Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Density Functional Theory Related Abstracts

25 Theorical Studies on the Structural Properties of 2,3-Bis(Furan-2-Yl)Pyrazino[2,3-F][1,10]Phenanthroline Derivaties

Authors: Zahra Sadeghian

Abstract:

This paper reports on the geometrical parameters optimized of the stationary point for the 2,3-Bis(furan-2-yl)pyrazino[2,3-f][1,10]phenanthroline. The calculations are performed using density functional theory (DFT) method at the B3LYP/LanL2DZ level. We determined bond lengths and bond angles values for the compound and calculate the amount of bond hybridization according to the natural bond orbital theory (NBO) too. The energy of frontier orbital (HOMO and LUMO) are computed. In addition, calculated data are accurately compared with the experimental result. This comparison show that the our theoretical data are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values.

Keywords: Density Functional Theory, theorical calculations, LanL2DZ level, B3LYP level

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24 Cr Induced Magnetization in Zinc-Blende ZnO-Based Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

Authors: Bakhtiar Ul Haq, R. Ahmed, A. Shaari, Mazmira Binti Mohamed, Nisar Ali

Abstract:

The capability of exploiting the electronic charge and spin properties simultaneously in a single material has made diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) remarkable in the field of spintronics. We report the designing of DMS based on zinc-blend ZnO doped with Cr impurity. The full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital FP-L(APW+lo) method in density functional theory (DFT) has been adapted to carry out these investigations. For treatment of exchange and correlation energy, generalized gradient approximations have been used. Introducing Cr atoms in the matrix of ZnO has induced strong magnetic moment with ferromagnetic ordering at stable ground state. Cr:ZnO was found to favor the short range magnetic interaction that reflect the tendency of Cr clustering. The electronic structure of ZnO is strongly influenced in the presence of Cr impurity atoms where impurity bands appear in the band gap.

Keywords: Density Functional Theory, ZnO, diluted agnetic semiconductors, ferromagnetic materials, FP-L(APW+lo)

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23 Spin-Polarized Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Intermetallic Dy2Ni2Pb from Computational Study

Authors: Y. Benallou, K. Amara, O. Arbouche

Abstract:

We report a first-principles study of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of ternary plumbides (rare earth-transition metal-Plumb) Dy2Ni2Pb crystallizes with the orthorhombic structure of the Mn2AlB2 type (space group Cmmm), were studied by means of the full-relativistic version of the full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbital method within the frame work of spin-polarized density functional theory (SP-DFT). The electronic exchange-correlation energy is described by generalized gradient approximation (GGA). We have calculated the lattice parameters, bulk modulii and the first pressure derivatives of the bulk modulii, total densities of states and magnetic properties. The calculated total magnetic moment is found to be equal to 9.52 μB.

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, Density Functional Theory, spin-polarized, Dy2Ni2Pb

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22 Similarity of the Disposition of the Electrostatic Potential of Tetrazole and Carboxylic Group to Investigate Their Bioisosteric Relationship

Authors: Alya A. Arabi

Abstract:

Bioisosteres are functional groups that can be interchangeably used without affecting the potency of the drug. Bioisosteres have similar pharmacological properties. Bioisosterism is useful for modifying the physicochemical properties of a drug while obeying the Lipinski’s rules. Bioisosteres are key in optimizing the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties of a drug. Tetrazole and carboxylate anions are non-classic bioisosteres. Density functional theory was used to obtain the wavefunction of the molecules and the optimized geometries. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) was used to uncover the similarity of the average electron density in tetrazole and carboxylate anions. This similarity between the bioisosteres capped by a methyl group was valid despite the fact that the groups have different volumes, charges, energies, or electron populations. The biochemical correspondence of tetrazole and carboxylic acid was also determined to be a result of the similarity of the topography of the electrostatic potential (ESP). The ESP demonstrates the pharmacological and biochemical resemblance for a matching “key-and-lock” interaction.

Keywords: Density Functional Theory, electrostatic potential, bioisosteres, carboxylic acid, tetrazole

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21 Early Stage Hydration of Wollastonite: Kinetic Aspects of the Metal-Proton Exchange Reaction

Authors: Nicolas Giraudo, Peter Thissen

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In this paper we bring up new aspects of the metal proton exchange reaction (MPER, also called early stage hydration): (1) its dependence of the number of protons consumed by the preferential exchanged cations on the pH value applied at the water/wollastonite interface and (2) strong anisotropic characteristics detected in atomic force microscopy (AFM) and low energy ion scattering spectroscopy measurements (LEIS). First we apply density functional theory (DFT) calculations to compare the kinetics of the reaction on different wollastonite surfaces, and combine it with ab initio thermodynamics to set up a model describing (1) the release of Ca in exchange with H coming from the water/wollastonite interface, (2) the dependence of the MPER on the chemical potential of protons. In the second part of the paper we carried out in-situ AFM and inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) measurements in order to evaluate the predicted values. While a good agreement is found in the basic and neutral regime (pH values from 14-4), an increasing mismatch appears in the acidic regime (pH value lower 4). This is finally explained by non-equilibrium etching, dominating over the MPER in the very acidic regime.

