resources. However, what determines social enterprises to internationalize is underexplored. This study aims to answer this question by conducting a systematic review of studies of past 20 years on social enterprises' internationalization. Findings reveal that factors at the individual (entrepreneur), firm, and environment (home and host country) levels determine the degree of social enterprises' internationalization. Future research is challenged by: a. adopting an integrated approach examining the three levels to explain social enterprises' internationalization; b. the different nature of social enterprises from commercial businesses demands scholars to refine and develop appropriate theoretical models to capture the dynamism of social enterprises' internationalization behavior.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Social Enterprises, Internationalization, determinants

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
6 Reducing Stunting, Low Birth Weight and Underweight in Anuradhapura District in Sri Lanka, by Identifying and Addressing the Underlying Determinants of Under-Nutrition and Strengthening Families and Communities to Address Them

Authors: Saman Kumara, Duminda Guruge, Krishani Jayasinghe

Abstract:

Introduction: Nutrition strongly influences good health and development in early life. This study, based on a health promotion approach, used a community-based intervention to improve child nutrition. The approach provides the community with control of interventions, thereby building its capacity and empowering individuals and communities. The aim of this research was to reduce stunting, low birth weight and underweight in communities from Anuradhapura District in Sri Lanka, by identifying and addressing the underlying determinants of under-nutrition and strengthening families and communities to address them. Methods: A health promotion intervention was designed and implemented-based on a logical framework developed in collaboration with members of targeted community. Community members’ implements action, so they fully own the process. Members of the community identify and address the most crucial determinants of health including child health and development and monitor the initial results of their action and modify action to optimize outcomes as well as future goals. Group Discussion, group activities, awareness programs, cluster meetings, community tools and sharing success stories were major activities to address determinants. Continuous data collection was planned at different levels. Priority was given to strengthening the ability of families and groups or communities to collect meaningful data and analyze these themselves. Results: Enthusiasm and interest of the mother, happiness of the child/ family, dietary habits, money management, tobacco and alcohol use of fathers, media influences, illnesses in the child or others, hygiene and sanitary practices, community sensitiveness and domestic violence were the major perceived determinants elicited from the study. There were around 1000 well-functioning mothers groups in this district. ‘Happiness calendar’, ‘brain calendar’, ‘money tool’ and ‘stimulation books’ were created by the community members, to address determinants and measure the process. Evaluation of the process has shown positive early results, such as improvement of feeding habits among mothers, innovative ways of providing early stimulation and responsive care, greater involvement of fathers in childcare and responsive feeding. There is a positive movement of communities around child well-being through interactive play areas. Family functioning and community functioning improved. Use of alcohol and tobacco declined. Community money management improved. Underweight was reduced by 40%. Stunting and low birth weight among under-fives also declined within one year. Conclusion: The health promotion intervention was effective in changing the determinants of under-nutrition in early childhood. Addressing the underlying determinants of under-nutrition in early childhood can be recommended for similar contexts.

Keywords: Community, determinants, underweight, Stunting, birth-weight

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
5 Effective and Innovative Health Promotion Interventions for Promoting Life-Long Opportunities through Better Health and Nutrition Beginning from Early Childhood

Authors: Saman Kumara, Duminda Guruge, Nadeesha Sewwandi, Dilini Shashikala, Rajarathnam Kanapathy, Shivakumaran Viyasan

Abstract:

Introduction: Nutrition is fundamental for good health and development during the early years of life. This study describes how rural community does interventions for improving the nutrition and health of children less than 5 year ages using health promotion approach and this study was conducted with children society and mothers groups in a rural village called Welankulama in Sri Lanka. Methodology: The details got from Public Health Midwife in this village showed there were malnourished children under 5 years age. So, we discussed this problem with the children society, mothers groups and identified the determinants with them. Then they wanted to address some of the determinants that they prioritized from their discussions. ‘Evening school’ was a new place to this village to do collective feeding for small children. ‘Mobile library’ was another new concept in this village and nutrition books, evidence collection were there to read for villagers. Mothers marked the foods given to their kids in a book called ‘Nutrition book’. And also mothers tend to mark the level of eating foods to motivate their children in a ‘Hapana calendar’. Results: In terms of results, malnourished children under 5 years age got reduced and the number of children having illnesses got reduced. Marking nutrition book and ‘Hapana calendar’ were become as trend among mothers. Apart from the above, there was good improvement of physical, social and emotional wellbeing of children. Children who received early stimulation with nutrition supplements had better outcomes than children who only received nutrition supplements, thereby amplifying the impact of nutrition. Conclusion: Health promotion interventions are helped to change nutritional behaviors of early childhood in rural community and it makes children healthier and better able to learn.

Keywords: Nutrition, Early Childhood, determinants, health promotion process

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
4 Entrepreneurial Determinants Contributing to the Long Term Growth of Young Hi-Technology Start-Ups

Authors: A. Binnui, O. Kalinowska-Beszczynska, G. Shaw

Abstract:

It is postulated that innovative deployment of entrepreneurial activities leads to firm's growth. This paper draws upon the key predictions of the core theories on entrepreneurship and innovation to formulate a conceptual framework which can be used to depict the casual chain of events from which entrepreneurs can manage more innovatively and ultimately deliver higher growth which benefits of the regional and national economies. It examines the key firm-based factors extracted from the theories, namely the characteristics of entrepreneurial hi-tech firms, characteristics of innovating firms, and firm growth dynamics that lead to enhanced economic growth. The framework postulates that the key determinants extracted such as entrepreneurial demographics, firm characteristic, skills and competencies, research and development, product/service characteristics, market development, financial of the firm and internationalization might lead to the survival and long term development of high-technology startups.

