Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Desalination Related Abstracts

35 Efficiency of Membrane Distillation to Produce Fresh Water

Authors: Sabri Mrayed, David Maccioni, Greg Leslie

Abstract:

Seawater desalination has been accepted as one of the most effective solutions to the growing problem of a diminishing clean drinking water supply. Currently, two desalination technologies dominate the market – the thermally driven multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) and the membrane based reverse osmosis (RO). However, in recent years membrane distillation (MD) has emerged as a potential alternative to the established means of desalination. This research project intended to determine the viability of MD as an alternative process to MSF and RO for seawater desalination. Specifically the project involves conducting a thermodynamic analysis of the process based on the second law of thermodynamics to determine the efficiency of the MD. Data was obtained from experiments carried out on a laboratory rig. In order to determine exergy values required for the exergy analysis, two separate models were built in Engineering Equation Solver – the ’Minimum Separation Work Model’ and the ‘Stream Exergy Model’. The efficiency of MD process was found to be 17.3 %, and the energy consumption was determined to be 4.5 kWh to produce one cubic meter of fresh water. The results indicate MD has potential as a technique for seawater desalination compared to RO and MSF. However, it was shown that this was only the case if an alternate energy source such as green or waste energy was available to provide the thermal energy input to the process. If the process was required to power itself, it was shown to be highly inefficient and in no way thermodynamically viable as a commercial desalination process.

Keywords: Desalination, Exergy, Membrane distillation, second law efficiency

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34 Combination of Electrodialysis and Electrodeionization for Treatment of Condensate from Ammonium Nitrate Production

Authors: Lubomir Machuca, Vit Fara

Abstract:

Ammonium nitrate (AN) is produced by the reaction of ammonia and nitric acid, and a waste condensate is obtained. The condensate contains pure AN in concentration up to 10g/L. The salt content in the condensate is too high to discharge immediately into the river thus it must be treated. This study is concerned with the treatment of condensates from an industrial AN production by combination of electrodialysis (ED) and electrodeionization (EDI). The condensate concentration was in range 1.9–2.5g/L of AN. A pilot ED module with 25 membrane pairs following by a laboratory EDI module with 10 membrane pairs operated continuously during 800 hours. Results confirmed that the combination of ED and EDI is suitable for the condensate treatment.

Keywords: Desalination, electrodialysis, electrodeionization, fertilizer industry

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33 An Investigation into the Potential of Industrial Low Grade Heat in Membrane Distillation for Freshwater Production

Authors: Yehia Manawi, Ahmad Kayvanifard

Abstract:

Membrane distillation is an emerging technology which has been used to produce freshwater and purify different types of aqueous mixtures. Qatar is an arid country where almost 100% of its freshwater demand is supplied through the energy-intensive thermal desalination process. The country’s need for water has reached an all-time high which stipulates finding an alternative way to augment freshwater without adding any drastic affect to the environment. The objective of this paper was to investigate the potential of using the industrial low grade waste heat to produce freshwater using membrane distillation. The main part of this work was conducting a heat audit on selected Qatari chemical industries to estimate the amounts of freshwater produced if such industrial waste heat were to be recovered. By the end of this work, the main objective was met and the heat audit conducted on the Qatari chemical industries enabled us to estimate both the amounts of waste heat which can be potentially recovered in addition to the amounts of freshwater which can be produced if such waste heat were to be recovered. By the end, the heat audit showed that around 605 Mega Watts of waste heat can be recovered from the studied Qatari chemical industries which resulted in a total daily production of 5078.7 cubic meter of freshwater. This water can be used in a wide variety of applications such as human consumption or industry. The amount of produced freshwater may look small when compared to that produced through thermal desalination plants; however, one must bear in mind that this water comes from waste and can be used to supply water for small cities or remote areas which are not connected to the water grid. The idea of producing freshwater from the two widely-available wastes (thermal rejected brine and waste heat) seems promising as less environmental and economic impacts will be associated with freshwater production which may in the near future augment the conventional way of producing freshwater currently being thermal desalination. This work has shown that low grade waste heat in the chemical industries in Qatar and perhaps the rest of the world can contribute to additional production of freshwater using membrane distillation without significantly adding to the environmental impact.

Keywords: Environment, Desalination, Membrane distillation, Heat recovery

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32 The Technics of Desalination Water in Algeria

Authors: H. Aburideh, Z.Tigrine, D. Ziou, S. Hout, R. Bellatreche, D. Belhout, Z. Belgroun, M. Abbas

Abstract:

Faced with climate hazards in recent decades and the constant increase of the population, Algeria is making considerable efforts to provide water resources and water availability, both for its nascent industry, agriculture and for the drinking water supply of cities and arid region of the country. Following a remarkable worldwide technological breakthrough in seawater and brackish water desalination, known in recent years, the specialists have seen that the use of desalination of sea water in Algeria is a promising alternative as long as it has a coastline of 1200 km. Seawater is clean and virtually inexhaustible resource; mainly for population and industry that have high water consumption and are close to the sea. The purpose of this work is to present information on the number of sea water desalination stations and demineralization plants existing in Algeria. The constraints related to the operation of certain stations; those which are operational, those that are not operational as well as the seawater desalination program that was hired to cover 49 desalination plants across the country at the end of 2019 with the aim of increasing and diversifying water resources.

