Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Density Related Abstracts

41 Density Determination by Dilution for Extra Heavy Oil Residues Obtained Using Molecular Distillation and Supercritical Fluid Extraction as Upgrading and Refining Process

Authors: Oscar Corredor, Alexander Guzman, Adan Leon


Density is a bulk physical property that indicates the quality of a petroleum fraction. It is also a useful property to estimate various physicochemical properties of fraction and petroleum fluids; however, the determination of density of extra heavy residual (EHR) fractions by standard methodologies, (ASTM D70) shows limitations for samples with higher densities than 1.0879 g/cm3. For this reason, a dilution methodology was developed in order to determinate density for those particular fractions, 87 (EHR) fractions were obtained as products of the fractionation of Colombian typical Vacuum Distillation Residual Fractions using molecular distillation (MD) and extraction with Solvent N-hexane in Supercritical Conditions (SFEF) pilot plants. The proposed methodology showed reliable results that can be demonstrated with the standard deviation of repeatability and reproducibility values of 0.0031 and 0.0061 g/ml respectively. In the same way, it was possible to determine densities in fractions EHR up to 1.1647g/cm3 and °API values obtained were ten times less than the water reference value.

Keywords: Density, API, vacuum residual, molecular distillation, supercritical fluid extraction

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40 Compromising of Vacuum Sewerage System in Developing Regions and the Impact on Environmet

Authors: Abdelsalam Elawwad, Mostafa Ragab, Hisham Abdel-Halim


Leakage in sewerage system can cause groundwater and soil contamination in urban areas, especially in area with a high groundwater table. This is a serious problem in small villages in developing countries that rely on ground water as a source for irrigation and drinking purposes. In the developed countries, the recent trend in areas with low population densities is vacuum sewerage system, which is environmentally safer than conventional gravity system, protecting public health, preventing exfiltration to the ground water, very easily applied in a relatively short time and can cope with a faster expansion of the urbanized areas. The aim of this work is to assess the feasibility of using vacuum sewerage in developing country, such as Egypt. Knowledge of local conditions can determine the most suitable sewer system for a specific region. Technical, environmental and financial comparisons between conventional sewerage system and vacuum sewerage system were held using statistical analysis. Different conditions, such as population densities, geometry of area, and ground water depths were evaluated. Sample comprising of 30 Egyptian villages was selected, where a complete design for conventional sewerage system and vacuum sewerage system was done. Based on this study, it is recommended from the environmental point of view to construct the vacuum sewerage system in such villages with low population densities; however, it is not economic for all cases. From financial point of view, vacuum sewerage system was a good competitor to conventional systems in flat areas and areas with high groundwater table. The local market supplying of the construction equipment especially collection chambers will greatly affect the investment cost. Capacity building and social mobilization will also play a great role in sustainability of this system. At the end, it is noteworthy that environmental sustainability and public health are more important than the financial aspects.

Keywords: Statistics, Terrain, Density, Cost, Ground Water, conventional system, vacuum system

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39 Ultrasonic Investigation as Tool for Study of Molecular Interaction of 2-Hydroxy Substituted Pyrimidine Derivative at Different Concentrations

Authors: Shradha S. Binani, P. S. Bodke, R. V. Joat


Recent decades have witnessed an exponential growth in the field of acoustical parameters and ultrasound on solid, liquid and gases. Ultrasonic propagation parameters yield valuable information regarding the behavior of liquid systems because intra and intermolecular association, dipolar interaction, complex formation and related structural changes affecting the compressibility of the system which in turn produces variations in the ultrasonic velocity. The acoustic and thermo dynamical parameters obtained in ultrasonic study show that ion-solvation is accompanied by the destruction or enhancement of the solvent structure. In the present paper the ultrasonic velocity (v), density (ρ), viscosity(η) have been measured for the pharmacological important compound 2-hydroxy substituted phenyl pyrimidine derivative (2-hydroxy-4-(4’-methoxy phenyl)-6-(2’-hydroxy-4’-methyl-5’-chlorophenyl)pyrimidine) in ethanol as a solvent by using different concentration at constant room temperature. These experimental data have been used to estimate physical parameter like adiabatic compressibility, intermolecular free length, relaxation time, free volume, specific acoustic impedance, relative association, Wada’s constant, Rao’s constant etc. The above parameters provide information in understanding the structural and molecular interaction between solute-solvent in the drug solution with respect to change in concentration.

Keywords: Density, viscosity, acoustical parameters, ultrasonic velocity

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38 Surface Induced Alteration of Nanosized Amorphous Alumina

Authors: A. Katsman, L. Bloch, Y. Etinger, Y. Kauffmann, B. Pokroy


Various nanosized amorphous alumina thin films in the range of (2.4 - 63.1) nm were deposited onto amorphous carbon and amorphous Si3N4 membrane grids. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to probe the size effect on the short range order and the amorphous to crystalline phase transition temperature. It was found that the short-range order changes as a function of size: the fraction of tetrahedral Al sites is greater in thinner amorphous films. This result correlates with the change of amorphous alumina density with the film thickness demonstrated by the reflectivity experiments: the thinner amorphous films have the less density. These effects are discussed in terms of surface reconstruction of the amorphous alumina films. The average atomic binding energy in the thin film layer decreases with decease of the thickness, while the average O-Al interatomic distance increases. The reconstruction of amorphous alumina is induced by the surface reconstruction, and the short range order changes being dependent on the density. Decrease of the surface energy during reconstruction is the driving force of the alumina reconstruction (density change) followed by relaxation process (short range order change). The amorphous to crystalline phase transition temperature measured by DSC rises with the decrease in thickness from 997.6°C for 13.9 nm to 1020.4 °C for 2.7 nm thick. This effect was attributed to the different film densities: formation of nanovoids preceding and accompanying crystallization process influences the crystallization rate, and by these means, the temperature of crystallization peak.

