Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

DEM Related Abstracts

18 Implementation of 4-Bit Direct Charge Transfer Switched Capacitor DAC with Mismatch Shaping Technique

Authors: Anuja Askhedkar, G. H. Agrawal, Madhu Gudgunti

Abstract:

Direct Charge Transfer Switched Capacitor (DCT-SC) DAC is the internal DAC used in Delta-Sigma (∆∑) DAC which works on Over-Sampling concept. The Switched Capacitor DAC mainly suffers from mismatch among capacitors. Mismatch among capacitors in DAC, causes non linearity between output and input. Dynamic Element Matching (DEM) technique is used to match the capacitors. According to element selection logic there are many types. In this paper, Data Weighted Averaging (DWA) technique is used for mismatch shaping. In this paper, the 4 bit DCT-SC-DAC with DWA-DEM technique is implemented using WINSPICE simulation software in 180nm CMOS technology. DNL for DAC with DWA is ±0.03 LSB and INL is ± 0.02LSB.

Keywords: ∑-Δ DAC, DCT-SC-DAC, mismatch shaping, DWA, DEM

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17 Application of RS and GIS Technique for Identifying Groundwater Potential Zone in Gomukhi Nadhi Sub Basin, South India

Authors: Punitha Periyasamy, Mahalingam Sudalaimuthu, Sachikanta Nanda, Arasu Sundaram

Abstract:

India holds 17.5% of the world’s population but has only 2% of the total geographical area of the world where 27.35% of the area is categorized as wasteland due to lack of or less groundwater. So there is a demand for excessive groundwater for agricultural and non agricultural activities to balance its growth rate. With this in mind, an attempt is made to find the groundwater potential zone in Gomukhi river sub basin of Vellar River basin, TamilNadu, India covering an area of 1146.6 Sq.Km consists of 9 blocks from Peddanaickanpalayam to Villupuram fall in the sub basin. The thematic maps such as Geology, Geomorphology, Lineament, Landuse, and Landcover and Drainage are prepared for the study area using IRS P6 data. The collateral data includes rainfall, water level, soil map are collected for analysis and inference. The digital elevation model (DEM) is generated using Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) and the slope of the study area is obtained. ArcGIS 10.1 acts as a powerful spatial analysis tool to find out the ground water potential zones in the study area by means of weighted overlay analysis. Each individual parameter of the thematic maps are ranked and weighted in accordance with their influence to increase the water level in the ground. The potential zones in the study area are classified viz., Very Good, Good, Moderate, Poor with its aerial extent of 15.67, 381.06, 575.38, 174.49 Sq.Km respectively.

Keywords: Groundwater, DEM, ArcGIS, recharge, weighted overlay

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16 Estimation of Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield for ONG River Using GIS

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Behera, Kanhu Charan Patra

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A GIS-based method has been applied for the determination of soil erosion and sediment yield in a small watershed in Ong River basin, Odisha, India. The method involves spatial disintegration of the catchment into homogenous grid cells to capture the catchment heterogeneity. The gross soil erosion in each cell was calculated using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) by carefully determining its various parameters. The concept of sediment delivery ratio is used to route surface erosion from each of the discretized cells to the catchment outlet. The process of sediment delivery from grid cells to the catchment outlet is represented by the topographical characteristics of the cells. The effect of DEM resolution on sediment yield is analyzed using two different resolutions of DEM. The spatial discretization of the catchment and derivation of the physical parameters related to erosion in the cell are performed through GIS techniques.

Keywords: GIS, soil erosion, DEM, sediment yield, sediment delivery ratio

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15 Stability Assessment of Chamshir Dam Based on DEM, South West Zagros

Authors: Rezvan Khavari

Abstract:

The Zagros fold-thrust belt in SW Iran is a part of the Alpine-Himalayan system which consists of a variety of structures with different sizes or geometries. The study area is Chamshir Dam, which is located on the Zohreh River, 20 km southeast of Gachsaran City (southwest Iran). The satellite images are valuable means available to geologists for locating geological or geomorphological features expressing regional fault or fracture systems, therefore, the satellite images were used for structural analysis of the Chamshir dam area. As well, using the DEM and geological maps, 3D Models of the area have been constructed. Then, based on these models, all the acquired fracture traces data were integrated in Geographic Information System (GIS) environment by using Arc GIS software. Based on field investigation and DEM model, main structures in the area consist of Cham Shir syncline and two fault sets, the main thrust faults with NW-SE direction and small normal faults in NE-SW direction. There are three joint sets in the study area, both of them (J1 and J3) are the main large fractures around the Chamshir dam. These fractures indeed consist with the normal faults in NE-SW direction. The third joint set in NW-SE is normal to the others. In general, according to topography, geomorphology and structural geology evidences, Chamshir dam has a potential for sliding in some parts of Gachsaran formation.