Keywords: Hydration, cement, Density Functional Theory, anisotropy, calcium silicate

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20 Atomic Clusters: A Unique Building Motif for Future Smart Nanomaterials

Authors: Debesh R. Roy

Abstract:

The fundamental issue in understanding the origin and growth mechanism of nanomaterials, from a fundamental unit is a big challenging problem to the scientists. Recently, an immense attention is generated to the researchers for prediction of exceptionally stable atomic cluster units as the building units for future smart materials. The present study is a systematic investigation on the stability and electronic properties of a series of bimetallic (semiconductor-alkaline earth) clusters, viz., BxMg3 (x=1-5) is performed, in search for exceptional and/ or unusual stable motifs. A very popular hybrid exchange-correlation functional, B3LYP as proposed by A. D. Becke along with a higher basis set, viz., 6-31+G[d,p] is employed for this purpose under the density functional formalism. The magic stability among the concerned clusters is explained using the jellium model. It is evident from the present study that the magic stability of B4Mg3 cluster arises due to the jellium shell closure.

Keywords: Density Functional Theory, Smart Nanomaterials, Atomic Clusters, jellium model, magic clusters

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19 Green Synthesis (Using Environment Friendly Bacteria) of Silver-Nanoparticles and Their Application as Drug Delivery Agents

Authors: Suban K. Sahoo, Sutapa Mondal Roy

Abstract:

The primary aim of this work is to synthesis silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) through environmentally benign routes to avoid any chemical toxicity related undesired side effects. The nanoparticles were stabilized with drug ciprofloxacin (Cp) and were studied for their effectiveness as drug delivery agent. Targeted drug delivery improves the therapeutic potential of drugs at the diseased site as well as lowers the overall dose and undesired side effects. The small size of nanoparticles greatly facilitates the transport of active agents (drugs) across biological membranes and allows them to pass through the smallest capillaries in the body that are 5-6 μm in diameter, and can minimize possible undesired side effects. AgNPs are non-toxic, inert, stable, and has a high binding capacity and thus can be considered as biomaterials. AgNPs were synthesized from the nutrient broth supernatant after the culture of environment-friendly bacteria Bacillus subtilis. The AgNPs were found to show the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 425 nm. The Cp capped Ag nanoparticles formation was complete within 30 minutes, which was confirmed from absorbance spectroscopy. Physico-chemical nature of the AgNPs-Cp system was confirmed by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) etc. The AgNPs-Cp system size was found to be in the range of 30-40 nm. To monitor the kinetics of drug release from the surface of nanoparticles, the release of Cp was carried out by careful dialysis keeping AgNPs-Cp system inside the dialysis bag at pH 7.4 over time. The drug release was almost complete after 30 hrs. During the drug delivery process, to understand the AgNPs-Cp system in a better way, the sincere theoretical investigation is been performed employing Density Functional Theory. Electronic charge transfer, electron density, binding energy as well as thermodynamic properties like enthalpy, entropy, Gibbs free energy etc. has been predicted. The electronic and thermodynamic properties, governed by the AgNPs-Cp interactions, indicate that the formation of AgNPs-Cp system is exothermic i.e. thermodynamically favorable process. The binding energy and charge transfer analysis implies the optimum stability of the AgNPs-Cp system. Thus, the synthesized Cp-Ag nanoparticles can be effectively used for biological purposes due to its environmentally benign routes of synthesis procedures, which is clean, biocompatible, non-toxic, safe, cost-effective, sustainable and eco-friendly. The Cp-AgNPs as biomaterials can be successfully used for drug delivery procedures due to slow release of drug from nanoparticles over a considerable period of time. The kinetics of the drug release show that this drug-nanoparticle assembly can be effectively used as potential tools for therapeutic applications. The ease of synthetic procedure, lack of possible chemical toxicity and their biological activity along with excellent application as drug delivery agent will open up vista of using nanoparticles as effective and successful drug delivery agent to be used in modern days.