Keywords: Density, Size Effect, amorphous alumina, short range order

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37 The White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) in the Wetlands of North East of Algeria

Authors: Idir Bitam, Aicha Beya Mammeria


Our study focuses on the distribution of the white stork "Ciconia ciconia L. 1758" in the wetlands of El Tarf (North eastern of Algeria): recognized by its remarkable number of breeding pairs, monitoring of nesting, using a GPS has been performed in an attempt to explain the functioning of populations and population strategies for an overall design of its distribution, which has not so far been investigated in this region. Between 2012 and 2013, the number of breeding pairs has increased considerably from 174 in 1996 to 475 in 2007 and 968 in 2013. It should be noted that in the distribution of breeding pairs between 1996 and 2011, there is a significant development since the density of nests increased from 25.22 in 1996 to 84.16 couples/100 km² in 2013. More endemic bread apears in the region, this fluctuation is related to climatic change and changing season. Changes related to local climatic conditions might induce binding conditions for the development of this species.

Keywords: Density, white stork, Ciconia ciconia, wetland El Tarf, northeast Algeria, climatic changing

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36 Density of Introduced Birds (Sturnidae: Mynas) in Urban Areas of Kuching and Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia

Authors: Mustafa Abdul Rahman, Maisarah Abdullah, Nurfarahin Azizan, Mohd-Azlan Jayasilan, Andrew Alek Tuen


Common myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Javan myna (A. javanicus) belong to the family Sturnidae. These two species range from Iran, Afghanistan, and east through the Indian subcontinent to south China, Indochina and the mainland Southeast Asia. It was introduced to Sarawak in 1980’s and since then the population has increased tremendously. A study to determine the density of these two species was conducted in the Kuching and Samarahan Districts, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo between November 2013 and January 2014. In Kuching City a total of 12 transect lines of 500 m each were established totaling 6 km. In Samarahan District, six 500 m transect lines were established both within Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) campus and in Serian Town totaling 6 km. The results showed that the density of Javan myna in Kuching City (east) was 13.9 birds/ha, Kuching City (center) was 21.3 birds/ha and Kuching City (west) was 43.1 birds/ha. The density of common myna at UNIMAS campus was 20.3 birds/ha and Serian Town was 13.2 birds/ha. The density of human population probably plays an important role in determining the density of mynas in an area as it is associated with the availability of food sources, roosting and nesting places originating from human activity.

Keywords: Density, myna, transect, invasive, Sarawak, Borneo

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35 Changing Trends of Population in Nashik District, Maharashtra, India

Authors: Pager Mansaram Pandit


The present paper aims to changing trends of population in Nashik district. The spatial variation of changing trends of population from 1901 to 2011. Nasik, lying between 19° 33’ and 20° 53’ north latitude and 73° 16’ and 75° 16’, with an area of 15530 Sq. K.M.North South length is 120 km. East West length is 200 km. Nashik has a population of 6,109,052 of which 3,164,261 are males and 2,944,791 and females. Average literacy rate of Nashik district in 2011 was 82.91 compared to 80.96 in 2001. In 1901 the density was 52 and in 2011 the density was 393 per sq. km. The progressive growth rate from 1901 to 2012 was 11.25 to 642.22 percent, respectively. The population trend is calculated with the help of time series. In 1901 population was 45.44% more and less in 1941 i.e. -13.86. From 1921 to 1981 the population was below the population trend but after 1991 population it gradually increased. The average rainfall it receives is 1034 mm. In the present times, because of advances in good climate, industrialization, development of road, University level educational facilities, religious importance, cargo services, good quality of grapes, pomegranates and onions, more and more people are being attracted towards Nashik districts. Another cause for the increase in the population is the main attraction of Ramkund, Muktidham Temple, Kalaram Temple, Coin Museum, and Trimbakeshwar.

Keywords: Population, Growth, Density, population trend

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34 The Effect of Different Composition of Dairy Cattle Feces Briquette on Moisture and Briquette Density

Authors: Dita Aviana Dewi, Heri Muji, Dian Nur Amalia, Nanung Agus Fitriyanto


Utilization of cow feces as a source of alternative energy can be done with turn it as briquettes. Cow feces generate heat around 4000 Cal/g and the methane gas (CH4) are quite high. Methane gas is one of the essential elements in briquettes which serve as the ignition, so that is resulting briquettes combustible. This study aims to know the difference of the composition of the constituents of briquette moisture content and density. Dairy cattle feces used as the main ingredient with additional material from the waste of the agricultural industry in the form of husk. This study was conducted with three treatments, namely T0= feces 1: husk 1, T1= feces 2: husk 1, and T2= feces 3: husk 1. Each treatment was replicated three times. The experimental design used was Complete Random Design Pattern in line with testing of Dunnet. The observed variables are moisture content and density of the briquettes. Results of this study showed an average moisture content of T0 is 31,17%, T1 is 28,14%, and T2 is 49.95%. The average density of briquettes at T0 is 1,0787 g/cm3, T1 is 1,1448 g/cm3, and T2 is 1,1133 g/cm3. Summary of the study is to take the difference of the composition of the feces and the husk do not have significant effects on moisture content and density of briquettes (p < 0.05).

