Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

design of experiment Related Abstracts

16 Numerical Studies on the Performance of the Finned-Tube Heat Exchanger

Authors: Kwon-Hee Lee, Bong-Su Sin, S. P. Praveen Kumar

Abstract:

Finned-tube heat exchangers are predominantly used in space conditioning systems, as well as other applications requiring heat exchange between two fluids. The design of finned-tube heat exchangers requires the selection of over a dozen design parameters by the designer such as tube pitch, tube diameter, tube thickness, etc. Finned-tube heat exchangers are common devices; however, their performance characteristics are complicated. In this paper, numerical studies have been carried out to analyze the performances of finned tube heat exchanger (without fins considered for experimental purpose) by predicting the characteristics of temperature difference and pressure drop. In this study, a design considering 5 design variables, maximizing the temperature difference and minimizing the pressure drop was suggested by applying DOE. In this process, L18 orthogonal array was adopted. Parametric analytical studies have been carried out using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to determine the relative importance of each variable with respect to the temperature difference and the pressure drop. Following the results, the final design was suggested by predicting the optimum design therefore confirming the optimized condition.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, heat exchanger, fluid analysis, design of experiment, analysis of variance

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15 An Optimization of Machine Parameters for Modified Horizontal Boring Tool Using Taguchi Method

Authors: Teeratas Pornyungyuen, Thirasak Panyaphirawat, Pairoj Sapsmarnwong

Abstract:

This paper presents the findings of an experimental investigation of important machining parameters for the horizontal boring tool modified to mouth with a horizontal lathe machine to bore an overlength workpiece. In order to verify a usability of a modified tool, design of experiment based on Taguchi method is performed. The parameters investigated are spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut and length of workpiece. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array is selected for four factors three level parameters in order to minimize surface roughness (Ra and Rz) of S45C steel tubes. Signal to noise ratio analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) is performed to study an effect of said parameters and to optimize the machine setting for best surface finish. The controlled factors with most effect are depth of cut, spindle speed, length of workpiece, and feed rate in order. The confirmation test is performed to test the optimal setting obtained from Taguchi method and the result is satisfactory.

Keywords: Optimization, design of experiment, analysis of variance, machining parameters, Taguchi design, horizontal boring tool

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14 Study of the Effect of Inclusion of TiO2 in Active Flux on Submerged Arc Welding of Low Carbon Mild Steel Plate and Parametric Optimization of the Process by Using DEA Based Bat Algorithm

Authors: Sheetal Kumar Parwar, J. Deb Barma, A. Majumder

Abstract:

Submerged arc welding is a very complex process. It is a very efficient and high performance welding process. In this present study an attempt have been done to reduce the welding distortion by increased amount of oxide flux through TiO2 in submerged arc welding process. Care has been taken to avoid the excessiveness of the adding agent for attainment of significant results. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) based BAT algorithm is used for the parametric optimization purpose in which DEA Data Envelopment Analysis is used to convert multi response parameters into a single response parameter. The present study also helps to know the effectiveness of the addition of TiO2 in active flux during submerged arc welding process.

Keywords: Optimization, design of experiment, bat algorithm, Submerged Arc Welding

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13 Optimization of Springback Prediction in U-Channel Process Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Muhamad Sani Buang, Shahrul Azam Abdullah, Juri Saedon

Abstract:

There is not much effective guideline on development of design parameters selection on springback for advanced high strength steel sheet metal in U-channel process during cold forming process. This paper presents the development of predictive model for springback in U-channel process on advanced high strength steel sheet employing Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The experimental was performed on dual phase steel sheet, DP590 in U-channel forming process while design of experiment (DoE) approach was used to investigates the effects of four factors namely blank holder force (BHF), clearance (C) and punch travel (Tp) and rolling direction (R) were used as input parameters using two level values by applying Full Factorial design (24). From a statistical analysis of variant (ANOVA), result showed that blank holder force (BHF), clearance (C) and punch travel (Tp) displayed significant effect on springback of flange angle (β2) and wall opening angle (β1), while rolling direction (R) factor is insignificant. The significant parameters are optimized in order to reduce the springback behavior using Central Composite Design (CCD) in RSM and the optimum parameters were determined. A regression model for springback was developed. The effect of individual parameters and their response was also evaluated. The results obtained from optimum model are in agreement with the experimental values