Keywords: Water, Desalination, Membrane, demineralization

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31 Design of a Small Mobile PV Driven RO Water Desalination Plant to be Deployed at the North West Coast of Egypt

Authors: Hosam A. Shawky, Amr A. Abdel Fatah, Moustafa M. S. Abo ElFad, Abdel Hameed M. El-Aassar

Abstract:

Water desalination projects based on reverse osmosis technology are being introduced in Egypt to combat drinking water shortage in remote areas. Reverse osmosis (RO) desalination is a pressure driven process. This paper focuses on the design of an integrated brackish water and seawater RO desalination and solar Photovoltaic (PV) technology. A small Mobile PV driven RO desalination plant prototype without batteries is designed and tested. Solar-driven reverse osmosis desalination can potentially break the dependence of conventional desalination on fossil fuels, reduce operational costs, and improve environmental sustainability. Moreover, the innovative features incorporated in the newly designed PV-RO plant prototype are focusing on improving the cost effectiveness of producing drinkable water in remote areas. This is achieved by maximizing energy yield through an integrated automatic single axis PV tracking system with programmed tilting angle adjustment. An autonomous cleaning system for PV modules is adopted for maximizing energy generation efficiency. RO plant components are selected so as to produce 4-5 m3/day of potable water. A basic criterion in the design of this PV-RO prototype is to produce a minimum amount of fresh water by running the plant during peak sun hours. Mobility of the system will provide potable water to isolated villages and population as well as ability to provide good drinking water to different number of people from any source that is not drinkable.

Keywords: Energy, Design, Desalination, Reverse osmosis, Photovoltaic, Egypt

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30 Effect of Evaporator Temperature on the Performance of Water Desalination/Refrigeration Adsorption System Using AQSOA-ZO2

Authors: Peter G. Youssef, Saad M. Mahmoud, Raya K. Al-Dadah

Abstract:

Many water desalination technologies have been developed but in general they are energy intensive and have high cost and adverse environmental impact. Recently, adsorption technology for water desalination has been investigated showing the potential of using low temperature waste heat (50-85oC) thus reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions. This work mathematically compares the performance of an adsorption cycle that produces two useful effects namely, fresh water and cooling using two different adsorbents, silica-gel and an advanced zeolite material AQSOA-ZO2, produced by Mitsubishi plastics. It was found that at low chilled water temperatures, typically below 20oC, the AQSOA-Z02 is more efficient than silica-gel as the cycle can produce 5.8 m3 of fresh water per day and 50.1 Rton of cooling per tonne of AQSOA-ZO2. Above 20oC silica-gel is still better as the cycle production reaches 8.4 m3 per day and 62.4 Rton per tonne of silica-gel. These results show the potential of using the AQSOA-Z02 at low chilled water temperature for water desalination and cooling applications.

Keywords: Desalination, Refrigeration, Adsorption, Seawater

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29 Indirect Solar Desalination: Value Engineering and Cost Benefit Analysis

Authors: Grace Rachid, Ibrahim Jamali, Daniel Abdel Nour, Mutasem El Fadel, Mahmoud Al Hindi

Abstract:

This study examines the feasibility of indirect solar desalination in oil producing countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. It relies on value engineering (VE) and cost-benefit with sensitivity analyses to identify optimal coupling configurations of desalination and solar energy technologies. A comparative return on investment was assessed as a function of water costs for varied plant capacities (25,000 to 75,000 m3/day), project lifetimes (15 to 25 years), and discount rates (5 to 15%) taking into consideration water and energy subsidies, land cost as well as environmental externalities in the form of carbon credit related to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction. The results showed reverse osmosis (RO) coupled with photovoltaic technologies (PVs) as the most promising configuration, robust across different prices for Brent oil, discount rates, as well as different project lifetimes. Environmental externalities and subsidies analysis revealed that a 16% reduction in existing subsidy on water tariffs would ensure economic viability. Additionally, while land costs affect investment attractiveness, the viability of RO coupled with PV remains possible for a land purchase cost < $ 80/m2 or a lease rate < $1/m2/yr. Beyond those rates, further subsidy lifting is required.

Keywords: Solar energy, Desalination, Value Engineering, carbon credit, CBA, subsidies

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28 Alternative Water Resources and Brominated Byproducts

Authors: Nora Kuiper, Candace Rowell, Hugues Preud'Homme, Basem Shomar

Abstract:

As the global dependence on seawater desalination as a primary drinking water resource increases, a unique class of secondary pollutants is emerging. The presence of bromide salts in seawater may result in increased levels of bromine and brominated byproducts in drinking water. The State of Qatar offers a unique setting to study these pollutants and their impacts on consumers as the country is 100% dependent on seawater desalination to supply municipal tap water and locally produced bottled water. Tap water (n=115) and bottled water (n=62) samples were collected throughout the State of Qatar and analyzed for a suite of inorganic and organic compounds, including 54 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with an emphasis on brominated byproducts. All VOC identification and quantification was completed using a Bruker Scion GCMSMS with static headspace technologies. A risk survey tool was used to collect information regarding local consumption habits, health outcomes and perception of water sources for adults and children. This study is the first of its kind in the country. Dibromomethane, bromoform, and bromobenzene were detected in 61%, 88% and 2%, of the drinking water samples analyzed. The levels of dibromomethane ranged from approximately 100-500 ng/L and the concentrations of bromoform ranged from approximately 5-50 µg/L. Additionally, bromobenzene concentrations were 60 ng/L. The presence of brominated compounds in drinking water is a public health concern specific to populations using seawater as a feed water source and may pose unique risks that have not been previously studied. Risk assessments are ongoing to quantify the risks associated with prolonged consumption of disinfection byproducts; specifically the risks of brominated trihalomethanes as the levels of bromoform found in Qatar’s drinking water reach more than 60% of the US EPA’s Maximum Contaminant Level of all THMs.