Keywords: Density, moisture, briquette, dairy cattle feces

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33 Microstructure Characterization on Silicon Carbide Formation from Natural Wood

Authors: Anizah Kalam, Koay Mei Hyie, Noor Leha Abdul Rahman, Husna Elias, Teng Wang Dung


Dark Red Meranti and Kapur, kinds of important type of wood in Malaysia were used as a precursor to fabricate porous silicon carbide. A carbon template is produced by pyrolysis at 850°C in an oxygen free atmosphere. The carbon template then further subjected to infiltration with silicon by silicon melt infiltration method. The infiltration process was carried out in tube furnace in argon flow at 1500°C, at two different holding time; 2 hours and 3 hours. Thermo gravimetric analysis was done to investigate the decomposition behavior of two species of plants. The resulting silicon carbide was characterized by XRD which was found the formation of silicon carbide and also excess silicon. The microstructure was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the density was determined by the Archimedes method. An increase in holding time during infiltration will increased the density as well as formation of silicon carbide. Dark Red Meranti precursor is likely suitable for production of silicon carbide compared to Kapur.

Keywords: Density, Silicon Carbide, SEM, XRD

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32 Applications of Nonlinear Models to Measure and Predict Thermo Physical Properties of Binary Liquid Mixtures1, 4 Dioxane with Bromo Benzene at Various Temperatures

Authors: R. Ramesh, M. Y. M. Yunus, K. Ramesh


The study conducted in this research are Viscosities, η, and Densities ,ρ, of 1, 4-dioxane with Bromobenzene at different mole fractions and various temperatures in the atmospheric pressure condition. From experimentations excess volumes, VE, and deviations in viscosities, Δη, of mixtures at infinite dilutions have been obtained. The measured systems exhibited positive values of VmE and negative values of Δη. The binary mixture 1, 4 dioxane + Bromobenzene show positive VE and negative Δη with increasing temperatures. The outcomes clearly indicate that weak interactions present in mixture. It is mainly because of number and position of methyl groups exist in these aromatic hydrocarbons. These measured data tailored to the nonlinear models to derive the binary coefficients. Standard deviations have been considered between the fitted outcomes and the calculated data is helpful deliberate mixing behavior of the binary mixtures. It can conclude that in our cases, the data found with the values correlated by the corresponding models very well. The molecular interactions existing between the components and comparison of liquid mixtures were also discussed.

Keywords: Density, bromobenzene, excess molar volume

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31 Predicting Stem Borer Density in Maize Using RapidEye Data and Generalized Linear Models

Authors: Elfatih M. Abdel-Rahman, Tobias Landmann, Richard Kyalo, George Ong’amo, Bruno Le Ru


Maize (Zea mays L.) is a major staple food crop in Africa, particularly in the eastern region of the continent. The maize growing area in Africa spans over 25 million ha and 84% of rural households in Africa cultivate maize mainly as a means to generate food and income. Average maize yields in Sub Saharan Africa are 1.4 t/ha as compared to global average of 2.5–3.9 t/ha due to biotic and abiotic constraints. Amongst the biotic production constraints in Africa, stem borers are the most injurious. In East Africa, yield losses due to stem borers are currently estimated between 12% to 40% of the total production. The objective of the present study was therefore to predict stem borer larvae density in maize fields using RapidEye reflectance data and generalized linear models (GLMs). RapidEye images were captured for a test site in Kenya (Machakos) in January and in February 2015. Stem borer larva numbers were modeled using GLMs assuming Poisson (Po) and negative binomial (NB) distributions with error with log arithmetic link. Root mean square error (RMSE) and ratio prediction to deviation (RPD) statistics were employed to assess the models performance using a leave one-out cross-validation approach. Results showed that NB models outperformed Po ones in all study sites. RMSE and RPD ranged between 0.95 and 2.70, and between 2.39 and 6.81, respectively. Overall, all models performed similar when used the January and the February image data. We conclude that reflectance data from RapidEye data can be used to estimate stem borer larvae density. The developed models could to improve decision making regarding controlling maize stem borers using various integrated pest management (IPM) protocols.

Keywords: Density, maize, GLM, stem borers, RapidEye

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30 Urban Compactness and Sustainability: Beijing Experience

Authors: Xilu Liu, Ameen Farooq


Beijing has several compact residential housing settings in many of its urban districts. The study in this paper reveals that urban compactness, as predictor of density, may carry an altogether different meaning in the developing world when compared to the U.S for achieving objectives of urban sustainability. Recent urban design studies in the U.S are debating for compact and mixed-use higher density housing to achieve sustainable and energy efficient living environments. While the concept of urban compactness is widely accepted as an approach in modern architectural and urban design fields, this belief may not directly carry well into all areas within cities of developing countries. Beijing’s technology-driven economy, with its historic and rich cultural heritage and a highly speculated real-estate market, extends its urban boundaries into multiple compact urban settings of varying scales and densities. The accelerated pace of migration from the countryside for better opportunities has led to unsustainable and uncontrolled buildups in order to meet the growing population demand within and outside of the urban center. This unwarranted compactness in certain urban zones has produced an unhealthy physical density with serious environmental and ecological challenging basic living conditions. In addition, crowding, traffic congestion, pollution and limited housing surrounding this compactness is a threat to public health. Several residential blocks in close proximity to each other were found quite compacted, or ill-planned, with residential sites due to lack of proper planning in Beijing. Most of them at first sight appear to be compact and dense but further analytical studies revealed that what appear to be dense actually are not as dense as to make a good case that could serve as the corner stone of sustainability and energy efficiency. This study considered several factors including floor area ratio (FAR), ground coverage (GSI), open space ratio (OSR) as indicators in analyzing urban compactness as a predictor of density. The findings suggest that these measures, influencing the density of residential sites under study, were much smaller in density than expected given their compact adjacencies. Further analysis revealed that several residential housing appear to support the notion of density in its compact layout but are actually compacted due to unregulated planning marred by lack of proper urban design standards, policies and guidelines specific to their urban context and condition.