Keywords: drug delivery, Density Functional Theory, Silver Nanoparticles, ciprofloxacin

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18 A Study on ZnO Nanoparticles Properties: An Integration of Rietveld Method and First-Principles Calculation

Authors: Ahmad Azmin Mohamad, Kausar Harun

Abstract:

Zinc oxide (ZnO) has been extensively used in optoelectronic devices, with recent interest as photoanode material in dye-sensitize solar cell. Numerous methods employed to experimentally synthesized ZnO, while some are theoretically-modeled. Both approaches provide information on ZnO properties, but theoretical calculation proved to be more accurate and timely effective. Thus, integration between these two methods is essential to intimately resemble the properties of synthesized ZnO. In this study, experimentally-grown ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel storage method with zinc acetate dihydrate and methanol as precursor and solvent. A 1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution was used as stabilizer. The optimum time to produce ZnO nanoparticles were recorded as 12 hours. Phase and structural analysis showed that single phase ZnO produced with wurtzite hexagonal structure. Further work on quantitative analysis was done via Rietveld-refinement method to obtain structural and crystallite parameter such as lattice dimensions, space group, and atomic coordination. The lattice dimensions were a=b=3.2498Å and c=5.2068Å which were later used as main input in first-principles calculations. By applying density-functional theory (DFT) embedded in CASTEP computer code, the structure of synthesized ZnO was built and optimized using several exchange-correlation functionals. The generalized-gradient approximation functional with Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof and Hubbard U corrections (GGA-PBE+U) showed the structure with lowest energy and lattice deviations. In this study, emphasize also given to the modification of valence electron energy level to overcome the underestimation in DFT calculation. Both Zn and O valance energy were fixed at Ud=8.3 eV and Up=7.3 eV, respectively. Hence, the following electronic and optical properties of synthesized ZnO were calculated based on GGA-PBE+U functional within ultrasoft-pseudopotential method. In conclusion, the incorporation of Rietveld analysis into first-principles calculation was valid as the resulting properties were comparable with those reported in literature. The time taken to evaluate certain properties via physical testing was then eliminated as the simulation could be done through computational method.

Keywords: Density Functional Theory, first-principles, ZnO nanoparticles, Rietveld-refinement

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17 Spin-Polarized Structural, Electronic, and Magnetic Properties of Co and Mn-Doped CdTe in Zinc-Blende Phase

Authors: W. Benstaali, A.Zitouni, S.Bentata, B.Bouadjemi, T.Lantri, Z.Aziz, S.Cherid, A. Sefir

Abstract:

Structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of Co and Mn-doped CdTe have been studied by employing the full potential linear augmented plane waves (FP-LAPW) method within the spin-polarized density functional theory (DFT). The electronic exchange-correlation energy is described by generalized gradient approximation (GGA) as exchange–correlation (XC) potential. We have calculated the lattice parameters, bulk modulii and the first pressure derivatives of the bulk modulii, spin-polarized band structures, and total and local densities of states. The value of calculated magnetic moment per Co and Mn impurity atoms is found to be 2.21 µB for CdCoTe and 3.20 µB for CdMnTe. The calculated densities of states presented in this study identify the half-metallic of Co and Mn-doped CdTe.

Keywords: Electronic Structure, Density Functional Theory, Magnetic moment, half-metallic, band structures

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16 High-Pressure Calculations of the Elastic Properties of ZnSx Se 1−x Alloy in the Virtual-Crystal Approximation

Authors: Kh. Bouamama, N. Lebga, K. Kassali

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We report first-principles calculation results on the structural and elastic properties of ZnS x Se1−x alloy for which we employed the virtual crystal approximation provided with the ABINIT program. The calculations done using density functional theory within the local density approximation and employing the virtual-crystal approximation, we made a comparative study between the numerical results obtained from ab-initio calculation using ABINIT or Wien2k within the Density Functional Theory framework with either Local Density Approximation or Generalized Gradient approximation and the pseudo-potential plane-wave method with the Hartwigzen Goedecker Hutter scheme potentials. It is found that the lattice parameter, the phase transition pressure, and the elastic constants (and their derivative with respect to the pressure) follow a quadratic law in x. The variation of the elastic constants is also numerically studied and the phase transformations are discussed in relation to the mechanical stability criteria.

Keywords: Density Functional Theory, elastic properties, ZnS, ZnSe

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15 Theoretical Investigation of Gas Adsorption on Metal- Graphene Surface

Authors: Fatemeh Safdari, Amirnaser Shamkhali, Gholamabbas Parsafar

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Carbon nanostructures are of great importance in academic research and industry, which can be mentioned to chemical sensors, catalytic processes, pharmaceutical and environmental issues. Common point in all of these applications is the occurrence of adsorption of molecules on these structures. Important carbon nanostructures in this case are mainly nanotubes and graphene. To modify pure graphene, recently, many experimental and theoretical studies have carried out to investigate of metal adsorption on graphene. In this work, the adsorption of CO molecules on pure graphene and on metal adatom on graphene surface has been simulated based on density functional theory (DFT). All calculations were performed by PBE functional and Troullier-Martins pseudopotentials. Density of states (DOS) for graphene-CO, graphen and CO around the Fermi energy has been moved and very small mixing occured which implies the physisorption of CO on the bare graphen surface. While, the results have showed that CO adsorption on transition-metal adatom on graphene surface is chemisorption.