Keywords: Desalination, Risk Assessment, brominated byproducts, trihalomethanes

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27 Desalination Technologies and Desalination Integrated with Renewable Energies – A Case Study

Authors: Hamidreza Namazi, Ahmadali Shirazytabar

Abstract:

As water resources are rapidly getting diminished, more and more interest is paid to the desalination of saline waters. Desalination has become a reliable and cost effective solution in provision of fresh water particularly in the arid areas of the world such as Middle East countries. However, the dramatic increase of utilizing desalination will cause a series of problems which are significantly related to energy consumption and environment impacts. The use of renewable energy sources to provide energy required by desalination processes is a feasible and simultaneously environmental friendly solution. In this study an attempt has been made to present a review on desalination technologies, desalination integrated with renewable energies, in brief, and practical progresses made during recent years particularly in the field of desalination by wind energy which is the most common form of renewable energies. Moreover, an economic analysis of a wind powered RO desalination system comprising of 10×2.5 MW wind turbines is done, and the results will be compared to those of a cogeneration system comprising of one 25 MW gas turbines, heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) and MED-TVC desalination.

Keywords: Desalination, Cogeneration, Wind turbine, Gas Turbine, MED, HRSG

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26 Thermodynamic Evaluation of Coupling APR-1400 with a Thermal Desalination Plant

Authors: M. Gomaa Abdoelatef, Robert M. Field, Lee, Yong-Kwan

Abstract:

Growing human populations have placed increased demands on water supplies and a heightened interest in desalination infrastructure. Key elements of the economics of desalination projects are thermal and electrical inputs. With growing concerns over the use of fossil fuels to (indirectly) supply these inputs, coupling of desalination with nuclear power production represents a significant opportunity. Individually, nuclear and desalination technologies have a long history and are relatively mature. For desalination, Reverse Osmosis (RO) has the lowest energy inputs. However, the economically driven output quality of the water produced using RO, which uses only electrical inputs, is lower than the output water quality from thermal desalination plants. Therefore, modern desalination projects consider that RO should be coupled with thermal desalination technologies (MSF, MED, or MED-TVC) with attendant steam inputs to permit blending to produce various qualities of water. A large nuclear facility is well positioned to dispatch large quantities of both electrical and thermal power. This paper considers the supply of thermal energy to a large desalination facility to examine heat balance impact on the nuclear steam cycle. The APR1400 nuclear plant is selected as prototypical from both a capacity and turbine cycle heat balance perspective to examine steam supply and the impact on electrical output. Extraction points and quantities of steam are considered parametrically along with various types of thermal desalination technologies to form the basis for further evaluations of economically optimal approaches to the interface of nuclear power production with desalination projects. In our study, the thermodynamic evaluation will be executed by DE-TOP which is the IAEA desalination program, it is approved to be capable of analyzing power generation systems coupled to desalination systems through various steam extraction positions, taking into consideration the isolation loop between the APR-1400 and the thermal desalination plant for safety concern.

Keywords: Desalination, MED, MED-TVC, MSF, APR-1400, DE-TOP, IAEA

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25 New Desiccant Solar Unit for Air Conditioning and Desalination: Study of the Compartments of Desalination and Water Condensation

Authors: Aref Maalej, Zied Guidara, Alexander Morgenstern

Abstract:

In this paper, a new desiccant solar unit for air conditioning and desalination is presented first. Secondly, a dynamic modelling study of the desiccant wheel is developed. After that, a simulation study and an experimental investigation of the behaviour of the desiccant wheel are developed. The experimental investigation is done in the chamber of commerce in Freiburg-Germany. Indeed, the variations of calculated and measured temperatures and specific humidity of dehumidified and rejected air are presented where a good agreement is found when comparing the model predictions with experimental data under the considered range of operating conditions. Finally, the study of the compartments of desalination and water condensation shows that the unit can produce an acceptable quantity of water at the same time of the air conditioning operation.

Keywords: Air Conditioning, Design, Modelling, Desalination, Experimental investigation, Condensation, desiccant wheel

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24 A Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Performance of a Combined Solar Unit for Air Conditioning and Water Desalination

Authors: Zied Guidara, Alexander Morgenstern, Aref Younes Maalej

Abstract:

In this paper, a desiccant solar unit for air conditioning and desalination is presented first. Secondly, a dynamic modelling study of the desiccant wheel is developed. After that, a simulation study and an experimental investigation of the behaviour of desiccant wheel are developed. The experimental investigation is done in the chamber of commerce in Freiburg-Germany. Indeed, the variations of calculated and measured temperatures and specific humidity of dehumidified and rejected air are presented where a good agreement is found when comparing the model predictions with experimental data under the considered range of operating conditions. Finally, the study of the compartments of desalination and water condensation shows that the unit can produce an acceptable quantity of water at the same time of the air conditioning operation.