Keywords: Sustainability, Density, Beijing, urban compactness

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29 Investigating the Effects of Density and Different Nitrogen Nutritional Systems on Yield, Yield Components and Essential Oil of Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare Mill.)

Authors: Mohammadreza Delfieh, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres Sanavy, Rouzbeh Farhoudi


Fennel is of most important medicinal plants which is widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries. In order to investigate the effect of different nitrogen nutritional systems including chemical, organic and biologic ones at different plant densities on yield, yield components and seed essential oil content and yield of this valuable medicinal plant, a field experiment was carried out in 2013-2014 agricultural season at Islamic Azad University of Shoushtar agricultural college in split plot design with 18 treatments and based on completely randomized blocks design. Different nitrogen system treatments consisting of: 1. N1 or control (Uniformly spreading urea fertilizer in the plot, 50% at planting time and 50% at stem elongation), 2. N2 (Uniformly spreading 50% of urea fertilizer in the plot at planting time and spraying the other 50% of urea fertilizer at stem elongation on fennel foliage), 3. N3 or cow manure, 4. N4 or biofertilizer (Inoculation of fennel seeds with Azotobacter and Azospirillum), 5. N5 or Integrated-1 (Cow manure + uniformly spreading urea fertilizer in the plot at stem elongation), 6. N6 or Integrated-2 (Cow manure + Inoculation of fennel seeds with Azotobacter and Azospirillum) were applied to the main plots. Three fennel densities consisting of: 1. FD1 (60 plant/m2), 2. FD2 (80 plant/m2) and 3. FD3 (100 plant/m2) were applied to subplots. Results showed that all of the traits were significantly affected by applied treatments (P 0.01). The interaction between treatments also were significant at 5 percent level for shoot dry weight and at 1 percent level for other traits. Based on the results, using the Integrated-1 treatment at 100 plant per m2 produced 94.575 g/m2 seed yield containing 3.375 percent of essential oil. Utilization of such combination not only could lead to a desirable fennel quantity and quality, but also is more consistent with environment.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Density, Biofertilizer, organic fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, fennel (foeniculum vulgare mill.), nutritional system

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28 Effect of Temperature on the Binary Mixture of Imidazolium Ionic Liquid with Pyrrolidin-2-One: Volumetric and Ultrasonic Study

Authors: K. Thomas, T. Srinivasa Krishna, K. Narendra, S. S. Raju, B. Munibhadrayya


The densities, speeds of sound and refractive index of the binary mixture of ionic liquid (IL) 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([BMIM][Imide]) and Pyrrolidin-2-one(PY) was measured at atmospheric pressure, and over the range of temperatures T= (298.15 -323.15)K. The excess molar volume, excess isentropic compressibility, excess speed of sound, partial molar volumes, and isentropic partial molar compressibility were calculated from the values of the experimental density and speed of sound. From the experimental data excess thermal expansion coefficients and isothermal pressure coefficient of excess molar enthalpy at 298.15K were calculated. The results were analyzed and were discussed from the point of view of structural changes. Excess properties were calculated and correlated by the Redlich–Kister and the Legendre polynomial equation and binary coefficients were obtained. Values of excess partial volumes at infinite dilution for the binary system at different temperatures were calculated from the adjustable parameters obtained from Legendre polynomial and Redlich–Kister smoothing equation. Deviation in refractive indices ΔnD and deviation in molar refraction, ΔRm were calculated from the measured refractive index values. Equations of state and several mixing rules were used to predict refractive indices of the binary mixtures and compared with the experimental values by means of the standard deviation and found to be in excellent agreement. By using Prigogine–Flory–Patterson (PFP) theory, the above thermodynamic mixing functions have been calculated and the results obtained from this theory were compared with experimental results.

Keywords: Density, refractive index, speeds of sound, Prigogine-Flory-Patterson theory

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27 About Some Results of the Determination of Alcohol in Moroccan Gasoline-Alcohol Mixtures

Authors: Mahacine Amrani


A simple and rapid method for the determination of alcohol in gasoline-alcohol mixtures using density measurements is described. The method can determine a minimum of 1% of alcohol by volume. The precision of the method is ± 3%.The method is more useful for field test in the quality assessment of alcohol blended fuels.

