Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

depth Related Abstracts

5 Peat Soil Stabilization Methods: A Review

Authors: Mohammad Saberian, Reza Porhoseini, Mohammad Ali Rahgozar

Abstract:

Peat soil is formed naturally through the accumulation of organic matter under water and it consists of more than 75% organic substances. Peat is considered to be in the category of problematic soil, which is not suitable for construction, due to its high compressibility, high moisture content, low shear strength, and low bearing capacity. Since this kind of soil is generally found in many countries and different regions, finding desirable techniques for stabilization of peat is absolutely essential. The purpose of this paper is to review the various techniques applied for stabilizing peat soil and discuss outcomes of its improved mechanical parameters and strength properties. Recognizing characterization of stabilized peat is one of the most significant factors for architectural structures; as a consequence, various strategies for stabilization of this susceptible soil have been examined based on the depth of peat deposit.

Keywords: Stabilization, Strength, peat soil, depth, unconfined compressive strength (USC)

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4 Multiple Linear Regression for Rapid Estimation of Subsurface Resistivity from Apparent Resistivity Measurements

Authors: Sabiu Bala Muhammad, Rosli Saad

Abstract:

Multiple linear regression (MLR) models for fast estimation of true subsurface resistivity from apparent resistivity field measurements are developed and assessed in this study. The parameters investigated were apparent resistivity (ρₐ), horizontal location (X) and depth (Z) of measurement as the independent variables; and true resistivity (ρₜ) as the dependent variable. To achieve linearity in both resistivity variables, datasets were first transformed into logarithmic domain following diagnostic checks of normality of the dependent variable and heteroscedasticity to ensure accurate models. Four MLR models were developed based on hierarchical combination of the independent variables. The generated MLR coefficients were applied to another data set to estimate ρₜ values for validation. Contours of the estimated ρₜ values were plotted and compared to the observed data plots at the colour scale and blanking for visual assessment. The accuracy of the models was assessed using coefficient of determination (R²), standard error (SE) and weighted mean absolute percentage error (wMAPE). It is concluded that the MLR models can estimate ρₜ for with high level of accuracy.

Keywords: multiple linear regression, depth, true resistivity, apparent resistivity, horizontal location

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3 Peculiarities of Snow Cover in Belarus

Authors: Aleh Meshyk, Anastasiya Vouchak

Abstract:

On the average snow covers Belarus for 75 days in the south-west and 125 days in the north-east. During the cold season snowpack often destroys due to thaws, especially at the beginning and end of winter. Over 50% of thawing days have a positive mean daily temperature, which results in complete snow melting. For instance, in December 10% of thaws occur at 4 С mean daily temperature. Stable snowpack lying for over a month forms in the north-east in the first decade of December but in the south-west in the third decade of December. The cover disappears in March: in the north-east in the last decade but in the south-west in the first decade. This research takes into account that precipitation falling during a cold season could be not only liquid and solid but also a mixed type (about 10-15 % a year). Another important feature of snow cover is its density. In Belarus, the density of freshly fallen snow ranges from 0.08-0.12 g/cm³ in the north-east to 0.12-0.17 g/cm³ in the south-west. Over time, snow settles under its weight and after melting and refreezing. Averaged annual density of snow at the end of January is 0.23-0.28 g/сm³, in February – 0.25-0.30 g/сm³, in March – 0.29-0.36 g/сm³. Sometimes it can be over 0.50 g/сm³ if the snow melts too fast. The density of melting snow saturated with water can reach 0.80 g/сm³. Average maximum of snow depth is 15-33 cm: minimum is in Brest, maximum is in Lyntupy. Maximum registered snow depth ranges within 40-72 cm. The water content in snowpack, as well as its depth and density, reaches its maximum in the second half of February – beginning of March. Spatial distribution of the amount of liquid in snow corresponds to the trend described above, i.e. it increases in the direction from south-west to north-east and on the highlands. Average annual value of maximum water content in snow ranges from 35 mm in the south-west to 80-100 mm in the north-east. The water content in snow is over 80 mm on the central Belarusian highland. In certain years it exceeds 2-3 times the average annual values. Moderate water content in snow (80-95 mm) is characteristic of western highlands. Maximum water content in snow varies over the country from 107 mm (Brest) to 207 mm (Novogrudok). Maximum water content in snow varies significantly in time (in years), which is confirmed by high variation coefficient (Cv). Maximums (0.62-0.69) are in the south and south-west of Belarus. Minimums (0.42-0.46) are in central and north-eastern Belarus where snow cover is more stable. Since 1987 most gauge stations in Belarus have observed a trend to a decrease in water content in snow. It is confirmed by the research. The biggest snow cover forms on the highlands in central and north-eastern Belarus. Novogrudok, Minsk, Volkovysk, and Sventayny highlands are a natural orographic barrier which prevents snow-bringing air masses from penetrating inside the country. The research is based on data from gauge stations in Belarus registered from 1944 to 2014.