Keywords: DEM, chamshir dam, zohreh river, satellite images

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14 Groundwater Seepage Estimation into Amirkabir Tunnel Using Analytical Methods and DEM and SGR Method

Authors: Hadi Farhadian, Homayoon Katibeh

Abstract:

In this paper, groundwater seepage into Amirkabir tunnel has been estimated using analytical and numerical methods for 14 different sections of the tunnel. Site Groundwater Rating (SGR) method also has been performed for qualitative and quantitative classification of the tunnel sections. The obtained results of above-mentioned methods were compared together. The study shows reasonable accordance with results of the all methods unless for two sections of tunnel. In these two sections there are some significant discrepancies between numerical and analytical results mainly originated from model geometry and high overburden. SGR and the analytical and numerical calculations, confirm the high concentration of seepage inflow in fault zones. Maximum seepage flow into tunnel has been estimated 0.425 lit/sec/m using analytical method and 0.628 lit/sec/m using numerical method occurred in crashed zone. Based on SGR method, six sections of 14 sections in Amirkabir tunnel axis are found to be in "No Risk" class that is supported by the analytical and numerical seepage value of less than 0.04 lit/sec/m.

Keywords: analytical method, DEM, water Seepage, Amirkabir Tunnel, SGR

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13 Insights into Particle Dispersion, Agglomeration and Deposition in Turbulent Channel Flow

Authors: Mohammad Afkhami, Ali Hassanpour, Michael Fairweather

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The work described in this paper was undertaken to gain insight into fundamental aspects of turbulent gas-particle flows with relevance to processes employed in a wide range of applications, such as oil and gas flow assurance in pipes, powder dispersion from dry powder inhalers, and particle resuspension in nuclear waste ponds, to name but a few. In particular, the influence of particle interaction and fluid phase behavior in turbulent flow on particle dispersion in a horizontal channel is investigated. The mathematical modeling technique used is based on the large eddy simulation (LES) methodology embodied in the commercial CFD code FLUENT, with flow solutions provided by this approach coupled to a second commercial code, EDEM, based on the discrete element method (DEM) which is used for the prediction of particle motion and interaction. The results generated by LES for the fluid phase have been validated against direct numerical simulations (DNS) for three different channel flows with shear Reynolds numbers, Reτ = 150, 300 and 590. Overall, the LES shows good agreement, with mean velocities and normal and shear stresses matching those of the DNS in both magnitude and position. The research work has focused on the prediction of those conditions favoring particle aggregation and deposition within turbulent flows. Simulations have been carried out to investigate the effects of particle size, density and concentration on particle agglomeration. Furthermore, particles with different surface properties have been simulated in three channel flows with different levels of flow turbulence, achieved by increasing the Reynolds number of the flow. The simulations mimic the conditions of two-phase, fluid-solid flows frequently encountered in domestic, commercial and industrial applications, for example, air conditioning and refrigeration units, heat exchangers, oil and gas suction and pressure lines. The particle size, density, surface energy and volume fractions selected are 45.6, 102 and 150 µm, 250, 1000 and 2159 kg m-3, 50, 500, and 5000 mJ m-2 and 7.84 × 10-6, 2.8 × 10-5, and 1 × 10-4, respectively; such particle properties are associated with particles found in soil, as well as metals and oxides prevalent in turbulent bounded fluid-solid flows due to erosion and corrosion of inner pipe walls. It has been found that the turbulence structure of the flow dominates the motion of the particles, creating particle-particle interactions, with most of these interactions taking place at locations close to the channel walls and in regions of high turbulence where their agglomeration is aided both by the high levels of turbulence and the high concentration of particles. A positive relationship between particle surface energy, concentration, size and density, and agglomeration was observed. Moreover, the results derived for the three Reynolds numbers considered show that the rate of agglomeration is strongly influenced for high surface energy particles by, and increases with, the intensity of the flow turbulence. In contrast, for lower surface energy particles, the rate of agglomeration diminishes with an increase in flow turbulence intensity.