Keywords: Measurement, Density, Morocco, mixture, gasoline-alcohol, alcohol determination

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26 Effects of Initial Moisture Content on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Norway Spruce Briquettes

Authors: Juraj Beniak, Peter Križan, Miloš Matúš, Ľubomír Šooš


The moisture content of densified biomass is a limiting parameter influencing the quality of this solid biofuel. It influences its calorific value, density, mechanical strength and dimensional stability as well as affecting its production process. This paper deals with experimental research into the effect of moisture content of the densified material on the final quality of biofuel in the form of logs (briquettes or pellets). Experiments based on the single-axis densification of the spruce sawdust were carried out with a hydraulic piston press (piston and die), where the densified logs were produced at room temperature. The effect of moisture content on the qualitative properties of the logs, including density, change of moisture, expansion and physical changes, and compressive and impact resistance were studied. The results show the moisture ranges required for producing good-quality logs. The experiments were evaluated and the moisture content of the tested material was optimized to achieve the optimum value for the best quality of the solid biofuel. The dense logs also have high-energy content per unit volume. The research results could be used to develop and optimize industrial technologies and machinery for biomass densification to achieve high quality solid biofuel.

Keywords: biomass, Density, Densification, moisture content, briquettes, fuel quality

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25 Physical Properties and Elastic Studies of Fluoroaluminate Glasses Based on Alkali

Authors: C. Benhamideche


Fluoroaluminate glasses have been reported as the earliest heavy metal fluoride glasses. By comparison with flurozirconate glasses, they offer a set of similar optical features, but also some differences in their elastic and chemical properties. In practice they have been less developed because their stability against devitrification is smaller than that of the most stable fluoroziconates. The purpose of this study was to investigate glass formation in systems AlF3-YF3-PbF2-MgF2-MF2 (M= Li, Na, K). Synthesis was implemented at room atmosphere using the ammonium fluoride processing. After fining, the liquid was into a preheated brass mold, then annealed below the glass transition temperature for several hours. The samples were polished for optical measurements. Glass formation has been investigated in a systematic way, using pseudo ternary systems in order to allow parameters to vary at the same time. We have chosen the most stable glass compositions for the determination of the physical properties. These properties including characteristic temperatures, density and proprieties elastic. Glass stability increases in multicomponent glasses. Bulk samples have been prepared for physical characterization. These glasses have a potential interest for passive optical fibers because they are less sensitive to water attack than ZBLAN glass, mechanically stronger. It is expected they could have a larger damage threshold for laser power transmission.

Keywords: Density, Thermal Properties, fluoride glass, aluminium fluoride, proprieties elastic

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24 Coral Reef Fishes in the Marine Protected Areas in Southern Cebu, Philippines

Authors: Gloria G. Delan, Christine M. Corrales, Alfonso S. Piquero, Rachel Luz V. Rica


Marine protected areas (MPAs) in the study sites were established 8-13 years ago and are presently operational. This study was conducted to gather baseline information on the diversity, density and biomass of coral reef fishes inside and outside the four marine protected areas (MPAs) of Cawayan, Dalaguete; Daan-Lungsod Guiwang, Alcoy; North Granada, Boljoon and Sta. Cruz, Ronda. Coral reef fishes in the MPAs were identified using Fish Visual Census Method. Results of the t-test showed that the mean diversity (fish species/250m2) of target and non-target reef fish species found inside and outside the MPAs were significantly different. Density (ind./1,000m2) of target species inside and outside the MPAs showed no significant difference. Similarly, density of non-target species inside and outside the MPAs also showed no significant difference. This is an indication that fish density inside and outside the MPAs were more or less of the same condition. The mean biomass (kg/1,000m2) of target species inside and outside the MPAs showed a significant difference in contrast with non-target species inside and outside the MPAs which showed a no significant difference. Higher biomass of target fish species belonging to family Caesonidae (fusiliers) and Scaridae (parrotfishes) were commonly observed inside the MPAs. Results showed that fish species were more diverse with higher density and biomass inside the MPAs than the outside area. However, fish diversity and density were mostly contributed by non-target species. Hence, long term protection and management of MPAs is needed to effectively increase fish diversity, density and biomass specifically on target fish species.

Keywords: biomass, Diversity, Density, marine protected area, target fish species

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23 Performance of Self-Compacting Mortars Containing Foam Glass Granulate

Authors: Brahim Safi, Djamila Aboutaleb, Mohammed Saidi, Abdelbaki Benmounah, Fahima Benbrahim


The inorganic wastes are currently used in the manufacture of concretes as mineral additions by cement substitution or as fine/coarse aggregates by replacing traditional aggregates. In this respect, this study aims to valorize the mineral wastes in particular glass wastes to produce granulated foam glass (as fine aggregates). Granulated foam glasses (GFG) were prepared from the glass powder (glass cullet) and foaming agent (limestone) according to applied manufacturing of GFG (at a heat treatment 850 ° C for 20min). After, self-compacting mortars were elaborated with fine aggregate (sand) and other variant mortars with granulated foam glass at volume ratio (0, 30, 50 and 100 %). Rheological characterization tests (fluidity) and physic-mechanical (density, porosity /absorption of water and mechanical tests) were carried out on studied mortars. The results obtained show that a slightly decreasing of compressive strength of mortars having lightness very important for building construction.

Keywords: Density, Mechanical Strength, mortar, lightweight aggregate, fluidity, glass wastes

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22 A Review on Concrete Structures in Fire

Authors: S. Iffat, B. Bose


Concrete as a construction material is versatile because it displays high degree of fire-resistance. Concrete’s inherent ability to combat one of the most devastating disaster that a structure can endure in its lifetime, can be attributed to its constituent materials which make it inert and have relatively poor thermal conductivity. However, concrete structures must be designed for fire effects. Structural components should be able to withstand dead and live loads without undergoing collapse. The properties of high-strength concrete must be weighed against concerns about its fire resistance and susceptibility to spalling at elevated temperatures. In this paper, the causes, effects and some remedy of deterioration in concrete due to fire hazard will be discussed. Some cost effective solutions to produce a fire resistant concrete will be conversed through this paper.