Keywords: Optimization, Response Surface Methodology (RSM), design of experiment, springback, advance high strength steel, u-channel process

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12 Test Rig Development for Up-to-Date Experimental Study of Multi-Stage Flash Distillation Process

Authors: Marek Vondra, Petr Bobák

Abstract:

Vacuum evaporation is a reliable and well-proven technology with a wide application range which is frequently used in food, chemical or pharmaceutical industries. Recently, numerous remarkable studies have been carried out to investigate utilization of this technology in the area of wastewater treatment. One of the most successful applications of vacuum evaporation principal is connected with seawater desalination. Since 1950’s, multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) has been the leading technology in this field and it is still irreplaceable in many respects, despite a rapid increase in cheaper reverse-osmosis-based installations in recent decades. MSF plants are conveniently operated in countries with a fluctuating seawater quality and at locations where a sufficient amount of waste heat is available. Nowadays, most of the MSF research is connected with alternative heat sources utilization and with hybridization, i.e. merging of different types of desalination technologies. Some of the studies are concerned with basic principles of the static flash phenomenon, but only few scientists have lately focused on the fundamentals of continuous multi-stage evaporation. Limited measurement possibilities at operating plants and insufficiently equipped experimental facilities may be the reasons. The aim of the presented study was to design, construct and test an up-to-date test rig with an advanced measurement system which will provide real time monitoring options of all the important operational parameters under various conditions. The whole system consists of a conventionally designed MSF unit with 8 evaporation chambers, versatile heating circuit for different kinds of feed water (e.g. seawater, waste water), sophisticated system for acquisition and real-time visualization of all the related quantities (temperature, pressure, flow rate, weight, conductivity, pH, water level, power input), access to a wide spectrum of operational media (salt, fresh and softened water, steam, natural gas, compressed air, electrical energy) and integrated transparent features which enable a direct visual control of selected physical mechanisms (water evaporation in chambers, water level right before brine and distillate pumps). Thanks to the adjustable process parameters, it is possible to operate the test unit at desired operational conditions. This allows researchers to carry out statistical design and analysis of experiments. Valuable results obtained in this manner could be further employed in simulations and process modeling. First experimental tests confirm correctness of the presented approach and promise interesting outputs in the future. The presented experimental apparatus enables flexible and efficient research of the whole MSF process.

Keywords: design of experiment, test rig, multi-stage flash distillation, vacuum evaporation

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11 Optimal Design of Linear Generator to Recharge the Smartphone Battery

Authors: Dong-Jin Kim, Jin Ho Kim, Yujeong Shin, Seong-Jin Cho, U-Syn Ha

Abstract:

Due to the development of the information industry and technologies, cellular phones have must not only function to communicate, but also have functions such as the Internet, e-banking, entertainment, etc. These phones are called smartphones. The performance of smartphones has improved, because of the various functions of smartphones, and the capacity of the battery has been increased gradually. Recently, linear generators have been embedded in smartphones in order to recharge the smartphone's battery. In this study, optimization is performed and an array change of permanent magnets is examined in order to increase efficiency. We propose an optimal design using design of experiments (DOE) to maximize the generated induced voltage. The thickness of the poleshoe and permanent magnet (PM), the height of the poleshoe and PM, and the thickness of the coil are determined to be design variables. We made 25 sampling points using an orthogonal array according to four design variables. We performed electromagnetic finite element analysis to predict the generated induced voltage using the commercial electromagnetic analysis software ANSYS Maxwell. Then, we made an approximate model using the Kriging algorithm, and derived optimal values of the design variables using an evolutionary algorithm. The commercial optimization software PIAnO (Process Integration, Automation, and Optimization) was used with these algorithms. The result of the optimization shows that the generated induced voltage is improved.