Keywords: Graphene, Adsorption, Density Functional Theory, metal adatom

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14 Study of Complex (CO) 3Ti (PHND) and CpV (PHND) (PHND = Phénanthridine)

Authors: Akila Tayeb-Benmachiche, Saber-Mustapha Zendaoui, Salah-Eddine Bouaoud, Bachir Zouchoune

Abstract:

The variation of the metal coordination site in π-coordinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) corresponds to the haptotropic rearrangement or haptotropic migration in which the metal fragment MLn is considered as the moveable moiety that is shifted between two rings of polycyclic or heteropolycyclic ligands. These structural characteristics and dynamical properties give to this category of transition metal complexes a considerable interest. We have investigated the coordination and the haptotropic shifts of (CO)3Ti and CpV moieties over the phenanthridine aromatic system and according to the metal atom nature. The optimization of (CO)3Ti(PHND) and CpV(PHND), using the Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF) program, without a symmetrical restriction of geometry gives an η6 coordination mode of the C6 and C5N rings, which in turn give rise to a six low-lying deficient 16-MVE of each (CO)3Ti(PHND) and CpV(PHND) structure (three singlet and three triplet state structures for Ti complexes and three triplet and three quintet state structures for V complexes). Thus, the η6–η6 haptotropic migration of the metal fragment MLn from the terminal C6 ring to the central C5N ring has been achieved by a loss of energy. However, its η6–η6 haptotropic migration from central C5N ring to the terminal C6 rings has been accomplished by a gain of energy. These results show the capability of the phenanthridine ligand to adapt itself to the electronic demand of the metal in agreement with the nature of the metal–ligand bonding and demonstrate that this theoretical study can also be applied to large fused π-systems.

Keywords: Electronic Structure, Density Functional Theory, bonding analysis, coordination chemistry haptotropic migration

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13 Modelling Ibuprofen with Human Albumin

Authors: U. L. Fulco, E. L. Albuquerque, José X. Lima Neto, L. R. Da Silva

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The binding of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen (IBU) to human serum albumin (HSA) is investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations within a fragmentation strategy. Crystallographic data for the IBU–HSA supramolecular complex shows that the ligand is confined to a large cavity at the subdomain IIIA and at the interface between the subdomains IIA and IIB, whose binding sites are FA3/FA4 and FA6, respectively. The interaction energy between the IBU molecule and each amino acid residue of these HSA binding pockets was calculated using the Molecular Fractionation with Conjugate Caps (MFCC) approach employing a dispersion corrected exchange–correlation functional. Our investigation shows that the total interaction energy of IBU bound to HSA at binding sites of the fatty acids FA3/FA4 (FA6) converges only for a pocket radius of at least 8.5 °A, mainly due to the action of residues Arg410, Lys414 and Ser489 (Lys351, Ser480 and Leu481) and residues in nonhydrophobic domains, namely Ile388, Phe395, Phe403, Leu407, Leu430, Val433, and Leu453 (Phe206, Ala210, Ala213, and Leu327), which is unusual. Our simulations are valuable for a better understanding of the binding mechanism of IBU to albumin and can lead to the rational design and the development of novel IBU-derived drugs with improved potency.

Keywords: Density Functional Theory, ibuprofen, human serum albumin, binding energies

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12 Opto-Electronic Properties of Novel Structures: Sila-Fulleranes

Authors: Farah Marsusi, Mohammad Qasemnazhand

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Density-functional theory (DFT) was applied to investigate the geometry and electronic properties H-terminated Si-fullerene (Si-fullerane). Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis confirms sp3 hybridization nature of Si-Si bonds in Si-fulleranes. Quantum confinement effect (QCE) does not affect band gap (BG) so strongly in the size between 1 to 1.7 nm. In contrast, the geometry and symmetry of the cage have significant influence on BG. In contrast to their carbon analogues, pentagon rings increase the stability of the cages. Functionalized Si-cages are stable and can be chemically very active. The electronic properties are highly sensitive to the surface chemistry via functionalization with different chemical groups. As a result, BGs and chemical activities of these cages can be drastically tuned through the chemistry of the surface.