Keywords: Concrete, Density, temperature, Fire, compressive strength, spalling

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21 Hysteresis Behaviour of Mass Concrete Mixed with Plastic Fibre under Compression

Authors: A. A. Okeola, T. I. Sijuade


Unreinforced concrete is a comparatively brittle substance when exposed to tensile stresses, the required tensile strength is provided by the introduction of steel which is used as reinforcement. The strength of concrete may be improved tremendously by the addition of fibre. This study focused on investigating the compressive strength of mass concrete mixed with different percentage of plastic fibre. Twelve samples of concrete cubes with varied percentage of plastic fibre at 7, 14 and 28 days of water submerged curing were tested under compression loading. The result shows that the compressive strength of plastic fibre reinforced concrete increased with rise in curing age. The strength increases for all percentage dosage of fibre used for the concrete. The density of the Plastic Fibre Reinforced Concrete (PFRC) also increases with curing age, which implies that during curing, concrete absorbs water which aids its hydration. The least compressive strength obtained with the introduction of plastic fibre is more than the targeted 20 N/mm2 recommended for construction work showing that PFRC can be used where significant loading is expected.

Keywords: Concrete, Density, compressive strength, curing, plastic fibre

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20 Vibrancy in The City: The Problem of Sidi-Gaber Station Zone in Alexandria, Egypt

Authors: Gihan Mosaad, Bakr Gomaa, Rana Elbadri


Modern parts of Alexandria city lack in vibrancy, causing a number of problems such as urban areas with poor security measures as well as weak economic state. Vibrancy provides a livable, attractive and secure environments; it also boosts the city’s economy and social life. Vibrant city is a city full of energy and life. To achieve this, a number of resources are needed; namely specific urban density, the availability of alternative modes of transportation and finally diversity of land-uses. Literature review shows no comprehensive study that assesses vibrancy in the streets of modern Alexandria. This study aims to measure the vibrancy potential in Sidi-Gaber station area thought the assessment of existing resources performance. Methods include literature reviews, surveying of existing case, questionnaire as well as GIS techniques. Expected results include GIS maps defining the vibrancy potentials in land use, density and statistical study regarding public transportation use in the area.

Keywords: Transportation, Density, Alexandria, mixed use, vibrancy

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19 Application of Post-Stack and Pre-Stack Seismic Inversion for Prediction of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in a Persian Gulf Gas Field

Authors: Nastaran Moosavi, Mohammad Mokhtari


Seismic inversion is a technique which has been in use for years and its main goal is to estimate and to model physical characteristics of rocks and fluids. Generally, it is a combination of seismic and well-log data. Seismic inversion can be carried out through different methods; we have conducted and compared post-stack and pre- stack seismic inversion methods on real data in one of the fields in the Persian Gulf. Pre-stack seismic inversion can transform seismic data to rock physics such as P-impedance, S-impedance and density. While post- stack seismic inversion can just estimate P-impedance. Then these parameters can be used in reservoir identification. Based on the results of inverting seismic data, a gas reservoir was detected in one of Hydrocarbon oil fields in south of Iran (Persian Gulf). By comparing post stack and pre-stack seismic inversion it can be concluded that the pre-stack seismic inversion provides a more reliable and detailed information for identification and prediction of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Keywords: Density, p-impedance, s-impedance, post-stack seismic inversion, pre-stack seismic inversion

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18 Thermophysical Properties of Water-Based Carboxylated Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Nanofluids

Authors: Hamed Khajeh Arzani, Bee Teng Chew, Ahmad Amiri, Md. Salim Newaz Kazi


Obviously, the behavior of thermophysical properties of covalently functionalized MWNT-based water nanofluids cannot be predicted from the predicted models. We present a study of the specific heat capacity, effective thermal conductivity, density and viscosity of coolants containing functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT-COOH) with carboxyl groups at different temperatures. After synthesizing of MWNT-COOH-based water, measurements on the prepared coolants were made at various concentrations by different experimental methods. While thermal conductivity of nanofluids illustrated a significant increase, the specific heat capacity of the samples showed a downward behavior with increasing temperature. The viscosity was investigated in different shear rates and temperatures. Interestingly, the specific heat capacity of all prepared nanofluids was decreased with increasing concentration. Also, the density of the MWNT-COOH-based water nanofluids increased and decreased smoothly with increasing MWNT-COOH concentration and temperature, respectively.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Density, viscosity, Heat Capacity, Thermal Conductivity, coolant

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17 High Pressure Thermophysical Properties of Complex Mixtures Relevant to Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Processing

Authors: Saif Al Ghafri, Thomas Hughes, Armand Karimi, Kumarini Seneviratne, Jordan Oakley, Michael Johns, Eric F. May


