Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 4

destruction Related Abstracts

4 Concepts of Creation and Destruction as Cognitive Instruments in World View Study

Authors: Perizat Balkhimbekova

Abstract:

Evolutionary changes in cognitive world view taking place in the last decades are followed by changes in perception of the key concepts which are related to the certain lingua-cultural sphere. Also, such concepts reflect the person’s attitude to essential processes in the sphere of concepts, e.g. the opposite operations like creation and destruction. These changes in people’s life and thinking are displayed in a language world view. In order to open the maintenance of mental structures and concepts we should use language means as observable results of people’s cognitive activity. Semantics of words, free phrases and idioms should be considered as an authoritative source of information concerning concepts. The regularized set of concepts in people consciousness forms the sphere of concepts. Cognitive linguistics widely discusses the sphere of concepts as its crucial category defining it as the field of knowledge which is made of concepts. It is considered that a sphere of concepts comprises the various types of association and forms conceptual fields. As a material for the given research, the data from Russian National Corpus and British National Corpus were used. In is necessary to point out that data provided by computational studies, are intrinsic and verifiable; so that we have used them in order to get the reliable results. The procedure of study was based on such techniques as extracting of the context containing concepts of creation|destruction from the Russian National Corpus (RNC), and British National Corpus (BNC); analyzing and interpreting of those context on the basis of cognitive approach; finding of correspondence between the given concepts in the Russian and English world view. The key problem of our study is to find the correspondence between the elements of world view represented by opposite concepts such as creation and destruction. Findings: The concept of "destruction" indicates a process which leads to full or partial destruction of an object. In other words, it is a loss of the object primary essence: structures, properties, distinctive signs and its initial integrity. The concept of "creation", on the contrary, comprises positive characteristics, represents the activity aimed at improvement of the certain object, at the creation of ideal models of the world. On the other hand, destruction is represented much more widely in RNC than creation (1254 cases of the first concept by comparison to 192 cases for the second one). Our hypothesis consists in the antinomy represented by the aforementioned concepts. Being opposite both in respect of semantics and pragmatics, and from the point of view of axiology, they are at the same time complementary and interrelated concepts.

Keywords: Creation, concept, destruction, world view

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3 Exergetic Comparison between Three Configurations of Two Stage Vapor Compression Refrigeration Systems

Authors: Wafa Halfaoui Mbarek, Khir Tahar, Ben Brahim Ammar

Abstract:

This study reports a comparison from an exergetic point of view between three configurations of vapor compression industrial refrigeration systems operating with R134a as working fluid. The performances of the different cycles are analyzed as function of several operating parameters such as condensing temperature and inter stage pressure. In addition, the contributions of component exergy destruction to the total exergy destruction are obtained for each system. The results are estimated to be used in the selection of the most advantageous configuration from an exergetic view point.

Keywords: Exergy, Efficiency, Vapor Compression, R134a, destruction

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2 Alterations of Molecular Characteristics of Polyethylene under the Influence of External Effects

Authors: Vigen Barkhudaryan

Abstract:

The influence of external effects (γ-, UV–radiations, high temperature) in presence of air oxygen on structural transformations of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) have been investigated dependent on the polymers’ thickness, the intensity and the dose of external actions. The methods of viscosimetry, light scattering, turbidimetry and gelation measuring were used for this purpose. The comparison of influence of external effects on LDPE shows, that the destruction and cross-linking processes of macromolecules proceed simultaneously with all kinds of external effects. A remarkable growth of average molecular mass of LDPE along with the irradiation doses and heat treatment exposure growth was established. It was linear for the mass average molecular mass and at the initial doses is mainly the result of the increase of the macromolecular branching. As a result, the macromolecular hydrodynamic volumes have been changed, and therefore the dependence of viscosity average molecular mass on the doses was going through the minimum at initial doses. A significant change of molecular mass, sizes and shape of macromolecules of LDPE occurs under the influence of external effects. The influence is limited only by diffusion of oxygen during -irradiation and heat treatment. At UV–irradiation the influence is limited both by diffusion of oxygen and penetration of radiation. Consequently, the molecular transformations are deeper and evident in case of -irradiation, as soon as the polymer is transformed in a whole volume. It was also established, that the mechanism of molecular transformations in polymers from the surface layer distinctly differs from those of the sample deeper layer. A comparison of the results of these investigations allows us to conclude, that the mechanisms of influence of investigated external effects on polyethylene are similar.

Keywords: High Temperature, LDPE, cross-linking, destruction, γ-radiations, UV-radiations

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1 Socio-Psychological Significance of Vandalism in the Urban Environment: Destruction, Modernization, Communication

Authors: Olga Kruzhkova, Irina Vorobyeva, Roman Porozov

Abstract:

Vandalism is a common phenomenon, but its definition is still not clearly defined. In the public sense, vandalism is the blatant cases of pogroms in cemeteries, destruction of public places (regardless of whether these actions are authorized), damage to significant objects of culture and history (monuments, religious buildings). From a legal point of view, only such an act can be called vandalism, which is aimed at 'desecrating buildings or other structures, damaging property on public transport or in other public places'. The key here is the notion of public property that is being damaged. In addition, the principal is the semantics of messages, expressed in a kind of sign system (drawing, inscription, symbol), which initially threatens public order, the calmness of citizens, public morality. Because of this, the legal qualification of vandalism doesn’t include a sufficiently wide layer of environmental destructions that are common in modern urban space (graffiti and other damage to private property, broken shop windows, damage to entrances and elevator cabins), which in ordinary consciousness are seen as obvious facts of vandalism. At the same time, the understanding of vandalism from the position of psychology implies an appeal to the question of the limits of the activity of the subject of vandalism and his motivational basis. Also recently, the discourse on the positive meaning of some forms of vandalism (graffiti, street-art, etc.) has been activated. But there is no discussion of the role and significance of vandalism in public and individual life, although, like any socio-cultural and socio-psychological phenomenon, vandalism is not groundless and meaningless. Our aim of the study was to identify and describe the functions of vandalism as a socio-cultural and socio-psychological phenomenon of the life of the urban community, as well as personal determinants of its manifestations. The study was conducted in the spatial environment of the Russian megalopolis (Ekaterinburg) by photographing visual results of vandal acts (6217 photos) with subsequent trace-assessment and image content analysis, as well as diagnostics of personal characteristics and motivational basis of vandal activity of possible subjects of vandalism among youth. The results of the study allowed to identify the functions of vandalism at the socio-environmental and individual-subjective levels. The socio-environmental functions of vandalism include the signaling function, the function of preparing of social changes, the constructing function, and the function of managing public moods. The demonstrative-protest function, the response function, the refund function, and the self-expression function are assigned to the individual-subjective functions of vandalism. A two-dimensional model of vandal functions has been formed, where functions are distributed in the spaces 'construction reconstruction', 'emotional regulation/moral regulation'. It is noted that any function of vandal activity at the individual level becomes a kind of marker of 'points of tension' at the social and environmental level. Acknowledgment: The research was supported financially by Russian Science Foundation, (Project No. 17-18-01278).

Keywords: Urban Environment, vandalism, destruction, vandal behavior, vandalism functions

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