Keywords: Optimal Design, design of experiment, smartphone, linear generator, approximate model

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10 Enhancement in Digester Efficiency and Numerical Analysis for Optimal Design Parameters of Biogas Plant Using Design of Experiment Approach

Authors: Priyanka Singh, Rajneesh

Abstract:

Biomass resources have been one of the main energy sources for mankind since the dawn of civilization. There is a vast scope to convert these energy sources into biogas which is a clean, low carbon technology for efficient management and conversion of fermentable organic wastes into a cheap and versatile fuel and bio/organic manure. Thus, in order to enhance the performance of anaerobic digester, an optimizing analysis of resultant parameters (organic dry matter (oDM) content, methane percentage, and biogas yield) has been done for a plug flow anaerobic digester having mesophilic conditions (20-40°C) with the wet fermentation process. Based on the analysis, correlations for oDM, methane percentage, and biogas yield are derived using multiple regression analysis. A statistical model is developed to correlate the operating variables using the design of experiment approach by selecting central composite design (CCD) of a response surface methodology. Results shown in the paper indicates that as the operating temperature increases the efficiency of digester gets improved provided that the pH and hydraulic retention time (HRT) remains constant. Working in an optimized range of carbon-nitrogen ratio for the plug flow digester, the output parameters show a positive change with the variation of dry matter content (DM).

Keywords: Biogas, design of experiment, digester efficiency, plug flow digester

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9 Development of an Experiment for Impedance Measurement of Structured Sandwich Sheet Metals by Using a Full Factorial Multi-Stage Approach

Authors: Florian Vincent Haase, Adrian Dierl, Anna Henke, Ralf Woll, Ennes Sarradj

Abstract:

Structured sheet metals and structured sandwich sheet metals are three-dimensional, lightweight structures with increased stiffness which are used in the automotive industry. The impedance, a figure of resistance of a structure to vibrations, will be determined regarding plain sheets, structured sheets, and structured sandwich sheets. The aim of this paper is generating an experimental design in order to minimize costs and duration of experiments. The design of experiments will be used to reduce the large number of single tests required for the determination of correlation between the impedance and its influencing factors. Full and fractional factorials are applied in order to systematize and plan the experiments. Their major advantages are high quality results given the relatively small number of trials and their ability to determine the most important influencing factors including their specific interactions. The developed full factorial experimental design for the study of plain sheets includes three factor levels. In contrast to the study of plain sheets, the respective impedance analysis used on structured sheets and structured sandwich sheets should be split into three phases. The first phase consists of preliminary tests which identify relevant factor levels. These factor levels are subsequently employed in main tests, which have the objective of identifying complex relationships between the parameters and the reference variable. Possible post-tests can follow up in case additional study of factor levels or other factors are necessary. By using full and fractional factorial experimental designs, the required number of tests is reduced by half. In the context of this paper, the benefits from the application of design for experiments are presented. Furthermore, a multistage approach is shown to take into account unrealizable factor combinations and minimize experiments.

Keywords: design of experiment, structured sheet metals, structured sandwich sheet metals, impedance measurement

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8 Application of Generalized Taguchi and Design of Experiment Methodology for Rebar Production at an Integrated Steel Plant

Authors: S. B. V. S. P. Sastry, V. V. S. Kesava Rao

Abstract:

In this paper, x-ray impact of Taguchi method and design of experiment philosophy to project relationship between various factors leading to output yield strength of rebar is studied. In bar mill of an integrated steel plant, there are two production lines called as line 1 and line 2. The metallic properties e.g. yield strength of finished product of the same material is varying for a particular grade material when rolled simultaneously in both the lines. A study has been carried out to set the process parameters at optimal level for obtaining equal value of yield strength simultaneously for both lines.