Keywords: Air Conditioning, Design, Desalination, Condensation, desiccant wheel

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23 Design and Fabrication of a Parabolic trough Collector and Experimental Investigation of Direct Steam Production in Tehran

Authors: S. Eslami, H. Akhbari, M. Bidi, A. Bakhtiari

Abstract:

Due to the high potential of solar energy utilization in Iran, development of related technologies is of great necessity. Linear parabolic collectors are among the most common and most efficient means to harness the solar energy. The main goal of this paper is design and construction of a parabolic trough collector to produce hot water and steam in Tehran. To provide precise and practical plans, 3D models of the collector under consideration were developed using Solidworks software. This collector was designed in a way that the tilt angle can be adjusted manually. To increase concentraion ratio, a small diameter absorber tube is selected and to enhance solar absorbtion, a shape of U-tube is used. One of the outstanding properties of this collector is its simple design and use of low cost metal and plastic materials in its manufacturing procedure. The collector under consideration was installed in Shahid Beheshti University of Tehran and the values of solar irradiation, ambient temperature, wind speed and collector steam production rate were measured in different days and hours of July. Results revealed that a 1×2 m parabolic trough collector located in Tehran is able to produce steam by the rate of 300ml/s under the condition of atmospheric pressure and without using a vacuum cover over the absorber tube.

Keywords: Desalination, Design and Construction, parabolic trough collector, direct steam production, solar water heater

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22 Performance Assessment of the Gold Coast Desalination Plant Offshore Multiport Brine Diffuser during ‘Hot Standby’ Operation

Authors: M. J. Baum, B. Gibbes, A. Grinham, S. Albert, D. Gale, P. Fisher

Abstract:

Alongside the rapid expansion of Seawater Reverse Osmosis technologies there is a concurrent increase in the production of hypersaline brine by-products. To minimize environmental impact, these by-products are commonly disposed into open-coastal environments via submerged diffuser systems as inclined dense jet outfalls. Despite the widespread implementation of this process, diffuser designs are typically based on small-scale laboratory experiments under idealistic quiescent conditions. Studies concerning diffuser performance in the field are limited. A set of experiments were conducted to assess the near field characteristics of brine disposal at the Gold Coast Desalination Plant offshore multiport diffuser. The aim of the field experiments was to determine the trajectory and dilution characteristics of the plume under various discharge configurations with production ranging 66 – 100% of plant operative capacity. The field monitoring system employed an unprecedented static array of temperature and electrical conductivity sensors in a three-dimensional grid surrounding a single diffuser port. Complimenting these measurements, Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers were also deployed to record current variability over the depth of the water column and wave characteristics. Recorded data suggested the open-coastal environment was highly active over the experimental duration with ambient velocities ranging 0.0 – 0.5 m∙s-1, with considerable variability over the depth of the water column observed. Variations in background electrical conductivity corresponding to salinity fluctuations of ± 1.7 g∙kg-1 were also observed. Increases in salinity were detected during plant operation and appeared to be most pronounced 10 – 30 m from the diffuser, consistent with trajectory predictions described by existing literature. Plume trajectories and respective dilutions extrapolated from salinity data are compared with empirical scaling arguments. Discharge properties were found to adequately correlate with modelling projections. Temporal and spatial variation of background processes and their subsequent influence upon discharge outcomes are discussed with a view to incorporating the influence of waves and ambient currents in the design of brine outfalls into the future.

Keywords: Desalination, Brine disposal, Field Study, negatively buoyant discharge

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21 Fabrication of Cellulose Acetate/Polyethylene Glycol Membranes Blended with Silica and Carbon Nanotube for Desalination Process

Authors: Siti Nurkhamidah, Yeni Rahmawati, Fadlilatul Taufany, Eamor M. Woo, I Made P. A. Merta, Deffry D. A. Putra, Pitsyah Alifiyanti, Krisna D. Priambodo

Abstract:

Cellulose acetate/polyethylene glycol (CA/PEG) membrane was modified with varying amount of silica and carbon nanotube (CNT) to enhance its separation performance in the desalination process. These composite membranes were characterized for their hydrophilicity, morphology and permeation properties. The experiment results show that hydrophilicity of CA/PEG/Silica membranes increases with the increasing of silica concentration and the decreasing particle size of silica. From Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) image, it shows that pore structure of CA/PEG membranes increases with the addition of silica. Membrane performance analysis shows that permeate flux, salt rejection, and permeability of membranes increase with the increasing of silica concentrations. The effect of CNT on the hydrophylicity, morphology, and permeation properties was also discussed.

Keywords: Desalination, Carbon Nanotube, Membrane, cellulose acetate, PEG

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20 Investigation on the Capacitive Deionization of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes (F-CNTs) and Silver-Decorated F-CNTs for Water Softening

Authors: Khrizelle Angelique Sablan, Rizalinda De Leon, Jaeyoung Lee, Joey Ocon

Abstract:

The impending water shortage drives us to find alternative sources of water. One of the possible solutions is desalination of seawater. There are numerous processes by which it can be done and one if which is capacitive deionization. Capacitive deionization is a relatively new technique for water desalination. It utilizes the electric double layer for ion adsorption. Carbon-based materials are commonly used as electrodes for capacitive deionization. In this study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were treated in a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acid. The silver addition was also facilitated to incorporate antimicrobial action. The acid-treated carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) and silver-decorated f-CNTs ([email protected]) were used as electrode materials for seawater deionization and compared with CNT and acid-treated CNT. The synthesized materials were characterized using TEM, EDS, XRD, XPS and BET. The electrochemical performance was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, and the deionization performance was tested on a single cell with water containing 64mg/L NaCl. The results showed that the synthesized [email protected] H could have better performance than CNT and a-CNT with a maximum ion removal efficiency of 50.22% and a corresponding adsorption capacity of 3.21 mg/g. It also showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli. However, the said material lacks stability as the efficiency decreases with repeated usage of the electrode.