Keywords: Turbulence, LES, DEM, agglomeration, channel flow

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12 A Discrete Element Method Centrifuge Model of Monopile under Cyclic Lateral Loads

Authors: Nuo Duan, Yi Pik Cheng

Abstract:

This paper presents the data of a series of two-dimensional Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations of a large-diameter rigid monopile subjected to cyclic loading under a high gravitational force. At present, monopile foundations are widely used to support the tall and heavy wind turbines, which are also subjected to significant from wind and wave actions. A safe design must address issues such as rotations and changes in soil stiffness subject to these loadings conditions. Design guidance on the issue is limited, so are the availability of laboratory and field test data. The interpretation of these results in sand, such as the relation between loading and displacement, relies mainly on empirical correlations to pile properties. Regarding numerical models, most data from Finite Element Method (FEM) can be found. They are not comprehensive, and most of the FEM results are sensitive to input parameters. The micro scale behaviour could change the mechanism of the soil-structure interaction. A DEM model was used in this paper to study the cyclic lateral loads behaviour. A non-dimensional framework is presented and applied to interpret the simulation results. The DEM data compares well with various set of published experimental centrifuge model test data in terms of lateral deflection. The accumulated permanent pile lateral displacements induced by the cyclic lateral loads were found to be dependent on the characteristics of the applied cyclic load, such as the extent of the loading magnitudes and directions.

Keywords: Numerical Modelling, cyclic loading, DEM, sands

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11 Comparison of Regime Transition between Ellipsoidal and Spherical Particle Assemblies in a Model Shear Cell

Authors: M. Hossain, H. P. Zhu, A. B. Yu

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This paper presents a numerical investigation of regime transition of flow of ellipsoidal particles and a comparison with that of spherical particle assembly. Particle assemblies constituting spherical and ellipsoidal particle of 2.5:1 aspect ratio are examined at separate instances in similar flow conditions in a shear cell model that is numerically developed based on the discrete element method. Correlations among elastically scaled stress, kinetically scaled stress, coordination number and volume fraction are investigated, and show important similarities and differences for the spherical and ellipsoidal particle assemblies. In particular, volume fractions at points of regime transition are identified for both types of particles. It is found that compared with spherical particle assembly, ellipsoidal particle assembly has higher volume fraction for the quasistatic to intermediate regime transition and lower volume fraction for the intermediate to inertial regime transition. Finally, the relationship between coordination number and volume fraction shows strikingly distinct features for the two cases, suggesting that different from spherical particles, the effect of the shear rate on the coordination number is not significant for ellipsoidal particles. This work provides a glimpse of currently running work on one of the most attractive scopes of research in this field and has a wide prospect in understanding rheology of more complex shaped particles in light of the strong basis of simpler spherical particle rheology.

Keywords: DEM, granular rheology, non-spherical particles, regime transition

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10 CFD-DEM Modelling of Liquid Fluidizations of Ellipsoidal Particles

Authors: Aibing Yu, Esmaeil Abbaszadeh Molaei, Zongyan Zhou

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The applications of liquid fluidizations have been increased in many parts of industries such as particle classification, backwashing of granular filters, crystal growth, leaching and washing, and bioreactors due to high-efficient liquid–solid contact, favorable mass and heat transfer, high operation flexibilities, and reduced back mixing of phases. In most of these multiphase operations the particles properties, i.e. size, density, and shape, may change during the process because of attrition, coalescence or chemical reactions. Previous studies, either experimentally or numerically, mainly have focused on studies of liquid-solid fluidized beds containing spherical particles; however, the role of particle shape on the hydrodynamics of liquid fluidized beds is still not well-known. A three-dimensional Discrete Element Model (DEM) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are coupled to study the influence of particles shape on particles and liquid flow patterns in liquid-solid fluidized beds. In the simulations, ellipsoid particles are used to study the shape factor since they can represent a wide range of particles shape from oblate and sphere to prolate shape particles. Different particle shapes from oblate (disk shape) to elongated particles (rod shape) are selected to investigate the effect of aspect ratio on different flow characteristics such as general particles and liquid flow pattern, pressure drop, and particles orientation. First, the model is verified based on experimental observations, then further detail analyses are made. It was found that spherical particles showed a uniform particle distribution in the bed, which resulted in uniform pressure drop along the bed height. However for particles with aspect ratios less than one (disk-shape), some particles were carried into the freeboard region, and the interface between the bed and freeboard was not easy to be determined. A few particle also intended to leave the bed. On the other hand, prolate particles showed different behaviour in the bed. They caused unstable interface and some flow channeling was observed for low liquid velocities. Because of the non-uniform particles flow pattern for particles with aspect ratios lower (oblate) and more (prolate) than one, the pressure drop distribution in the bed was not observed as uniform as what was found for spherical particles.