Keywords: Density, snow, depth, water content in snow

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2 Study of the Influence of the Region, the Depth and the Drying Process on the Chemical Composition of Gelidium sesquipedale

Authors: A. Amiri, T. Ould Bellahcen, F. Hmimid, M. Cherki, I. Taouam

Abstract:

The Moroccan coasts represent an important wealth of red algae which have an economic interest. Among these algae, the Gelidium sesquipedale, which is exploited industrially for its richness in agar. The aim of this study is to establish a general overview of the macronutrient composition of Gelidium sesquipedale and to compare this composition according to three factors: the harvest site (El Jadida, Casablanca and Mohammadia), the harvest depth (coast and depth) and the drying process (open air and oven). Proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates are measured by different methods. The analysis of results show that the protein concentrations of the El Jadida and Mohammadia samples are significantly higher than that of Casablanca (0.026 ± 0.0007 µg/µg DW 0.024 ± 0.001 µg/µg DW and 0.006 ± 0.0007 µg/µg DW, p < 0.05 respectively). However, Casablanca samples are significantly richer in total sugars (0.023 ± 0.002 µg/µg DW, p < 0.05) and less rich in reducing sugars (0.0001 ± 0.00001 µg/µg DW, p < 0.05) compared to other samples. The lipid concentrations of the samples from the three harvest sites do not show any significant difference. With respect to depth, only total protein and total sugar concentrations were significantly higher in the coast versus depth samples (0.035 ± 0.004 µg/µg DW vs. 0.026 ± 0.0007 µg/µg DW and 0.035 ± 0.006 µg/µg DW vs. 0.012 ± 0.005 µg/µg DW p < 0.05 respectively). For the drying process, protein, total sugars and lipid concentrations were significantly higher in open air samples compared to oven samples (0.006 ± 0.0007 µg/µg DW). vs 0.004 ± 0.0003 µg/µg DW, 0.023 ± 0.002 µg/µg DW vs 0.007 ± 0.002 µg/µg DW and 8% vs 4% p < 0.05 respectively). Our results demonstrate that the chemical composition of Gelidium sesquipedale varies according to the harvest region. In addition, samples harvested on the coast and dried in the open air are the richest in macronutrients.

Keywords: Drying, region, biochemical composition, depth, red algae, Gelidium sesquipedale

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1 Geoelectric Survey for Groundwater Potential in Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria

Authors: Ibrahim Mohammed, Suleiman Taofiq, Muhammad Naziru Yahya

Abstract:

Geoelectrical measurements using Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method were carried out in Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria, with the aim of determining the groundwater potential in the area. Twelve (12) Vertical Electric Sounding (VES) data were collected using Terrameter (ABEM SAS 300c) and analyzed using computer software (IPI2win), which gives an automatic interpretation of the apparent resistivity. The results of the interpretation of VES data were used in the characterization of three to five geo-electric layers from which the aquifer units were delineated. Data analysis indicated that water bearing formation exists in the third and fourth layers having resistivity range of 312 to 767 Ωm and 9.51 to 681 Ωm, respectively. The thickness of the formation ranges from 14.7 to 41.8 m, while the depth is from 8.22 to 53.7 m. Based on the result obtained from the interpretation of the data, five (5) VES stations were recommended as the most viable locations for groundwater exploration in the study area. The VES stations include VES A4, A5, A6, B1, and B2. The VES results of the entire area indicated that the water bearing formation occurs at maximum depth of 53.7 m at the time of this survey.

Keywords: Groundwater, aquifer, resistivity, Schlumberger, depth

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