Keywords: Desalination, Carbon Nanotubes, Silver, capacitive deionization, acid functionalization

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19 Assessment of Hypersaline Outfalls via Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations: A Case Study of the Gold Coast Desalination Plant Offshore Multiport Brine Diffuser

Authors: Mitchell J. Baum, Badin Gibbes, Greg Collecutt

Abstract:

This study details a three-dimensional field-scale numerical investigation conducted for the Gold Coast Desalination Plant (GCDP) offshore multiport brine diffuser. Quantitative assessment of diffuser performance with regard to trajectory, dilution and mapping of seafloor concentration distributions was conducted for 100% plant operation. The quasi-steady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations with a k-ω shear stress transport turbulence closure scheme. The study compliments a field investigation, which measured brine plume characteristics under similar conditions. CFD models used an iterative mesh in a domain with dimensions 400 m long, 200 m wide and an average depth of 24.2 m. Acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements conducted in the companion field study exhibited considerable variability over the water column. The effect of this vertical variability on simulated discharge outcomes was examined. Seafloor slope was also accommodated into the model. Ambient currents varied predominantly in the longshore direction – perpendicular to the diffuser structure. Under these conditions, the alternating port orientation of the GCDP diffuser resulted in simultaneous subjection to co-propagating and counter-propagating ambient regimes. Results from quiescent ambient simulations suggest broad agreement with empirical scaling arguments traditionally employed in design and regulatory assessments. Simulated dynamic ambient regimes showed the influence of ambient crossflow upon jet trajectory, dilution and seafloor concentration is significant. The effect of ambient flow structure and the subsequent influence on jet dynamics is discussed, along with the implications for using these different simulation approaches to inform regulatory decisions.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Desalination, field-scale simulation, multiport brine diffuser, negatively buoyant jet

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18 Quality Evaluation of Treated Ballast Seawater for Potential Reuse

Authors: Siti Nur Muhamad, Mohamad Abu Ubaidah Amir, Adenen Shuhada Abdul Aziz, Siti Sarah Mohd Isnan, Ainul Husna Abdul Rahman, Nur Afiqah Rosly, Roshamida Abd Jamil

Abstract:

The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) will commencing on 8 September 2017 after ratified by 51 States in September 2016. However, there is no value recovered for the treated ballast water as it simply discharged during de-ballasting. In order to evaluate value creation of treated ballast water, three seawater applications which are seawater toilet flushing, cooling tower and desalination was studied and compared with treated ballast seawater. An exploratory study was conducted in Singapore as a case study as this country is facing water scarcity issues and a busy port in the world which received more than 28 billion m3 of ballast water in 2015. Surprisingly the treatment technology between seawater toilet flushing and ballast water management has similarity as both applications use screening and disinfection process and quality standard and analysis between treated ballast water with seawater applications found that seawater toilet flushing have the same quality parameter with treated ballast water. Thus, the treated ballast water can replace the raw seawater for seawater desalination. As such, with reduction of cost for screen unit, desalination water can exceed water production by NEWater in Singapore as the cost can recover the energy needed for desalination. It can conclude that treated ballast water has high recovery value and can be reused in seawater application.

Keywords: Desalination, Ballast Water Management, ballast water treatment, BWM convention

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17 A Technical and Economic Feasibility Study of the Use of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) in Desalination Plants on the Kenyan Coast

Authors: Remember Samu, Murat Fahrioglu, Kathy Mwende Kiema

Abstract:

Despite the implementation of a Feed in Tariff (FiT) for solar power plants in Kenya, the uptake and subsequent development of utility scale power plants has been slow. This paper, therefore, proposes a Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plant configuration that can supply both power to the grid and operate a sea water desalination plant, thus providing an economically viable alternative to Independent Power Producers (IPPs). The largest city on the coast, Mombasa, has a chronic water shortage and authorities are looking to employ desalination plants to supply a deficit of up to 100 million cubic meters of fresh water per day. In this study the desalination plant technology was selected based on an analysis of operational costs in $/m3 of plants that are already running. The output of the proposed CSP plant, Net Present Value (NPV), plant capacity factor, thermal efficiency and quantity of CO2 emission avoided were simulated using Greenius software (Green energy system analysis tool) developed by the institute of solar research at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). Data on solar irradiance were derived from the Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) for Kenya.

Keywords: Desalination, feed in tariff, independent power producer, solar CSP

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16 Experimental Investigation of Air Gap Membrane Distillation System with Heat Recovery

Authors: Yasser Elhenaw, A. Farag, Mohamed El-Ghandour, M. Shatat, G. H. Moustafa

Abstract:

This study investigates the performance of two spiral-wound Air Gap Membrane Distillation (AGMD) units. These units are connected in two different configurations in order to be tested and compared experimentally. In AGMD, the coolant water is used to condensate water vapor leaving membrane via condensing plate. The rejected cooling water has a relativity high temperature which can be used, depending on operation parameters, to increase the thermal efficiency and water productivity. In the first configuration, the seawater feed flows parallel and equally through both units then rejected. The coolant water is divided into the two units, and the heat source is divided into the two heat exchangers. In the second one, only the feed of the first unit is heated while the cooling rejected from the unit is used in heating the feed to the second. The performance of the system, estimated by the water productivity as well as the Gain Output Ratio (GOR), is measured for the two configurations at different feed flow rates, temperatures and salinities. The results show that at steady state condition, the heat recovery configurations lead to an increase in water productivity by 25%.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Desalination, Membrane distillation, Heat recovery

