Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

design of experiments Related Abstracts

14 Removal of Aggregates of Monoclonal Antibodies by Ion Exchange Chromatography

Authors: Ishan Arora, Anurag Rathore

Abstract:

The primary objective of this work was to study the effect of resin chemistry, pH and molarity of binding and elution buffer on aggregate removal using Cation Exchange Chromatography and find the optimum conditions which can give efficient aggregate removal with minimum loss of yield. Four different resins were used for carrying out the experiments: Fractogel EMD SO3-(S), Fractogel EMD COO-(M), Capto SP ImpRes and S Ceramic HyperD. Runs were carried out on the AKTA Avant system. Design of Experiments (DOE) was used for analysis using the JMP software. The dependence of the yield obtained using different resins on the operating conditions was studied. Success has been achieved by obtaining yield greater than 90% using Capto SP ImpRes and Fractogel EMD COO-(M) resins. It has also been found that a change in the operating conditions generally has different effects on the yields obtained using different resins.

Keywords: design of experiments, Aggregates, Monoclonal Antibodies, cation exchange chromatography

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13 Removal of Aggregates of Monoclonal Antibodies by Ion Exchange Chrmoatography

Authors: Ishan Arora, Anurag Rathore

Abstract:

The primary objective of this work was to study the effect of resin chemistry, pH and molarity of binding and elution buffer on aggregate removal using Cation Exchange Chromatography and find the optimum conditions which can give efficient aggregate removal with minimum loss of yield. Four different resins were used for carrying out the experiments: Fractogel EMD SO3-(S), Fractogel EMD COO-(M), Capto SP ImpRes and S Ceramic HyperD. Runs were carried out on the AKTA Avant system. Design of Experiments (DOE) was used for analysis using the JMP software. The dependence of the yield obtained using different resins on the operating conditions was studied. Success has been achieved in obtaining yield greater than 90% using Capto SP ImpRes and Fractogel EMD COO-(M) resins. It has also been found that a change in the operating conditions generally has different effects on the yields obtained using different resins.

Keywords: design of experiments, Aggregates, Monoclonal Antibodies, cation exchange chromatography

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12 A Comparison of Neural Network and DOE-Regression Analysis for Predicting Resource Consumption of Manufacturing Processes

Authors: Frank Kuebler, Rolf Steinhilper

Abstract:

Artificial neural networks (ANN) as well as Design of Experiments (DOE) based regression analysis (RA) are mainly used for modeling of complex systems. Both methodologies are commonly applied in process and quality control of manufacturing processes. Due to the fact that resource efficiency has become a critical concern for manufacturing companies, these models needs to be extended to predict resource-consumption of manufacturing processes. This paper describes an approach to use neural networks as well as DOE based regression analysis for predicting resource consumption of manufacturing processes and gives a comparison of the achievable results based on an industrial case study of a turning process.

Keywords: design of experiments, Manufacturing Process, Regression analysis, Resource Efficiency, Artificial Neural Network

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11 Robust Design of a Ball Joint Considering Uncertainties

Authors: Kwon-Hee Lee, Bong-Su Sin, Jong-Kyu Kim, Se-Il Song

Abstract:

An automobile ball joint is a pivoting element used to allow rotational motion between the parts of the steering and suspension system. And it plays a role in smooth transmission of steering movement, also reduction in impact from the road surface. A ball joint is under various repeated loadings that may cause cracks and abrasion. This damages lead to safety problems of a car, as well as reducing the comfort of the driver's ride, and raise questions about the ball joint procedure and the whole durability of the suspension system. Accordingly, it is necessary to ensure the high durability and reliability of a ball joint. The structural responses of stiffness and pull-out strength were then calculated to check if the design satisfies the related requirements. The analysis was sequentially performed, following the caulking process. In this process, the deformation and stress results obtained from the analysis were saved. Sequential analysis has a strong advantage, in that it can be analyzed by considering the deformed shape and residual stress. The pull-out strength means the required force to pull the ball stud out from the ball joint assembly. The low pull-out strength can deteriorate the structural stability and safety performances. In this study, two design variables and two noise factors were set up. Two design variables were the diameter of a stud and the angle of a socket. And two noise factors were defined as the uncertainties of Young's modulus and yield stress of a seat. The DOE comprises 81 cases using these conditions. Robust design of a ball joint was performed using the DOE. The pull-out strength was generated from the uncertainties in the design variables and the design parameters. The purpose of robust design is to find the design with target response and smallest variation.