Keywords: Simulation, Multiphase Flow, CFD, Ellipsoid, Fluidization, DEM, non-spherical

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9 Critical Velocities for Particle Transport from Experiments and CFD Simulations

Authors: Sajith Sajeev, Brenton McLaury, Siamack Shirazi

Abstract:

In the petroleum industry, solid particles are often present along with the produced fluids. It is imperative to keep particles from accumulating in flow lines. In this study, various experiments are conducted to study sand particle transport, where critical velocity is defined as the average fluid velocity to keep particles continuously moving. Many parameters related to the fluid, particles and pipe affect the transport process. Experimental results are presented varying the particle concentration. Additionally, CFD simulations using a discrete element modeling (DEM) approach are presented to compare with experimental result.

Keywords: CFD, Particle Transport, DEM, critical velocity

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8 Digital Elevation Model Analysis of Potential Prone Flood Disaster Watershed Citarum Headwaters Bandung

Authors: Faizin Mulia Rizkika, Iqbal Jabbari Mufti, Muhammad R. Y. Nugraha, Fadil Maulidir Sube

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Flooding is an event of ponding on the flat area around the river as a result of the overflow of river water was not able to be accommodated by the river and may cause damage to the infrastructure of a region. This study aimed to analyze the data of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for information that plays a role in the mapping of zones prone to flooding, mapping the distribution of zones prone to flooding that occurred in the Citarum upstream using secondary data and software (ArcGIS, MapInfo), this assessment was made distribution map of flooding, there were 13 counties / districts dam flood-prone areas in Bandung, and the most vulnerable districts are areas Baleendah-Dayeuhkolot-Bojongsoang-Banjaran. The area has a low slope and the same limits with boundary rivers and areas that have excessive land use, so the water catchment area is reduced.

Keywords: Flood, Mitigation, DEM, citarum

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7 Urban Areas Management in Developing Countries: Analysis of the Urban Areas Crossed with Risk of Storm Water Drains, Aswan-Egypt

Authors: Omar Hamdy, Schichen Zhao, Hussein Abd El-Atty, Ayman Ragab, Muhammad Salem

Abstract:

One of the most risky areas in Aswan is Abouelreesh, which is suffering from flood disasters, as heavy deluge inundates urban areas causing considerable damage to buildings and infrastructure. Moreover, the main problem was the urban sprawl towards this risky area. This paper aims to identify the urban areas located in the risk areas prone to flash floods. Analyzing this phenomenon needs a lot of data to ensure satisfactory results; however, in this case the official data and field data were limited, and therefore, free sources of satellite data were used. This paper used ArcGIS tools to obtain the storm water drains network by analyzing DEM files. Additionally, historical imagery in Google Earth was studied to determine the age of each building. The last step was to overlay the urban area layer and the storm water drains layer to identify the vulnerable areas. The results of this study would be helpful to urban planners and government officials to make the disasters risk estimation and develop primary plans to recover the risky area, especially urban areas located in torrents.

Keywords: GIS, DEM, risk area, storm water drains

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6 Comparison between Photogrammetric and Structure from Motion Techniques in Processing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Imageries