Keywords: Density Functional Theory, sila-fullerens, NBO analysis, opto-electronic properties

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11 Role of Interlayer Coupling for the Power Factor of CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2

Authors: Udo Schwingenschlogl, Najebah Alsaleh, Nirpendra Singh

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The electronic and transport properties of bulk and monolayer CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2 are determined by using density functional theory and semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory, in order to investigate the role of interlayer coupling for the thermoelectric properties. The calculated band gaps of the bulk compounds are in agreement with experiments and significantly higher than those of the monolayers, which thus show lower Seebeck coefficients. Since also the electrical conductivity is lower, the monolayers are characterized by lower power factors. Therefore, interlayer coupling is found to be essential for the excellent thermoelectric response of CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2, even though it is weak.

Keywords: Density Functional Theory, Electronic Properties, monolayer, thermoelectric

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10 Theoretical Study of Gas Adsorption in Zirconium Clusters

Authors: Rasha Al-Saedi, Anthony Meijer

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The progress of new porous materials has increased rapidly over the past decade for use in applications such as catalysis, gas storage and removal of environmentally unfriendly species due to their high surface area and high thermal stability. In this work, a theoretical study of the zirconium-based metal organic framework (MOFs) were examined in order to determine their potential for gas adsorption of various guest molecules: CO2, N2, CH4 and H2. The zirconium cluster consists of an inner Zr6O4(OH)4 core in which the triangular faces of the Zr6- octahedron are alternatively capped by O and OH groups which bound to nine formate groups and three benzoate groups linkers. General formula is [Zr(μ-O)4(μ-OH)4(HCOO)9((phyO2C)3X))] where X= CH2OH, CH2NH2, CH2CONH2, n(NH2); (n = 1-3). Three types of adsorption sites on the Zr metal center have been studied, named according to capped chemical groups as the ‘−O site’; the H of (μ-OH) site removed and added to (μ-O) site, ‘–OH site’; (μ-OH) site removed, the ‘void site’ where H2O molecule removed; (μ-OH) from one site and H from other (μ-OH) site, in addition to no defect versions. A series of investigations have been performed aiming to address this important issue. First, density functional theory DFT-B3LYP method with 6-311G(d,p) basis set was employed using Gaussian 09 package in order to evaluate the gas adsorption performance of missing-linker defects in zirconium cluster. Next, study the gas adsorption behaviour on different functionalised zirconium clusters. Those functional groups as mentioned above include: amines, alcohol, amide, in comparison with non-substitution clusters. Then, dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) calculations were performed to further understand the enhanced gas binding on zirconium clusters. Finally, study the water effect on CO2 and N2 adsorption. The small functionalized Zr clusters were found to result in good CO2 adsorption over N2, CH4, and H2 due to the quadrupole moment of CO2 while N2, CH4 and H2 weakly polar or non-polar. The adsorption efficiency was determined using the dispersion method where the adsorption binding improved as most of the interactions, for example, van der Waals interactions are missing with the conventional DFT method. The calculated gas binding strengths on the no defect site are higher than those on the −O site, −OH site and the void site, this difference is especially notable for CO2. It has been stated that the enhanced affinity of CO2 of no defect versions is most likely due to the electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged O of CO2 and the positively charged H of (μ-OH) metal site. The uptake of the gas molecule does not enhance in presence of water as the latter binds to Zr clusters more strongly than gas species which attributed to the competition on adsorption sites.

Keywords: Density Functional Theory, Theoretical Chemistry, Porous Materials, Molecular Simulation, gas adsorption, metal- organic frameworks

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9 A Density Functional Theory Study of Metal-Porphyrin Graphene for CO2 Hydration

Authors: Manju Verma, Parag A. Deshpande

Abstract:

Electronic structure calculations of hydrogen terminated metal-porphyrin graphene were carried out to explore the catalytic activity for CO2 hydration reaction. A ruthenium atom was substituted in place of carbon atom of graphene and ruthenium chelated carbon atoms were replaced by four nitrogen atoms in metal-porphyrin graphene system. Ruthenium atom created the active site for CO2 hydration reaction. Ruthenium-porphyrin graphene followed the mechanism of carbonic anhydrase enzyme for CO2 conversion to HCO3- ion. CO2 hydration reaction over ruthenium-porphyrin graphene proceeded via the elementary steps: OH- formation from H2O dissociation, CO2 bending in presence of nucleophilic attack of OH- ion, HCO3- ion formation from proton migration, HCO3- ion desorption by H2O addition. Proton transfer to yield HCO3- ion was observed as a rate limiting step from free energy landscape.