Keywords: design of experiments, robust design, ball joint, pull-out strength

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10 Process Evaluation for a Trienzymatic System

Authors: C. Müller, T. Ortmann, S. Scholl, H. J. Jördening

Abstract:

Multienzymatic catalysis can be used as an alternative to chemical synthesis or hydrolysis of polysaccharides for the production of high value oligosaccharides from cheap resources such as sucrose. However, development of multienzymatic processes is complex, especially with respect to suitable conditions for enzymes originating from different organisms. Furthermore, an optimal configuration of the catalysts in a reaction cascade has to be found. These challenges can be approached by design of experiments. The system investigated in this study is a trienzymatic catalyzed reaction which results in laminaribiose production from sucrose and comprises covalently immobilized sucrose phosphorylase (SP), glucose isomerase (GI) and laminaribiose phosphorylase (LP). Operational windows determined with design of experiments and kinetic data of the enzymes were used to optimize the enzyme ratio for maximum product formation and minimal production of byproducts. After adjustment of the enzyme activity ratio to 1: 1.74: 2.23 (SP: LP: GI), different process options were investigated in silico. The considered options included substrate dependency, the use of glucose as co-substrate and substitution of glucose isomerase by glucose addition. Modeling of batch operation in a stirred tank reactor led to yields of 44.4% whereas operation in a continuous stirred tank reactor resulted in product yields of 22.5%. The maximum yield in a bienzymatic system comprised of sucrose phosphorylase and laminaribiose phosphorylase was 67.7% with sucrose and different amounts of glucose as substrate. The experimental data was in good compliance with the process model for batch operation. The continuous operation will be investigated in further studies. Simulation of operational process possibilities enabled us to compare various operational modes regarding different aspects such as cost efficiency, with the minimum amount of expensive and time-consuming practical experiments. This gives us more flexibility in process implementation and allows us, for example, to change the production goal from laminaribiose to higher oligosaccharides.

Keywords: design of experiments, enzyme kinetics, multi-enzymatic system, in silico process development

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9 Effects of Process Parameter Variation on the Surface Roughness of Rapid Prototyped Samples Using Design of Experiments

Authors: R. Noorani, K. Peerless, J. Mandrell, A. Lopez, R. Dalberto, M. Alzebaq

Abstract:

Rapid prototyping (RP) is an additive manufacturing technology used in industry that works by systematically depositing layers of working material to construct larger, computer-modeled parts. A key challenge associated with this technology is that RP parts often feature undesirable levels of surface roughness for certain applications. To combat this phenomenon, an experimental technique called Design of Experiments (DOE) can be employed during the growth procedure to statistically analyze which RP growth parameters are most influential to part surface roughness. Utilizing DOE to identify such factors is important because it is a technique that can be used to optimize a manufacturing process, which saves time, money, and increases product quality. In this study, a four-factor/two level DOE experiment was performed to investigate the effect of temperature, layer thickness, infill percentage, and infill speed on the surface roughness of RP prototypes. Samples were grown using the sixteen different possible growth combinations associated with a four-factor/two level study, and then the surface roughness data was gathered for each set of factors. After applying DOE statistical analysis to these data, it was determined that layer thickness played the most significant role in the prototype surface roughness.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, design of experiments, Rapid prototyping, surface roughness, factors and levels

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8 Material and Parameter Analysis of the PolyJet Process for Mold Making Using Design of Experiments

Authors: A. Kampker, K. Kreisköther, C. Reinders

Abstract:

Since additive manufacturing technologies constantly advance, the use of this technology in mold making seems reasonable. Many manufacturers of additive manufacturing machines, however, do not offer any suggestions on how to parameterize the machine to achieve optimal results for mold making. The purpose of this research is to determine the interdependencies of different materials and parameters within the PolyJet process by using design of experiments (DoE), to additively manufacture molds, e.g. for thermoforming and injection molding applications. Therefore, the general requirements of thermoforming molds, such as heat resistance, surface quality and hardness, have been identified. Then, different materials and parameters of the PolyJet process, such as the orientation of the printed part, the layer thickness, the printing mode (matte or glossy), the distance between printed parts and the scaling of parts, have been examined. The multifactorial analysis covers the following properties of the printed samples: Tensile strength, tensile modulus, bending strength, elongation at break, surface quality, heat deflection temperature and surface hardness. The key objective of this research is that by joining the results from the DoE with the requirements of the mold making, optimal and tailored molds can be additively manufactured with the PolyJet process. These additively manufactured molds can then be used in prototyping processes, in process testing and in small to medium batch production.

Keywords: design of experiments, Additive manufacturing, Mold Making, PolyJet

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7 Predicting and Optimizing the Mechanical Behavior of a Flax Reinforced Composite

Authors: Georgios Koronis, Arlindo Silva

Abstract:

This study seeks to understand the mechanical behavior of a natural fiber reinforced composite (epoxy/flax) in more depth, utilizing both experimental and numerical methods. It is attempted to identify relationships between the design parameters and the product performance, understand the effect of noise factors and reduce process variations. Optimization of the mechanical performance of manufactured goods has recently been implemented by numerous studies for green composites. However, these studies are limited and have explored in principal mass production processes. It is expected here to discover knowledge about composite’s manufacturing that can be used to design artifacts that are of low batch and tailored to niche markets. The goal is to reach greater consistency in the performance and further understand which factors play significant roles in obtaining the best mechanical performance. A prediction of response function (in various operating conditions) of the process is modeled by the DoE. Normally, a full factorial designed experiment is required and consists of all possible combinations of levels for all factors. An analytical assessment is possible though with just a fraction of the full factorial experiment. The outline of the research approach will comprise of evaluating the influence that these variables have and how they affect the composite mechanical behavior. The coupons will be fabricated by the vacuum infusion process defined by three process parameters: flow rate, injection point position and fiber treatment. Each process parameter is studied at 2-levels along with their interactions. Moreover, the tensile and flexural properties will be obtained through mechanical testing to discover the key process parameters. In this setting, an experimental phase will be followed in which a number of fabricated coupons will be tested to allow for a validation of the design of the experiment’s setup. Finally, the results are validated by performing the optimum set of in a final set of experiments as indicated by the DoE. It is expected that after a good agreement between the predicted and the verification experimental values, the optimal processing parameter of the biocomposite lamina will be effectively determined.

Keywords: design of experiments, mechanical performance, flax fabrics, natural fiber reinforced composites

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6 Optimization of Tundish Geometry for Minimizing Dead Volume Using OpenFOAM

Authors: Prateek Singh, Dilshad Ahmad

Abstract:

Growing demand for high-quality steel products has inspired researchers to investigate the unit operations involved in the manufacturing of these products (slabs, rods, sheets, etc.). One such operation is tundish operation, in which a vessel (tundish) acts as a buffer of molten steel for the solidification operation in mold. It is observed that tundish also plays a crucial role in the quality and cleanliness of the steel produced, besides merely acting as a reservoir for the mold. It facilitates removal of dissolved oxygen (inclusions) from the molten steel thus improving its cleanliness. Inclusion removal can be enhanced by increasing the residence time of molten steel in the tundish by incorporation of flow modifiers like dams, weirs, turbo-pad, etc. These flow modifiers also help in reducing the dead or short circuit zones within the tundish which is significant for maintaining thermal and chemical homogeneity of molten steel. Thus, it becomes important to analyze the flow of molten steel in the tundish for different configuration of flow modifiers. In the present work, effect of varying positions and heights/depths of dam and weir on the dead volume in tundish is studied. Steady state thermal and flow profiles of molten steel within the tundish are obtained using OpenFOAM. Subsequently, Residence Time Distribution analysis is performed to obtain the percentage of dead volume in the tundish. Design of Experiment method is then used to configure different tundish geometries for varying positions and heights/depths of dam and weir, and dead volume for each tundish design is obtained. A second-degree polynomial with two-term interactions of independent variables to predict the dead volume in the tundish with positions and heights/depths of dam and weir as variables are computed using Multiple Linear Regression model. This polynomial is then used in an optimization framework to obtain the optimal tundish geometry for minimizing dead volume using Sequential Quadratic Programming optimization.