Knowledge of the thermophysical properties of complex mixtures at extreme conditions of pressure and temperature have always been essential to the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) industry’s evolution because of the tremendous technical challenges present at all stages in the supply chain from production to liquefaction to transport. Each stage is designed using predictions of the mixture’s properties, such as density, viscosity, surface tension, heat capacity and phase behaviour as a function of temperature, pressure, and composition. Unfortunately, currently available models lead to equipment over-designs of 15% or more. To achieve better designs that work more effectively and/or over a wider range of conditions, new fundamental property data are essential, both to resolve discrepancies in our current predictive capabilities and to extend them to the higher-pressure conditions characteristic of many new gas fields. Furthermore, innovative experimental techniques are required to measure different thermophysical properties at high pressures and over a wide range of temperatures, including near the mixture’s critical points where gas and liquid become indistinguishable and most existing predictive fluid property models used breakdown. In this work, we present a wide range of experimental measurements made for different binary and ternary mixtures relevant to LNG processing, with a particular focus on viscosity, surface tension, heat capacity, bubble-points and density. For this purpose, customized and specialized apparatus were designed and validated over the temperature range (200 to 423) K at pressures to 35 MPa. The mixtures studied were (CH4 + C3H8), (CH4 + C3H8 + CO2) and (CH4 + C3H8 + C7H16); in the last of these the heptane contents was up to 10 mol %. Viscosity was measured using a vibrating wire apparatus, while mixture densities were obtained by means of a high-pressure magnetic-suspension densimeter and an isochoric cell apparatus; the latter was also used to determine bubble-points. Surface tensions were measured using the capillary rise method in a visual cell, which also enabled the location of the mixture critical point to be determined from observations of critical opalescence. Mixture heat capacities were measured using a customised high-pressure differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The combined standard relative uncertainties were less than 0.3% for density, 2% for viscosity, 3% for heat capacity and 3 % for surface tension. The extensive experimental data gathered in this work were compared with a variety of different advanced engineering models frequently used for predicting thermophysical properties of mixtures relevant to LNG processing. In many cases the discrepancies between the predictions of different engineering models for these mixtures was large, and the high quality data allowed erroneous but often widely-used models to be identified. The data enable the development of new or improved models, to be implemented in process simulation software, so that the fluid properties needed for equipment and process design can be predicted reliably. This in turn will enable reduced capital and operational expenditure by the LNG industry. The current work also aided the community of scientists working to advance theoretical descriptions of fluid properties by allowing to identify deficiencies in theoretical descriptions and calculations.

Keywords: Density, viscosity, Models, Heat Capacity, surface tension, LNG, thermophysical, bubble points

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16 Community Assemblages of Reef Fishes in Marine Sanctuary and Non-Marine Sanctuary Areas in Sogod Bay, Southern Leyte, Philippines

Authors: Homer Hermes De Dios, Dewoowoogen Baclayon


The community assemblages of reef fishes was conducted in ten marine sanctuaries and ten non-marine sanctuary areas in Sogod Bay, Southern Leyte, Philippines from 2014-2015. A total of 223 species belonging to 39 families of reef fishes in Sogod Bay were recorded. Family Pomacentridae (e.g. damsel fishes) has the highest number of species (42), followed by Labridae or wrasses (27), Chaetodonthidae or butterfly fish (22), Scaridae or parrotfishes (17), and Acanthuridae (surgeonfishes) and Pomacanthidae (angelfishes) both with 10 species. Two of the recorded fish species were included in the IUCN Red List, wherein one is near threatened (Chlorurus bowersi) and the other is endangered species (Cheilinus undulatus). The mean total fish biomass (target + indicator + major or other fish) in MPA was significantly higher (13,468 g/500m2 or equivalent to 26.94 mt/km2) than Non-MPA with 7,408 g/500m2 or 15,216mt/km2 in Non-MPA. The mean total fish biomass in MPAs in Sogod Bay can be categorized as high (21-40 mt/km2) with minimal fishing and medium or slightly moderately fished (11-20 mt/km2) in Non-MPAs. The mean (±SE) biomass of target fishes was significantly higher in MPA than Non-MPA and differ significantly across two depths. The target fish biomass was significantly higher in Limasawa Marine Sanctuary (13,569 g/500m2) followed by Lungsodaan Marine Sanctuary in Padre Burgos (11,884 g/500m2) and the lowest was found in San Isidro (735 g/500m2). The mean total fish density (target + indicator + major or other fish) did not differ between Marine Protected area (607.912 fishes/500m2 or 1215.824 fishes/1000m2) and 525.937 fishes/500m2 in non-Marine Protected Area and can be categorized as moderate (667-2267mt/km2). The mean density of target fishes was significantly (p=0.022) higher in deeper areas (12-15m) than in shallow areas but did not differ significantly between MPAs and Non-MPA. No significant difference of the biomass and density for indicator and other fishes in MPAs and Non-MPAs.

Keywords: Density, abundance, species richness, target fish, coral reef management

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15 Density Determination of Liquid Niobium by Means of Ohmic Pulse-Heating for Critical Point Estimation