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15 Graphene Based Materials as Novel Membranes for Water Desalination and Boron Separation

Authors: Francesca Risplendi, Li-Chiang Lin, Jeffrey C. Grossman, Giancarlo Cicero

Abstract:

Desalination is one of the most employed approaches to supply water in the context of a rapidly growing global water shortage. However, the most popular water filtration method available is the reverse osmosis (RO) technique, still suffers from important drawbacks, such as a large energy demands and high process costs. In addition some serious limitations have been recently discovered, among them, the boron problem seems to have a critical meaning. Boron has been found to have a dual effect on the living systems on Earth and the difference between boron deficiency and boron toxicity levels is quite small. The aim of this project is to develop a new generation of RO membranes based on porous graphene or reduced graphene oxide (rGO) able to remove salts from seawater and to reduce boron concentrations in the permeate to the level that meets the drinking or process water requirements, by means of a theoretical approach based on density functional theory and classical molecular dynamics. Computer simulations have been employed to investigate the relationship between the atomic structure of nanoporous graphene or rGO monolayer and its membrane properties in RO applications (i.e. water permeability and resilience at RO pressures). In addition, an emphasis has been given to multilayer nanoporous rGO and rGO flakes based membranes. By means of non-equilibrium MD simulations, we investigated the water transport mechanism permeating through such multilayer membrane focusing on the effect of slit widths and sheet geometries. These simulations allowed us to establish the implications of these graphene based materials as promising membrane properties for desalination plants and as boron filtration.

Keywords: Desalination, boron filtration, graphene membrane, reduced graphene oxide membrane

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14 Water Desalination by Membrane Distillation with MFI Zeolite Membranes

Authors: Angelo Garofalo, Laura Donato, Maria Concetta Carnevale, Enrico Drioli, Omar Alharbi, Saad Aljlil, Alessandra Criscuoli, Catia Algieri

Abstract:

Nowadays, water scarcity may be considered one of the most important and serious questions concerning our community: in fact, there is a remarkable mismatch between water supply and water demand. Exploitation of natural fresh water resources combined with higher water demand has led to an increased requirement for alternative water resources. In this context, desalination provides such an alternative source, offering water otherwise not accessible for irrigational, industrial and municipal use. Considering the various drawbacks of the polymeric membranes, zeolite membranes represent a potential device for water desalination owing to their high thermal and chemical stability. In this area wide attention was focused on the MFI (silicalite, ZSM-5) membranes, having a pore size lower (about 5.5 Å) than the major kinetic diameters of hydrated ions. In the present work, a scale-up for the preparation of supported silicalite membranes was performed. Therefore, tubular membranes 30 cm long were synthesized by using the secondary growth method coupled with the cross flow seeding procedure. The secondary growth presents two steps: seeding and growth of zeolite crystals on the support. This process, decoupling zeolite nucleation from crystals growth, permits to control the conditions of each step separately. The seeding procedure consists of a cross-flow filtration through a porous support coupled with the support rotation and tilting. The combination of these three different aspects allows a homogeneous and uniform coverage of the support with the zeolite seeds. After characterization by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, the prepared membranes were tested by means of single gas permeation and then by Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) using both deionized water and NaCl solutions. The experimental results evidenced the possibility to perform the scale up for the preparation of almost defect free silicalite membranes. VMD tests indicated the possibility to prepare membranes that exhibit interesting performance in terms of fluxes and salt rejections for concentrations from 0.2 M to 0.9 M. Furthermore, it was possible to restore the original performance of the membrane after an identified cleaning procedure. Acknowledgements: The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) for funding the research Project 895/33 entitled ‘Preparation and Characterization of Zeolite Membranes for Water Treatment’.

Keywords: Desalination, MFI membranes, secondary growth, vacuum membrane distillation

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13 Effects of Concentrator and Encapsulated Phase Change Material for Desalination: An Experimental Study

Authors: Arunkumar Thirugnanasambantham, Velraj Ramalingam

Abstract:

An experimental attempt has been made to study the effect of system integration by two different concentrator assisted desalting systems. The compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) and compound conical concentrator (CCC) are used in this research work. Two solar desalination systems, the single slope solar still (SSSS) and pyramid solar still (PSS), have been integrated with a CCC and compound parabolic concentrator-concentric circular tubular solar still (CPC-CCTSS). To study the effect of system integration, a thick cloth prevents the entry of sunlight into the solar still top. Additionally, the concentrator assisted desalting systems are equipped with phase change material (PCM) for enhancement. In CCC-SSSS, PCM has been filled inside copper balls and placed on the SSSS basin. The PCM is loaded in the specially designed circular trough of the tubular solar still. Here, the used concentrators and distillers are not the same. Two methodologies are followed here to produce the fresh water even while the distillers are blocked from the sunlight. They are (1) thermosyphon effect in CCC-SSSS and (2) waste heat recovery from CPC-CCTSS. The results showed that the productivity of CCC-SSSS, CCC-SSSS with PCM and CCC-SSSS (PCM) top cover shaded were found as 2680 ml / m² / day, 3240 ml / m² / day, and 1646 ml / m² / day. Similarly, the productivity of the CPC-CCTSS-PSS, CPC-CCTSS (PCM)-PSS and CPC-CCTSS (PCM)-PSS top cover shaded were found as 7160 ml / m² / day, 7346 ml / m² / day, and ml / m² / day. The productivity of the CCC-SSSS and CPC-CCTSS-PSS is examined, and conclusions are drawn such as the solar radiation blocked distillers productivity did not drop to zero.