Keywords: Density Functional Theory, Carbonic Anhydrase, Heterogeneous catalyst, ruthenium-porphyrin graphene, CO2 hydration

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8 C₅₉Pd: A Heterogeneous Catalytic Material for Heck Coupling Reaction

Authors: Parag A. Deshpande, Manjusha C. Padole

Abstract:

Density functional theory calculations were carried out for identification of an active heterogeneous catalyst to carry out Heck coupling reaction which is of pharmaceutical importance. One of the carbonaceous nanomaterials, heterofullerene, was designed for the reaction. Stability and reactivity of the proposed heterofullerenes (C59M, M = Pd/Ni) were established with insights into the metal-carbon bond, electron affinity and chemical potential. Adsorbent potentials of both the heterofullerenes were examined from the adsorption study of four halobenzenes (C6H5F, C6H5Cl, C6H5Br and C6H5I). Oxidative addition activities of all four halobenzenes were investigated by developing free energy landscapes over both the heterofullerenes for rate determining step (oxidative addition). C6H5I showed a good catalytic activity for the rate determining step. Thus, C6H5I was proposed as a suitable halobenzene and complete free energy landscapes for Heck coupling reaction were developed over C59Pd and C59Ni. Smaller activation barriers observed over C59Pd in comparison with C59Ni put us in a position to propose C59Pd to be an efficient heterofullerene for carrying Heck coupling reaction.

Keywords: Density Functional Theory, Oxidative Addition, metal-substituted fullerene, electron affinity, Heck coupling reaction

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7 A First-Principles Investigation of Magnesium-Hydrogen System: From Bulk to Nano

Authors: Paramita Banerjee, K. R. S. Chandrakumar, G. P. Das

Abstract:

Bulk MgH2 has drawn much attention for the purpose of hydrogen storage because of its high hydrogen storage capacity (~7.7 wt %) as well as low cost and abundant availability. However, its practical usage has been hindered because of its high hydrogen desorption enthalpy (~0.8 eV/H2 molecule), which results in an undesirable desorption temperature of 3000C at 1 bar H2 pressure. To surmount the limitations of bulk MgH2 for the purpose of hydrogen storage, a detailed first-principles density functional theory (DFT) based study on the structure and stability of neutral (Mgm) and positively charged (Mgm+) Mg nanoclusters of different sizes (m = 2, 4, 8 and 12), as well as their interaction with molecular hydrogen (H2), is reported here. It has been found that due to the absence of d-electrons within the Mg atoms, hydrogen remained in molecular form even after its interaction with neutral and charged Mg nanoclusters. Interestingly, the H2 molecules do not enter into the interstitial positions of the nanoclusters. Rather, they remain on the surface by ornamenting these nanoclusters and forming new structures with a gravimetric density higher than 15 wt %. Our observation is that the inclusion of Grimme’s DFT-D3 dispersion correction in this weakly interacting system has a significant effect on binding of the H2 molecules with these nanoclusters. The dispersion corrected interaction energy (IE) values (0.1-0.14 eV/H2 molecule) fall in the right energy window, that is ideal for hydrogen storage. These IE values are further verified by using high-level coupled-cluster calculations with non-iterative triples corrections i.e. CCSD(T), (which has been considered to be a highly accurate quantum chemical method) and thereby confirming the accuracy of our ‘dispersion correction’ incorporated DFT calculations. The significance of the polarization and dispersion energy in binding of the H2 molecules are confirmed by performing energy decomposition analysis (EDA). A total of 16, 24, 32 and 36 H2 molecules can be attached to the neutral and charged nanoclusters of size m = 2, 4, 8 and 12 respectively. Ab-initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation shows that the outermost H2 molecules are desorbed at a rather low temperature viz. 150 K (-1230C) which is expected. However, complete dehydrogenation of these nanoclusters occur at around 1000C. Most importantly, the host nanoclusters remain stable up to ~500 K (2270C). All these results on the adsorption and desorption of molecular hydrogen with neutral and charged Mg nanocluster systems indicate towards the possibility of reducing the dehydrogenation temperature of bulk MgH2 by designing new Mg-based nano materials which will be able to adsorb molecular hydrogen via this weak Mg-H2 interaction, rather than the strong Mg-H bonding. Notwithstanding the fact that in practical applications, these interactions will be further complicated by the effect of substrates as well as interactions with other clusters, the present study has implications on our fundamental understanding to this problem.

