Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

design guideline Related Abstracts

2 Development of Visual Element Design Guidelines for Consumer Products Based on User Characteristics

Authors: Taezoon Park, Wonil Hwang

Abstract:

This study aims to build a design guideline for the effective visual display used for consumer products considering user characteristics; gender and age. Although a number of basic experiments identified the limits of human visual perception, the findings remain fragmented and many times in an unfriendly form. This study compiled a design cases along with tables aggregated from the experimental result of visual perception; brightness/contrast, useful field of view, color sensitivity. Visual design elements commonly used for consumer product, were selected and appropriate guidelines were developed based on the experimental result. Since the provided data with case example suggests a feasible design space, it will save time for a product designer to find appropriate design alternatives.

Keywords: Visual Perception, Emotional Design, design guideline, consumer product, visual design element

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1 Guideline for Designing Strip Footing on Sand Mat Underlain by Thick Soft Clay Deposit

Authors: Sharifullah Ahmed, Sarwar Jahan M. Yasin

Abstract:

Shallow foundations on soft soils deposit without any ground improvement can undergo a high reduction in volume after consolidation and secondary settlement. For low and medium rise building projects on such soil condition, a deep foundation may not be economically feasible. In such cases, an alternative to deep foundations may be shallow strip footings placed on a double layer foundation system in which the upper layer is untreated or cement treated compacted sand to reduce the settlement of underlying natural soft clay to a permissible level. This research work deals with the specific case of the settlement of a rigid plane-strain strip footing of 2.5m width placed on the surface of a soil consisting of an untreated or cement treated sand layer overlying a thick, homogeneous bed of soft clay. The settlement of mentioned shallow foundation has been studied considered both the cases where the thickness of the sand layer is thin or thick compared to the footing width. It is assumed that the response of the clay layer is undrained for plastic loading stages and drained in consolidation stages, and the response of the sand layer is drained in all loading stages. FEM analysis was done using PLAXIS 2D Version 8.0. A natural clay deposit of 15m thickness and 18m width has been modeled using Hardening Soil Model, Soft Soil Model, Soft Soil Creep Model, and upper improvement layer has been modeled using only Hardening Soil Model. Ground water level is at top level of clay deposit that made the system fully saturated. Parametric study has been conducted to determine the effect of thickness, density, cementation of sand mat and density, shear strength of the soft clay layer on the settlement of strip foundation under uniformly distributed vertical load of varying value. A guideline has been established for designing shallow strip footing on sand mat over thick soft clay deposit through determining the thickness of sand mat for different material characteristics to avoid punching shear failure and to limit the settlement to an allowable level. A design guideline in form of design chart and design equation has been developed for footing pressure equivalent to medium rise residential or commercial building foundation with strip footing on soft inorganic NC soil of Bangladesh having void ratio from 1.0 to 1.45. For a specific value of settlement, such as permissible settlement of 50mm as per BNBC 2017, the design thickness of sand mat may be obtained using the proposed charts and equations.

Keywords: Ground improvement, soft clay, PLAXIS 2D, design guideline, primary and secondary settlement

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