Keywords: design of experiments, steel, openFOAM, residence time distribution, multiple linear regression, sequential quadratic programming optimization, tundish

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5 Optimization-Based Design Improvement of Synchronizer in Transmission System for Efficient Vehicle Performance

Authors: Sanyka Banerjee, Saikat Nandi, P. K. Dan

Abstract:

Synchronizers as an integral part of gearbox is a key element in the transmission system in automotive. The performance of synchronizer affects transmission efficiency and driving comfort. Synchronizing mechanism as a major component of transmission system must be capable of preventing vibration and noise in the gears. Gear shifting efficiency improvement with an aim to achieve smooth, quick and energy efficient power transmission remains a challenge for the automotive industry. Performance of the synchronizer is dependent on the features and characteristics of its sub-components and therefore analysis of the contribution of such characteristics is necessary. An important exercise involved is to identify all such characteristics or factors which are associated with the modeling and analysis and for this purpose the literature was reviewed, rather extensively, to study the mathematical models, formulated considering such. It has been observed that certain factors are rather common across models; however, there are few factors which have specifically been selected for individual models, as reported. In order to obtain a more realistic model, an attempt here has been made to identify and assimilate practically all possible factors which may be considered in formulating the model more comprehensively. A simulation study, formulated as a block model, for such analysis has been carried out in a reliable environment like MATLAB. Lower synchronization time is desirable and hence, it has been considered here as the output factors in the simulation modeling for evaluating transmission efficiency. An improved synchronizer model requires optimized values of sub-component design parameters. A parametric optimization utilizing Taguchi’s design of experiment based response data and their analysis has been carried out for this purpose. The effectiveness of the optimized parameters for the improved synchronizer performance has been validated by the simulation study of the synchronizer block model with improved parameter values as input parameters for better transmission efficiency and driver comfort.

Keywords: Modeling, Simulation, design of experiments, Parametric Optimization, synchronizer

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4 Optimization of Slider Crank Mechanism Using Design of Experiments and Multi-Linear Regression

Authors: Amr M. Abdelrazek, Galal Elkobrosy, Bassuny M. Elsouhily, Mohamed E. Khidr

Abstract:

Crank shaft length, connecting rod length, crank angle, engine rpm, cylinder bore, mass of piston and compression ratio are the inputs that can control the performance of the slider crank mechanism and then its efficiency. Several combinations of these seven inputs are used and compared. The throughput engine torque predicted by the simulation is analyzed through two different regression models, with and without interaction terms, developed according to multi-linear regression using LU decomposition to solve system of algebraic equations. These models are validated. A regression model in seven inputs including their interaction terms lowered the polynomial degree from 3rd degree to 1st degree and suggested valid predictions and stable explanations.

Keywords: design of experiments, Statistical Modeling, Regression analysis, SI engine

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3 A Study on the Effect of Mg and Ag Additions and Age Hardening Treatment on the Properties of As-Cast Al-Cu-Mg-Ag Alloys

Authors: Ahmed. S. Alasmari, M. S. Soliman, Magdy M. El-Rayes

Abstract:

This study focuses on the effect of the addition of magnesium (Mg) and silver (Ag) on the mechanical properties of aluminum based alloys. The alloying elements will be added at different levels using the factorial design of experiments of 22; the two factors are Mg and Ag at two levels of concentration. The superior mechanical properties of the produced Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys after aging will be resulted from a unique type of precipitation named as Ω-phase. The formed precipitate enhanced the tensile strength and thermal stability. This paper further investigated the microstructure and mechanical properties of as cast Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloys after being complete homogenized treatment at 520 °C for 8 hours followed by isothermally age hardening process at 190 °C for different periods of time. The homogenization at 520 °C for 8 hours was selected based on homogenization study at various temperatures and times. The alloys’ microstructures were studied by using optical microscopy (OM). In addition to that, the fracture surface investigation was performed using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Studying the microstructure of aged Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys reveal that the grains are equiaxed with an average grain size of about 50 µm. A detailed fractography study for fractured surface of the aged alloys exhibited a mixed fracture whereby the random fracture suggested crack propagation along the grain boundaries while the dimples indicated that the fracture was ductile. The present result has shown that alloy 5 has the highest hardness values and the best mechanical behaviors.