Keywords: Molecular Dynamics, Hydrogen Storage, physisorption, Density Functional Theory, dft, Nanoclusters, molecular hydrogen adsorption

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6 Modeling and Simulation of the Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Fe-Ni Based Nanoalloys

Authors: Ece A. Irmak, Amdulla O. Mekhrabov, M. Vedat Akdeniz

Abstract:

There is a growing interest in the modeling and simulation of magnetic nanoalloys by various computational methods. Magnetic crystalline/amorphous nanoparticles (NP) are interesting materials from both the applied and fundamental points of view, as their properties differ from those of bulk materials and are essential for advanced applications such as high-performance permanent magnets, high-density magnetic recording media, drug carriers, sensors in biomedical technology, etc. As an important magnetic material, Fe-Ni based nanoalloys have promising applications in the chemical industry (catalysis, battery), aerospace and stealth industry (radar absorbing material, jet engine alloys), magnetic biomedical applications (drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging, biosensor) and computer hardware industry (data storage). The physical and chemical properties of the nanoalloys depend not only on the particle or crystallite size but also on composition and atomic ordering. Therefore, computer modeling is an essential tool to predict structural, electronic, magnetic and optical behavior at atomistic levels and consequently reduce the time for designing and development of new materials with novel/enhanced properties. Although first-principles quantum mechanical methods provide the most accurate results, they require huge computational effort to solve the Schrodinger equation for only a few tens of atoms. On the other hand, molecular dynamics method with appropriate empirical or semi-empirical inter-atomic potentials can give accurate results for the static and dynamic properties of larger systems in a short span of time. In this study, structural evolutions, magnetic and electronic properties of Fe-Ni based nanoalloys have been studied by using molecular dynamics (MD) method in Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) in the Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package (VASP). The effects of particle size (in 2-10 nm particle size range) and temperature (300-1500 K) on stability and structural evolutions of amorphous and crystalline Fe-Ni bulk/nanoalloys have been investigated by combining molecular dynamic (MD) simulation method with Embedded Atom Model (EAM). EAM is applicable for the Fe-Ni based bimetallic systems because it considers both the pairwise interatomic interaction potentials and electron densities. Structural evolution of Fe-Ni bulk and nanoparticles (NPs) have been studied by calculation of radial distribution functions (RDF), interatomic distances, coordination number, core-to-surface concentration profiles as well as Voronoi analysis and surface energy dependences on temperature and particle size. Moreover, spin-polarized DFT calculations were performed by using a plane-wave basis set with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) exchange and correlation effects in the VASP-MedeA package to predict magnetic and electronic properties of the Fe-Ni based alloys in bulk and nanostructured phases. The result of theoretical modeling and simulations for the structural evolutions, magnetic and electronic properties of Fe-Ni based nanostructured alloys were compared with experimental and other theoretical results published in the literature.

Keywords: Molecular Dynamics, Density Functional Theory, Nanoalloys, embedded atom model, Fe-Ni systems

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5 Prediction of the Regioselectivity of 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reactions of Nitrile Oxides with 2(5H)-Furanones Using Recent Theoretical Reactivity Indices

Authors: Imad Eddine Charif, Sidi Mohamed Mekelleche, Wafaa Benchouk

Abstract:

The regioselectivity of a series of 16 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of nitrile oxides with 2(5H)-furanones has been analysed by means of global and local electrophilic and nucleophilic reactivity indices using density functional theory at the B3LYP level together with the 6-31G(d) basis set. The local electrophilicity and nucleophilicity indices, based on Fukui and Parr functions, have been calculated for the terminal sites, namely the C1 and O3 atoms of the 1,3-dipole and the C4 and C5 atoms of the dipolarophile. These local indices were calculated using both Mulliken and natural charges and spin densities. The results obtained show that the C5 atom of the 2(5H)-furanones is the most electrophilic site whereas the O3 atom of the nitrile oxides is the most nucleophilic centre. It turns out that the experimental regioselectivity is correctly reproduced, indicating that both Fukui- and Parr-based indices are efficient tools for the prediction of the regiochemistry of the studied reactions and could be used for the prediction of newly designed reactions of the same kind.

Keywords: Density Functional Theory, Regioselectivity, nitrile oxides, reactivity indices

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4 Theoretical Investigation of the Origin of Interfacial Ferromagnetism of (LaNiO₃)n/(CaMnO₃)m Superlattices

Authors: Jiwuer Jilili, Iogann Tolbatov, Mousumi U. Kahaly

Abstract:

Metal to insulator transition and interfacial magnetism of the LaNiO₃ based superlattice are main interest due to thickness dependent electronic response and tunable magnetic behavior. We investigate the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of recently experimentally synthesized (LaNiO₃)n/(CaMnO₃)m superlattices with varying LaNiO₃ thickness using density functional theory. The effect of the on-site Coulomb interaction is discussed. In switching from zero to finite U value for Ni atoms, LaNiO₃ shows transitions from half-metallic to metallic character, while spinning ordering changes from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic (FM). For CaMnO₃, U < 3 eV on Mn atoms results in G-type anti-FM spin ordering whereas increasing U value yields FM ordering. In superlattices, metal to insulator transition was achieved with a reduction of LaNiO₃ thickness. The system with one layer of LaNiO₃ yields insulating character. Increasing LaNiO₃ to two layers and above results in the onset of the metallic character with a major contribution from Ni and Mn 3d eg states. Our results for interfacial ferromagnetism, induced Ni magnetic moments and novel antiferromagnetically coupled Ni atoms are consistent with the recent experimental findings. The possible origin of the emergent magnetism is proposed in terms of the exchange interaction and Anderson localization.

