Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Demographic Dividend Related Abstracts

4 Employability Skills: The Route to Achieve Demographic Dividend in India

Authors: Malathi Iyer, Jayesh Vaidya

Abstract:

The demographic dividend of India will last for thirty years from now. However, reduction in birth rate, an increase in working population, improvements in medicine and better health practices lead to an ever-expanding elderly population, bringing additional burden to the economy and putting an end to the demographic dividend. To reap the dividend India needs to train the youth for employability. The need of the hour is to improve their life skills which lead the youth to become industrious and have continuous employment. The study will be conducted in perceiving the skill gaps that exist in commerce students for employability. The analysis results indicate the relation between the core study and the right skills for the workforce, with the steps that are taken to open the window for the demographic dividend.

Keywords: Employability, Workforce, Life Skills, Demographic Dividend

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3 Economical Dependency Evolution and Complexity

Authors: Allé Dieng, Mamadou Bousso, Latif Dramani

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to show the complexity behind economical interrelations in a country and provide a linear dynamic model of economical dependency evolution in a country. The model is based on National Transfer Account which is one of the most robust methodology developed in order to measure a level of demographic dividend captured in a country. It is built upon three major factors: demography, economical dependency and migration. The established mathematical model has been simulated using Netlogo software. The innovation of this study is in describing economical dependency as a complex system and simulating using mathematical equation the evolution of the two populations: the economical dependent and the non-economical dependent as defined in the National Transfer Account methodology. It also allows us to see the interactions and behaviors of both populations. The model can track individual characteristics and look at the effect of birth and death rates on the evolution of these two populations. The developed model is useful to understand how demographic and economic phenomenon are related

Keywords: Demographic Dividend, ABM, ODE, National Transfer Accounts (NTA)

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2 Demographic Dividend Explained by Infrastructure Costs of Population Growth Rate, Distinct from Age Dependency

Authors: Jane N. O'Sullivan

Abstract:

Although it is widely believed that fertility decline has benefitted economic advancement, particularly in East and South-East Asian countries, the causal mechanisms for this stimulus are contested. Since the turn of this century, demographic dividend theory has been increasingly recognised, hypothesising that higher proportions of working-age people can contribute to economic expansion if conditions are met to employ them productively. Population growth rate, as a systemic condition distinct from age composition, has not been similar attention since the 1970s and has lacked methodology for quantitative assessment. This paper explores conceptual and empirical quantification of the burden of expanding physical capital to accommodate a growing population. In proof-of-concept analyses of Australia and the United Kingdom, actual expenditure on gross fixed capital formation was compiled over four decades and apportioned to maintenance/turnover or expansion to accommodate population growth, based on lifespan of capital assets and population growth rate. In both countries, capital expansion was estimated to cost 6.5-7.0% of GDP per 1% population growth rate. This opportunity cost impedes the improvement of per capita capacity needed to realise the potential of the working-age population. Economic modelling of demographic scenarios have to date omitted this channel of influence; the implications of its inclusion are discussed.

Keywords: Infrastructure, Demographic Dividend, population growth rate, age dependency

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1 Demographic Dividend and Creation of Human and Knowledge Capital in Liberal India: An Endogenous Growth Process

Authors: Sanjay Kumar, Arumugam Sankaran, Arjun K., Mousumi Das

Abstract:

The paper analyses the existence of endogenous growth scenario emanating from the demographic dividend in India during the liberalization period starting from 1980. Demographic dividend creates a fertile ground for the cultivation of human and knowledge capitals contributing to technological progress which can be measured using total factor productivity. The relationship among total factor productivity, human and knowledge capitals are examined in an open endogenous framework for the period 1980-2016. The control variables such as foreign direct investment, trade openness, energy consumption are also employed. The data are sourced from Reserve Bank of India, World Bank, International Energy Agency and The National Science and Technology Management Information System. To understand the dynamic association among variables, ARDL bounds approach to cointegration followed by Toda-Yamamoto causality test are used. The results reveal a short run and long run relationship among the variables supported by the existence of causality. This calls for an integrated policy to build and augment human capital and research and development activities to sustain and pace up growth and development in the nation.

Keywords: Demographic Dividend, young population, open endogenous growth models, human and knowledge capital

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