Keywords: design of experiment, Taguchi, bar mill, yield strength

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7 Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Electroless Nickel Phosphorus Deposition, pH and Temperature with the Varying Coating Bath Parameters on Impact Energy by Taguchi Method

Authors: D. Kari Basavaraja, M. G. Skanda, C. Soumya, V. Ramesh

Abstract:

This paper discusses the effects of sodium hypophosphite concentration, pH, and temperature on deposition rate. This paper also discusses the evaluation of coating strength, surface, and subsurface by varying the bath parameters, percentage of phosphate, plating temperature, and pH of the plating solution. Taguchi technique has been used for the analysis. In the experiment, nickel chloride which is a source of nickel when mixed with sodium hypophosphite has been used as the reducing agent and the source of phosphate and sodium hydroxide has been used to vary the pH of the coating bath. The coated samples are tested for impact energy by conducting impact test. Finally, the effects of coating bath parameters on the impact energy absorbed have been plotted, and analysis has been carried out. Further, percentage contribution of coating bath parameters using Design of Experiments approach (DOE) has been analysed. Finally, it can be concluded that the bath parameters of the Ni-P coating will certainly influence on the strength of the specimen.

Keywords: Coatings, design of experiment, impact strength, fracture toughness, bath parameters

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6 Near Infrared Spectrometry to Determine the Quality of Milk, Experimental Design Setup and Chemometrics: Review

Authors: Meghana Shankara, Priyadarshini Natarajan

Abstract:

Infrared (IR) spectroscopy has revolutionized the way we look at materials around us. Unraveling the pattern in the molecular spectra of materials to analyze the composition and properties of it has been one of the most interesting challenges in modern science. Applications of the IR spectrometry are numerous in the field’s pharmaceuticals, health, food and nutrition, oils, agriculture, construction, polymers, beverage, fabrics and much more limited only by the curiosity of the people. Near Infrared (NIR) spectrometry is applied robustly in analyzing the solids and liquid substances because of its non-destructive analysis method. In this paper, we have reviewed the application of NIR spectrometry in milk quality analysis and have presented the modes of measurement applied in NIRS measurement setup, Design of Experiment (DoE), classification/quantification algorithms used in the case of milk composition prediction like Fat%, Protein%, Lactose%, Solids Not Fat (SNF%) along with different approaches for adulterant identification. We have also discussed the important NIR ranges for the chosen milk parameters. The performance metrics used in the comparison of the various Chemometric approaches include Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), R^2, slope, offset, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy

Keywords: Chemometrics, design of experiment, milk quality analysis, NIRS measurement modes

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5 Design and Optimization for a Compliant Gripper with Force Regulation Mechanism

Authors: Shyh-Chour Huang, Thanh-Phong Dao, Nhat Linh Ho, Hieu Giang Le

Abstract:

This paper presents a design and optimization for a compliant gripper. The gripper is constructed based on the concept of compliant mechanism with flexure hinge. A passive force regulation mechanism is presented to control the grasping force a micro-sized object instead of using a sensor force. The force regulation mechanism is designed using the planar springs. The gripper is expected to obtain a large range of displacement to handle various sized objects. First of all, the statics and dynamics of the gripper are investigated by using the finite element analysis in ANSYS software. And then, the design parameters of the gripper are optimized via Taguchi method. An orthogonal array L9 is used to establish an experimental matrix. Subsequently, the signal to noise ratio is analyzed to find the optimal solution. Finally, the response surface methodology is employed to model the relationship between the design parameters and the output displacement of the gripper. The design of experiment method is then used to analyze the sensitivity so as to determine the effect of each parameter on the displacement. The results showed that the compliant gripper can move with a large displacement of 213.51 mm and the force regulation mechanism is expected to be used for high precision positioning systems.

Keywords: response surface methodology, Taguchi method, design of experiment, compliant mechanism, flexure hinge, compliant gripper, force regulation mechanism

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4 Analysis of Lift Arm Failure and Its Improvement for the Use in Farm Tractor

Authors: Japinder Wadhawan, Pradeep Rajan, Alok K. Saran, Navdeep S. Sidhu, Daanvir K. Dhir

Abstract:

Currently, research focus in the development of agricultural equipment and tractor parts in India is innovation and use of alternate materials like austempered ductile iron (ADI). Three-point linkage mechanism of the tractor is susceptible to unpredictable load conditions in the field, and one of the critical components vulnerable to failure is lift arm. Conventionally, lift arm is manufactured either by forging or casting (SG Iron) and main objective of the present work is to reduce the failure occurrences in the lift arm, which is achieved by changing the manufacturing material, i.e ADI, without changing existing design. Effect of four pertinent variables of manufacturing ADI, viz. austenitizing temperature, austenitizing time, austempering temperature, austempering time, was investigated using Taguchi method for design of experiments. To analyze the effect of parameters on the mechanical properties, mean average and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio was calculated based on the design of experiments with L9 orthogonal array and the linear graph. The best combination for achieving the desired mechanical properties of lift arm is austenitization at 860°C for 90 minutes and austempering at 350°C for 60 minutes. Results showed that the developed component is having 925 MPA tensile strength, 7.8 per cent elongation and 120 joules toughness making it more suitable material for lift arm manufacturing. The confirmatory experiment has been performed and found a good agreement between predicted and experimental value. Also, the CAD model of the existing design was developed in computer aided design software, and structural loading calculations were performed by a commercial finite element analysis package. An optimized shape of the lift arm has also been proposed resulting in light weight and cheaper product than the existing design, which can withstand the same loading conditions effectively.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, design of experiment, austempered ductile iron, lift arm

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3 The Investigation of the Impact of Process and Location Parameters in Warpage Study of Semiconductor Packages

Authors: Wheyming Song, Ssu-Ping Lin

Abstract:

The primary advantage of package-on-package (PoP) packaging is that since it has less volume, it weighs less. But this is also related to its principal drawback, which is warpage. This research investigates how PoP package warpage patterns are affected by assembling process parameters, including substrate temperature, injection speed, injection temperature, and compound forces. We also investigate how warpage patterns are affected by the location of the silicon chip. The methodologies used in this research are design of experiment and warpage simulation via ANSYS. We propose a regression model to predict the warpage value as a function of substrate temperature, injection speed, injection temperature, and compound forces. Our results show that interaction effects exist between substrate temperature and compound forces and between injection speed and injection temperature. Therefore, determining the optimal values for substrate temperature, compound forces, injection speed, and injection temperature cannot be done individually. Also, our results show that the warpage patterns based on the location of silicon chips can be classified into 11 groups, with the largest warpage occurring at the left-most and right-most sides.

Keywords: Simulation, warpage, design of experiment, package-on-package

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2 Experimental Analysis of the Plate-on-Tube Evaporator on a Domestic Refrigerator’s Performance

Authors: Mert Tosun, Tuğba Tosun

Abstract:

The evaporator is the utmost important component in the refrigeration system, since it enables the refrigerant to draw heat from the desired environment, i.e. the refrigerated space. Studies are being conducted on this component which generally affects the performance of the system, where energy efficient products are important. This study was designed to enhance the effectiveness of the evaporator in the refrigeration cycle of a domestic refrigerator by adjusting the capillary tube length, refrigerant amount, and the evaporator pipe diameter to reduce energy consumption. The experiments were conducted under identical thermal and ambient conditions. Experiment data were analysed using the Design of Experiment (DOE) technique which is a six-sigma method to determine effects of parameters. As a result, it has been determined that the most important parameters affecting the evaporator performance among the selected parameters are found to be the refrigerant amount and pipe diameter. It has been determined that the minimum energy consumption is 6-mm pipe diameter and 16-g refrigerant. It has also been noted that the overall consumption of the experiment sample decreased by 16.6% with respect to the reference system, which has 7-mm pipe diameter and 18-g refrigerant.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, heat exchanger, design of experiment, refrigerator

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1 Early Phase Design Study of a Sliding Door with Multibody Simulations

Authors: Erkan Talay, Mustafa Yigit Yagci

Abstract:

For the systems like sliding door, designers should predict not only strength but also dynamic behavior of the system and this prediction usually becomes more critical if design has radical changes refer to previous designs. Also, sometimes physical tests could cost more than expected, especially for rail geometry changes, since this geometry affects design of the body. The aim of the study is to observe and understand the dynamics of the sliding door in virtual environment. For this, multibody dynamic model of the sliding door was built and then affects of various parameters like rail geometry, roller diameters, or center of mass detected. Also, a design of experiment study was performed to observe interactions of these parameters.

Keywords: design of experiment, sliding door, minimum closing effort, multibody simulation

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