Keywords: metal-insulator transition, Density Functional Theory, interfacial magnetism, Ni magnetism

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3 Atomic Hydrogen Storage in Hexagonal GdNi5 and GdNi4Cu Rare Earth Compounds: A Comparative Density Functional Theory Study

Authors: A. Kellou, L. Rouaiguia, L. Rabahi

Abstract:

In the present work, the atomic hydrogen absorption trend in the GdNi5 and GdNi4Cu rare earth compounds within the hexagonal CaCu5 type of crystal structure (space group P6/mmm) is investigated. The density functional theory (DFT) combined with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) is used to study the site preference of atomic hydrogen at 0K. The octahedral and tetrahedral interstitial sites are considered. The formation energies and structural properties are determined in order to evaluate hydrogen effects on the stability of the studied compounds. The energetic diagram of hydrogen storage is established and compared in GdNi5 and GdNi4Cu. The magnetic properties of the selected compounds are determined using spin polarized calculations. The obtained results are discussed with and without hydrogen addition taking into account available theoretical and experimental results.

Keywords: Hydrogen Storage, Density Functional Theory, rare earth compounds, structural and magnetic properties

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2 A Detailed Computational Investigation into Copper Catalyzed Sonogashira Coupling Reaction

Authors: C. Rajalakshmi, Vibin Ipe Thomas

Abstract:

Sonogashira coupling reactions are widely employed in the synthesis of molecules of biological and pharmaceutical importance. Copper catalyzed Sonogashira coupling reactions are gaining importance owing to the low cost and less toxicity of copper as compared to the palladium catalyst. In the present work, a detailed computational study has been carried out on the Sonogashira coupling reaction between aryl halides and terminal alkynes catalyzed by Copper (I) species with trans-1, 2 Diaminocyclohexane as ligand. All calculations are performed at Density Functional Theory (DFT) level, using the hybrid Becke3LYP functional. Cu and I atoms are described using an effective core potential (LANL2DZ) for the inner electrons and its associated double-ζ basis set for the outer electrons. For all other atoms, 6-311G+* basis set is used. We have identified that the active catalyst species is a neutral 3-coordinate trans-1,2 diaminocyclohexane ligated Cu (I) alkyne complex and found that the oxidative addition and reductive elimination occurs in a single step proceeding through one transition state. This is owing to the ease of reductive elimination involving coupling of Csp2-Csp carbon atoms and the less stable Cu (III) intermediate. This shows the mechanism of copper catalyzed Sonogashira coupling reactions are quite different from those catalyzed by palladium. To gain further insights into the mechanism, substrates containing various functional groups are considered in our study to traverse their effect on the feasibility of the reaction. We have also explored the effect of ligand on the catalytic cycle of the coupling reaction. The theoretical results obtained are in good agreement with the experimental observation. This shows the relevance of a combined theoretical and experimental approach for rationally improving the cross-coupling reaction mechanisms.

Keywords: Density Functional Theory, reaction mechanism, copper catalysed, Sonogashira coupling

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1 Theoretical Insight into Ligand Free Manganese Catalyzed C-O Coupling Protocol for the Synthesis of Biaryl Ethers

Authors: Vibin Ipe Thomas, Carolin Anna Joy, Rohith K. R, Rehin Sulay, Parvathy Santhoshkumar, G.Anil Kumar

Abstract:

Ullmann coupling reactions are gaining great relevance owing to their contribution in the synthesis of biologically and pharmaceutically important compounds. Palladium and many other heavy metals have proven their excellent ability in coupling reaction, but the toxicity matters. The first-row transition metal also possess toxicity, except in the case of iron and manganese. The suitability of manganese as a catalyst is achieving great interest in oxidation, reduction, C-H activation, coupling reaction etc. In this presentation, we discuss the thermo chemistry of ligand free manganese catalyzed C-O coupling reaction between phenol and aryl halide for the synthesis of biaryl ethers using Density functional theory techniques. The mechanism involves an oxidative addition-reductive elimination step. The transition state for both the step had been studied and confirmed using Intrinsic Reaction Coordinate (IRC) calculation. The barrier height for the reaction had also been calculated from the rate determining step. The possibility of other mechanistic way had also been studied. To achieve further insight into the mechanism, substrate having various functional groups is considered in our study to direct their effect on the feasibility of the reaction.

Keywords: Molecular Modeling, Density Functional Theory, ligand free, biaryl ethers, Ullmann coupling

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