Keywords: Growth, determinants, innovative entrepreneurial activities, entrepreneuship, hi-technology start-upws

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
3 Girls’ Education Policy and Practices in Three Selected Countries of Africa: Feminism, Educational Reform and Cultural Inflections in View

Authors: Endalew Fufa Kufi

Abstract:

One of the major concerns in educational provision and success determination is access to available opportunities. In that, girls’ access to education has been a point of concern, and more emphasis has come to be at the forefront regarding success. Researches have mostly been held on extremes such as equal access and success, but only a few works deal with process issues related to home and school interplay, issues of progress from lower to higher levels, and spatial conditions related to girls’ education. Hence, this survey assessed experiences in three countries of Africa: Ethiopia, Ghana, and Botswana regarding girls’ education in policy and practice as related to contextual matters in girls’ education. Contextual discourse analysis of qualitative design was used to materialize the study. From each country, five research works held 2010 onwards were purposively selected through criterion-sampling. On the policy aspect, workable documents were looked into. The findings denoted that educational access was of more stretch and generic nature, and the narration was dominated by institutional expectations, not identifying which group should benefit what. The researches largely dealt with either subject-specific dealings or access alone at large. Success studies, by far, dealt with a comparison of girls with boys rather than determinant-related projections. Moreover, the cultural representation of girls’ education had a very minimal part in both policy and researches. From that, it could be found that in-depth scrutiny on the individual, institutional, and leadership determinants of girls’ education would be necessary.

Keywords: Education, Feminism, determinants, girls

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2 Clinical Empathy: The Opportunity to Offer Optimal Treatment to People with Serious Illness

Authors: Leonore Robieux, Franck Zenasni, Marc Pocard, Clarisse Eveno

Abstract:

Empirical data in health psychology studies show the necessity to consider the doctor-patient communication and its positive impact on outcomes such as patients’ satisfaction, treatment adherence, physical and psychological wellbeing. In this line, the present research aims to define the role and determinants of an effective doctor–patient communication during the treatment of patients with serious illness (peritoneal carcinomatosis). We carried out a prospective longitudinal study including patients treated for peritoneal carcinomatosis of various origins. From November 2016, to date, data were collected using validated questionnaires at two times of evaluation: one month before the surgery (T0) and one month after (T1). Thus, patients reported their (a) anxiety and depression levels, (b) standardized and individualized quality of life and (c) how they perceived communication, attitude and empathy of the surgeon. 105 volunteer patients (Mean age = 58.18 years, SD = 10.24, 62.2% female) participated to the study. PC arose from rare diseases (14%), colorectal (38%), eso-gastric (24%) and ovarian (8%) cancer. Three groups are defined according to the severity of their pathology and the treatment offered to them: (1) important surgical treatment with the goal of healing (53%), (2) repeated palliative surgical treatment (17%), and (3) the patients recused for surgical treatment, only palliative approach (30%). Results are presented according to Baron and Kenny recommendations. The regressions analyses show that only depression and anxiety are sensitive to the communication and empathy of surgeon. The main results show that a good communication and high level of empathy at T0 and T1 limit depression and anxiety of the patients in T1. Results also indicate that the severity of the disease modulates this positive impact of communication: better is the communication the less are the level of depression and anxiety of the patients. This effect is higher for patients treated for the more severe disease. These results confirm that, even in the case severe disease a good communication between patient and physician remains a significant factor in promoting the well-being of patients. More specific training need to be developed to promote empathic care.

Keywords: Healthcare, determinants, psychological wellbeing, clinical empathy

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1 Determinants of Post-Psychotic Depression in Schizophrenia Patients in ACSH and Mekellle Hospital Tigray, Ethiopia, 2019

Authors: Ashenafi Ayele, Shewit Haftu, Tesfalem Araya

Abstract:

Background: “Post-psychotic depression”, “post schizophrenic depression”, and “secondary depression” have been used to describe the occurrence of depressive symptoms during the chronic phase of schizophrenia. Post-psychotic depression is the most common cause of death due to suicide in schizophrenia patients. Overall lifetime risk for patients with schizophrenia is 50% for suicide attempts and 9-13% lifetime risk for completed suicide and also it is associated with poor prognosis and poor quality of life. Objective: To assess determinant of post psychotic depression in schizophrenia patients ACSH and Mekelle General Hospital, Tigray Ethiopia 2019. Methods: An institutional based unmatched case control study was conducted among 69 cases and 138 controls with the ratio of case to control 1 ratio 2. The sample is calculated using epi-info 3.1 to assess the determinant factors of post-psychotic depression in schizophrenia patients. The cases were schizophrenia patients who have been diagnosed at least for more than one-year stable for two months, and the controls are any patients who are diagnosed as schizophrenia patients. Study subjects were selected using a consecutive sampling technique. The Calgary depression scale for schizophrenia self-administered questionnaire was used. Before the interview, it was assessed the client’s capacity to give intended information using a scale called the University of California, San Diego Brief Assessment of Capacity to Consent (UBACC). Bivariant and multiple Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine between the independent and dependent variables. The significant independent predictor was declared at 95% confidence interval and P-value of less than 0.05. Result: Females were affected by post psychotic depression with the (AOR=2.01, 95%CI: 1.003- 4.012, P= 0.49).Patients who have mild form of positive symptom of schizophrenia affected by post psychotic depression with (AOR =4.05, 95%CI: 1.888- 8.7.8, P=0001).Patients who have minimal form of negative symptom of schizophrenia are affected by post psychotic depression with (AOR =4.23, 95%CI: 1.081-17.092, P=.038). Conclusion: In this study, sex (female) and presence of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia were significantly associated. It is recommended that the post psychotic depression should be assessed in every schizophrenia patient to decrease the severity of illness, and to improve patient’s quality of life.

Keywords: determinants, post-psychotic depression, Mekelle city

Procedia PDF Downloads 1