Keywords: Desalination, System Integration, compound parabolic concentrator, compound conical concentrator

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12 Surface Modified Polyvinylidene Fluoride Membranes for Potential Use in Membrane Distillation

Authors: Lebea Nthunya, Arne Verliefde, Bhekie Mamba, Sabelo Mhlanga

Abstract:

A study aimed at developing membrane distillation (MD) processes that can be used for brackish/saline water purification will be presented. MD is a membrane-based technology that presents a possibility to counteract challenges associated with pressure driven membranes at high separation efficiencies. Membrane distillation membranes (MDM) are affected by wettability and fouling. Wetting inside the pores of the membrane is elevated by the hydrophilic characteristic of the membrane, while fouling is mostly induced by the hydrophobic-hydrophobic interaction of pollutants and the surface of the hydrophobic membranes, hence block the pores of the membranes. These properties are not desirable. As such, a carefully designed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) MDM composed of a super-hydrophobic modified backbone and a super-hydrophilic thin layer has been developed to concurrently overcome these challenges. The membranes were characterized using contact angle measurements to confirm their hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity. SEM and SAXS were used to study the morphology and pore distribution on the surface of the membrane. The contact angles of the active surface ≤ 30º and that of the backbone ≥ 140º has thus revealed that the active surface was highly hydrophilic while the backbone was highly hydrophobic. The SEM and the SAXS results have also confirmed that the membranes are highly porous. These materials demonstrated a potential to remove salts from water at high efficiencies.

Keywords: Desalination, Energy Efficiency, Modification, Membrane distillation

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11 Solar Aided Vacuum Desalination of Sea-Water

Authors: Miraz Hafiz Rossy

Abstract:

As part of planning to address shortfalls in fresh water supply for the world, Sea water can be a huge source of fresh water. But Desalinating sea water to get fresh water could require a lots of fossil fuels. To save the fossil fuel in terms of save the green world but meet the up growing need for fresh water, a very useful but energy efficient method needs to be introduced. Vacuum desalination of sea water using only the Renewable energy can be an effective solution to this issue. Taking advantage of sensitivity of water's boiling point to air pressure a vacuum desalination water treatment plant can be designed which would only use sea water as feed water and solar energy as fuel to produce fresh drinking water. The study indicates that reducing the air pressure to a certain value water can be boiled at very low temperature. Using solar energy to provide the condensation and the vacuum creation would be very useful and efficient. Compared to existing resources, desalination is considered to be expensive, but using only renewable energy the cost can be reduced significantly. Despite its very few drawbacks, it can be considered a possible solution to the world's fresh water shortages.

Keywords: Desalination, Water Treatment, Water Purification, scarcity of fresh water

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10 Experimental Analysis on the Thermal Performance of Vacuum Membrane Distillation Module Using Polyvinylidene Fluoride Hollow Fiber Membrane

Authors: Hong-Jin Joo, Hee-Yoel Kwak

Abstract:

Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) uses pressure lower than the atmospheric pressure. The feed seawater is capable of producing more vapor at the same temperature than Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD), Air Gap Membrane Distillation (AGMD) or Sweep Gas Membrane Distillation (SGMD). It is advantageous because it is operable at a lower temperature than other membrane distillations. However, no commercial product is available that uses the VMD method, as it is still in the study stage. In this study, therefore, thermal performance test according to the feed water conditions was performed prior to both construction of the demonstration plant, which uses VMD module of the capacity of 400m³/d in South Korea, and commercialization of VMD module with hollow fiber membrane. Such study was performed by designing and constructing the VMD module of the capacity of 2 m³/day which utilizes the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane. The results obtained from the VMD module manufactured by ECONITY Co., Ltd in South Korea, showed that the maximum performance ratio (PR) value of 0.904, feed water temperature of 75 ℃, and the flow rate of 8 m3/h. As the temperature of and flow rate of the feed water increased, the PR value of the VMD module also increased.

Keywords: Desalination, Membrane distillation, hollow fiber membrane, vacuum membrane distillation

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9 A Performance Analysis Study of an Active Solar Still Integrating Fin at the Basin Plate

Authors: M. Bakhouya, O. Ansari, H. Hafs, A. Bah, M. Asbik, M. Malha

Abstract:

Water is one of the most important and vulnerable natural resources due to human activities and climate change. Water-level continues declining year after year and it is primarily caused by sustained, extensive, and traditional usage methods. Improving water utilization becomes an urgent issue in order satisfy the increasing population needs. Desalination of seawater or brackish water could help in increasing water potential. However, a cost-effective desalination process is required. The most appropriate method for performing this desalination is solar-driven distillation, given its simplicity, low cost and especially the availability of the solar energy source. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate the influence of coupling integrated basin plate by fins with preheating by solar collector on the performance of solar still. The energy balance equations for the various elements of the solar still are introduced. A numerical example is used to show the efficiency of the proposed solution.