Authors: Matthias Leitner, Gernot Pottlacher


Experimental determination of critical point data like critical temperature, critical pressure, critical volume and critical compressibility of high-melting metals such as niobium is very rare due to the outstanding experimental difficulties in reaching the necessary extreme temperature and pressure regimes. Experimental techniques to achieve such extreme conditions could be diamond anvil devices, two stage gas guns or metal samples hit by explosively accelerated flyers. Electrical pulse-heating under increased pressures would be another choice. This technique heats thin wire samples of 0.5 mm diameter and 40 mm length from room temperature to melting and then further to the end of the stable phase, the spinodal line, within several microseconds. When crossing the spinodal line, the sample explodes and reaches the gaseous phase. In our laboratory, pulse-heating experiments can be performed under variation of the ambient pressure from 1 to 5000 bar and allow a direct determination of critical point data for low-melting, but not for high-melting metals. However, the critical point also can be estimated by extrapolating the liquid phase density according to theoretical models. A reasonable prerequisite for the extrapolation is the existence of data that cover as much as possible of the liquid phase and at the same time exhibit small uncertainties. Ohmic pulse-heating was therefore applied to determine thermal volume expansion, and from that density of niobium over the entire liquid phase. As a first step, experiments under ambient pressure were performed. The second step will be to perform experiments under high-pressure conditions. During the heating process, shadow images of the expanding sample wire were captured at a frame rate of 4 × 105 fps to monitor the radial expansion as a function of time. Simultaneously, the sample radiance was measured with a pyrometer operating at a mean effective wavelength of 652 nm. To increase the accuracy of temperature deduction, spectral emittance in the liquid phase is also taken into account. Due to the high heating rates of about 2 × 108 K/s, longitudinal expansion of the wire is inhibited which implies an increased radial expansion. As a consequence, measuring the temperature dependent radial expansion is sufficient to deduce density as a function of temperature. This is accomplished by evaluating the full widths at half maximum of the cup-shaped intensity profiles that are calculated from each shadow image of the expanding wire. Relating these diameters to the diameter obtained before the pulse-heating start, the temperature dependent volume expansion is calculated. With the help of the known room-temperature density, volume expansion is then converted into density data. The so-obtained liquid density behavior is compared to existing literature data and provides another independent source of experimental data. In this work, the newly determined off-critical liquid phase density was in a second step utilized as input data for the estimation of niobium’s critical point. The approach used, heuristically takes into account the crossover from mean field to Ising behavior, as well as the non-linearity of the phase diagram’s diameter.

Keywords: Density, Liquid Metals, niobium, critical point data, ohmic pulse-heating, volume expansion

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14 The Structure and Composition of Plant Communities in Ajluon Forest Reserve in Jordan

Authors: Maher J. Tadros, Yaseen Ananbeh


The study area is located in Ajluon Forest Reserve northern part of Jordan. It consists of Mediterranean hills dominated by open woodlands of oak and pistachio. The aims of the study were to investigate the positive and negative relationships between the locals and the protected area and how it can affect the long-term forest conservation. The main research objectives are to review the impact of establishing Ajloun Forest Reserve on nature conservation and on the livelihood level of local communities around the reserve. The Ajloun forest reserve plays a fundamental role in Ajloun area development. The existence of initiatives of nature conservation in the area supports various socio-economic activities around the reserve that contribute towards the development of local communities in Ajloun area. A part of this research was to conduct a survey to study the impact of Ajloun forest reserve on biodiversity composition. Also, studying the biodiversity content especially for vegetation to determine the economic impacts of Ajloun forest reserve on its surroundings was studied. In this study, several methods were used to fill the objectives including point-centered quarter method which involves selecting randomly 50 plots at the study site. The collected data from the field showed that the absolute density was (1031.24 plant per hectare). Density was recorded and found to be the highest for Quecus coccifera, and relative density of (73.7%), this was followed by Arbutus andrachne and relative density (7.1%), Pistacia palaestina and relative density (10.5%) and Crataegus azarulus (82.5 p/ha) and relative density (5.1%),

Keywords: Composition, Density, Structure, Frequency, importance value, point-centered quarter, tree cover

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13 Volumetric Properties of Binary Mixtures of Glycerol +1-Butanol or +2-Butanol at Several Temperatures

Authors: F. Amireche, Y. Chabouni


Densities of glycerol + 1-butanol or 2-butanol mixtures were measured over the temperature range 293.15 to 303.15 K at atmospheric pressure, over the entire composition range, with a vibrating tube densimeter. Excess molar volumes, apparent and partial molar volumes of glycerol and butanol, thermal isobaric expansivities of the mixture and partial molar expansivities of the components were calculated. The excess molar volumes of the mixtures are negative at all temperatures, and deviations from ideality increase with increasing temperature. Excess molar volumes were fitted to the Redlich–Kister equation. Partial molar volumes of glycerol decrease with increasing butanol concentration.

Keywords: Density, glycerol, excess molar volume, partial molar property, thermal isobaric expansivities

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12 Polycaprolactone/Thermally Exfoliated Graphene Oxide Biocomposite Films: A Promising Moisture Absorption Behavior

Authors: Sharad Shrivastava, Neetu Malik, Subrata Bandhu Ghosh


Biocomposite materials were fabricated using mixing biodegradable polymer polycaprolactone (PCL) and Thermally Exfoliated Graphene Oxide (TEGO) through solution casting. Various samples of biocomposite films were prepared by varying the TEGO wt% composition by 0.1%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%. Thereafter, the density and water absorption of the composites were investigated with respect to immersion time in water. The moisture absorption results show that with an increase in weight percentage (from 0.1 to wt 1.5%) of TEGO within the biopolymer films, the absorption value of bio-nanocomposite films reduced rapidly from 27.4% to 14.3%. The density of hybrid composites also increased with increase in weight percentage of TEGO. These results indicate that the optimized composition of constituents in composite membrane could effectively reduce the anhydrous conditions of bio-composite film.

Keywords: Density, water absorption, PCL, thermally exfoliated graphene oxide

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