Keywords: Aging, design of experiments, Precipitation Hardening, Aluminum Alloys, analysis of variance, heat treatments

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2 Analysis of Interparticle interactions in High Waxy-Heavy Clay Fine Sands for Sand Control Optimization

Authors: Gerald Gwamba

Abstract:

Formation and oil well sand production is one of the greatest and oldest concerns for the Oil and gas industry. The production of sand particles may vary from very small and limited amounts to far elevated levels which has the potential to block or plug the pore spaces near the perforated points to blocking production from surface facilities. Therefore, the timely and reliable investigation of conditions leading to the onset or quantifying sanding while producing is imperative. The challenges of sand production are even more elevated while producing in Waxy and Heavy wells with Clay Fine sands (WHFC). Existing research argues that both waxy and heavy hydrocarbons exhibit far differing characteristics with waxy more paraffinic while heavy crude oils exhibit more asphaltenic properties. Moreover, the combined effect of WHFC conditions presents more complexity in production as opposed to individual effects that could be attributed to a consolidation of a surmountable opposing force. However, research on a combined high WHFC system could depict a better representation of the surmountable effect which in essence is more comparable to field conditions where a one-sided view of either individual effects on sanding has been argued to some extent misrepresentative of actual field conditions since all factors act surmountably. In recognition of the limited customized research on sand production studies with the combined effect of WHFC however, our research seeks to apply the Design of Experiments (DOE) methodology based on latest literature to analyze the relationship between various interparticle factors in relation to selected sand control methods. Our research aims to unearth a better understanding of how the combined effect of interparticle factors including: strength, cementation, particle size and production rate among others could better assist in the design of an optimal sand control system for the WHFC well conditions. In this regard, we seek to answer the following research question: How does the combined effect of interparticle factors affect the optimization of sand control systems for WHFC wells? Results from experimental data collection will inform a better justification for a sand control design for WHFC. In doing so, we hope to contribute to earlier contrasts arguing that sand production could potentially enable well self-permeability enhancement caused by the establishment of new flow channels created by loosening and detachment of sand grains. We hope that our research will contribute to future sand control designs capable of adapting to flexible production adjustments in controlled sand management. This paper presents results which are part of an ongoing research towards the authors' PhD project in the optimization of sand control systems for WHFC wells.

Keywords: design of experiments, waxy-heavy oils, clay-fine sands, sand control optimization, interparticle factors

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1 Optimization of a Hand-Fan Shaped Microstrip Patch Antenna by Means of Orthogonal Design Method of Design of Experiments for L-Band and S-Band Applications

Authors: Jaswinder Kaur, Navneet Kaur, Rajesh Khanna, Nitika

Abstract:

A hand-fan shaped microstrip patch antenna (MPA) for L-band and S-band applications is designed, and its characteristics have been reconnoitered. The proposed microstrip patch antenna with double U-slot defected ground structure (DGS) is fabricated on an FR4 substrate which is a very readily available and inexpensive material. The suggested antenna is optimized using Orthogonal Design Method (ODM) of Design of Experiments (DOE) to cover the frequency range from 0.91-2.82 GHz for L-band and S-band applications. The L-band covers the frequency range of 1-2 GHz, which is allocated to telemetry, aeronautical, and military systems for passive satellite sensors, weather radars, radio astronomy, and mobile communication. The S-band covers the frequency range of 2-3 GHz, which is used by weather radars, surface ship radars and communication satellites and is also reserved for various wireless applications such as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (Wi-MAX), super high frequency radio frequency identification (SHF RFID), industrial, scientific and medical bands (ISM), Bluetooth, wireless broadband (Wi-Bro) and wireless local area network (WLAN). The proposed method of optimization is very time efficient and accurate as compared to the conventional evolutionary algorithms due to its statistical strategy. Moreover, the antenna is tested, followed by the comparison of simulated and measured results.

Keywords: design of experiments, L-band, hand fan shaped MPA, orthogonal design method, S-Band

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