Keywords: Desalination, fins, Solar Collector, active solar still

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8 Optimization of Water Desalination System Powered by High Concentrated Photovoltaic Panels in Kuwait Climate Conditions

Authors: Adel A. Ghoneim

Abstract:

Desalination using solar energy is an interesting option specifically at regions with abundant solar radiation since such areas normally have scarcity of clean water resources. Desalination is the procedure of eliminating dissolved minerals from seawater or brackish water to generate fresh water. In this work, a simulation program is developed to determine the performance of reverse osmosis (RO) water desalination plant powered by high concentrated photovoltaic (HCPV) panels in Kuwait climate conditions. The objective of such a photovoltaic thermal system is to accomplish a double output, i.e., co-generation of both electricity and fresh water that is applicable for rural regions with high solar irradiation. The suggested plan enables to design an RO plant that does not depend on costly batteries or additional land and significantly reduce the government costs to subsidize the water generation cost. Typical weather conditions for Kuwait is employed as input to the simulation program. The simulation program is utilized to optimize the system efficiency as well as the distillate water production. The areas and slopes of HCPV modules are varied to attain maximum yearly power production. Maximum yearly distillate production and HCPV energy generation are found to correspond to HCPV facing south with tilt of 27° (Kuwait latitude-3°). The power needed to produce 1 l of clean drinking water ranged from 2 to 8 kW h/m³, based on the salinity of the feed water and the system operating conditions. Moreover, adapting HCPV systems achieve an avoided greenhouse gases emission by about 1128 ton CO₂ annually. Present outcomes certainly illustrate environmental advantages of water desalination system powered by high concentrated photovoltaic systems in Kuwait climate conditions.

Keywords: Desalination, Reverse osmosis, Solar Radiation, high concentrated photovoltaic systems

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7 Thermodynamic Phase Equilibria and Formation Kinetics of Cyclopentane, Cyclopentanone and Cyclopentanol Hydrates in the Presence of Gaseous Guest Molecules including Methane and Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Sujin Hong, Seokyoon Moon, Heejoong Kim, Yunseok Lee, Youngjune Park

Abstract:

Gas hydrate is an inclusion compound in which a low-molecular-weight gas or organic molecule is trapped inside a three-dimensional lattice structure created by water-molecule via intermolecular hydrogen bonding. It is generally formed at low temperature and high pressure, and exists as crystal structures of cubic systems − structure I, structure II, and hexagonal system − structure H. Many efforts have been made to apply them to various energy and environmental fields such as gas transportation and storage, CO₂ capture and separation, and desalination of seawater. Particularly, studies on the behavior of gas hydrates by new organic materials for CO₂ storage and various applications are underway. In this study, thermodynamic and spectroscopic analyses of the gas hydrate system were performed focusing on cyclopentanol, an organic molecule that forms gas hydrate at relatively low pressure. The thermodynamic equilibria of CH₄ and CO₂ hydrate systems including cyclopentanol were measured and spectroscopic analyses of XRD and Raman were performed. The differences in thermodynamic systems and formation kinetics of CO₂ added cyclopentane, cyclopentanol and cyclopentanone hydrate systems were compared. From the thermodynamic point of view, cyclopentanol was found to be a hydrate promotor. Spectroscopic analyses showed that cyclopentanol formed a hydrate crystal structure of cubic structure II in the presence of CH₄ and CO₂. It was found that the differences in the functional groups among the organic guest molecules significantly affected the rate of hydrate formation and the total amounts of CO₂ stored in the hydrate systems. The total amount of CO₂ stored in the cyclopentanone hydrate was found to be twice that of the amount of CO₂ stored in the cyclopentane and the cyclopentanol hydrates. The findings are expected to open up new opportunity to develop the gas hydrate based wastewater desalination technology.

Keywords: separation, Desalination, CO2, gas hydrate, formation kinetics, thermodynamic equilibria

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6 Effect of Proteoliposome Concentration on Salt Rejection Rate of Polysulfone Membrane Prepared by Incorporation of Escherichia coli and Halomonas elongata Aquaporins

Authors: Aysenur Ozturk, Aysen Yildiz, Hilal Yilmaz, Pinar Ergenekon, Melek Ozkan

Abstract:

Water scarcity is one of the most important environmental problems of the World today. Desalination process is regarded as a promising solution to solve drinking water problem of the countries facing with water shortages. Reverse osmosis membranes are widely used for desalination processes. Nano structured biomimetic membrane production is one of the most challenging research subject for improving water filtration efficiency of the membranes and for reducing the cost of desalination processes. There are several researches in the literature on the development of novel biomimetic nanofiltration membranes by incorporation of aquaporin Z molecules. Aquaporins are cell membrane proteins that allow the passage of water molecules and reject all other dissolved solutes. They are present in cell membranes of most of the living organisms and provide high water passage capacity. In this study, GST (Glutathione S-transferas) tagged E. coli aquaporinZ and H. elongate aquaporin proteins, which were previously cloned and characterized, were purified from E. coli BL21 cells and used for fabrication of modified Polysulphone Membrane (PS). Aquaporins were incorporated on the surface of the membrane by using 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) phospolipids as carrier liposomes. Aquaporin containing proteoliposomes were immobilized on the surface of the membrane with m-phenylene-diamine (MPD) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) rejection layer. Water flux, salt rejection and glucose rejection performances of the thin film composite membranes were tested by using Dead-End Reactor Cell. In this study, effect of proteoliposome concentration, and filtration pressure on water flux and salt rejection rate of membranes were investigated. Type of aquaporin used for membrane fabrication, flux and pressure applied for filtration were found to be important parameters affecting rejection rates. Results suggested that optimization of concentration of aquaporin carriers (proteoliposomes) on the membrane surface is necessary for fabrication of effective composite membranes used for different purposes.

Keywords: Desalination, Water Treatment, Aquaporins, biomimmetic membranes

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