Authors: Ahmed Elaksher

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Over the last few years, significant progresses have been made and new approaches have been proposed for efficient collection of 3D spatial data from Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with reduced costs compared to imagery from satellite or manned aircraft. In these systems, a low-cost GPS unit provides the position, velocity of the vehicle, a low-quality inertial measurement unit (IMU) determines its orientation, and off-the-shelf cameras capture the images. Structure from Motion (SfM) and photogrammetry are the main tools for 3D surface reconstruction from images collected by these systems. Unlike traditional techniques, SfM allows the computation of calibration parameters using point correspondences across images without performing a rigorous laboratory or field calibration process and it is more flexible in that it does not require consistent image overlap or same rotation angles between successive photos. These benefits make SfM ideal for UAVs aerial mapping. In this paper, a direct comparison between SfM Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and those generated through traditional photogrammetric techniques was performed. Data was collected by a 3DR IRIS+ Quadcopter with a Canon PowerShot S100 digital camera. Twenty ground control points were randomly distributed on the ground and surveyed with a total station in a local coordinate system. Images were collected from an altitude of 30 meters with a ground resolution of nine mm/pixel. Data was processed with PhotoScan, VisualSFM, Imagine Photogrammetry, and a photogrammetric algorithm developed by the author. The algorithm starts with performing a laboratory camera calibration then the acquired imagery undergoes an orientation procedure to determine the cameras’ positions and orientations. After the orientation is attained, correlation based image matching is conducted to automatically generate three-dimensional surface models followed by a refining step using sub-pixel image information for high matching accuracy. Tests with different number and configurations of the control points were conducted. Camera calibration parameters estimated from commercial software and those obtained with laboratory procedures were comparable. Exposure station positions were within less than few centimeters and insignificant differences, within less than three seconds, among orientation angles were found. DEM differencing was performed between generated DEMs and few centimeters vertical shifts were found.

Keywords: Photogrammetry, UAV, DEM, SfM

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5 A Study of ZY3 Satellite Digital Elevation Model Verification and Refinement with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

Authors: Bo Wang

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As the first high-resolution civil optical satellite, ZY-3 satellite is able to obtain high-resolution multi-view images with three linear array sensors. The images can be used to generate Digital Elevation Models (DEM) through dense matching of stereo images. However, due to the clouds, forest, water and buildings covered on the images, there are some problems in the dense matching results such as outliers and areas failed to be matched (matching holes). This paper introduced an algorithm to verify the accuracy of DEM that generated by ZY-3 satellite with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Since the accuracy of SRTM (Internal accuracy: 5 m; External accuracy: 15 m) is relatively uniform in the worldwide, it may be used to improve the accuracy of ZY-3 DEM. Based on the analysis of mass DEM and SRTM data, the processing can be divided into two aspects. The registration of ZY-3 DEM and SRTM can be firstly performed using the conjugate line features and area features matched between these two datasets. Then the ZY-3 DEM can be refined by eliminating the matching outliers and filling the matching holes. The matching outliers can be eliminated based on the statistics on Local Vector Binning (LVB). The matching holes can be filled by the elevation interpolated from SRTM. Some works are also conducted for the accuracy statistics of the ZY-3 DEM.

Keywords: SRTM, DEM, refinement, ZY-3 satellite imagery

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4 Seawater Changes' Estimation at Tidal Flat in Korean Peninsula Using Drone Stereo Images

Authors: Hyoseong Lee, Duk-jin Kim, Jaehong Oh, Jungil Shin

Abstract:

Tidal flat in Korean peninsula is one of the largest biodiversity tidal flats in the world. Therefore, digital elevation models (DEM) is continuously demanded to monitor of the tidal flat. In this study, DEM of tidal flat, according to different times, was produced by means of the Drone and commercial software in order to measure seawater change during high tide at water-channel in tidal flat. To correct the produced DEMs of the tidal flat where is inaccessible to collect control points, the DEM matching method was applied by using the reference DEM instead of the survey. After the ortho-image was made from the corrected DEM, the land cover classified image was produced. The changes of seawater amount according to the times were analyzed by using the classified images and DEMs. As a result, it was confirmed that the amount of water rapidly increased as the time passed during high tide.

Keywords: DEM, drone, tidal flat, seawater change

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3 Identification of Landslide Features Using Back-Propagation Neural Network on LiDAR Digital Elevation Model

Authors: Chia-Hao Chang, Geng-Gui Wang, Jee-Cheng Wu

Abstract:

The prediction of a landslide is a difficult task because it requires a detailed study of past activities using a complete range of investigative methods to determine the changing condition. In this research, first step, LiDAR 1-meter by 1-meter resolution of digital elevation model (DEM) was used to generate six environmental factors of landslide. Then, back-propagation neural networks (BPNN) was adopted to identify scarp, landslide areas and non-landslide areas. The BPNN uses 6 environmental factors in input layer and 1 output layer. Moreover, 6 landslide areas are used as training areas and 4 landslide areas as test areas in the BPNN. The hidden layer is set to be 1 and 2; the hidden layer neurons are set to be 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8; the learning rates are set to be 0.01, 0.1 and 0.5. When using 1 hidden layer with 7 neurons and the learning rate sets to be 0.5, the result of Network training root mean square error is 0.001388. Finally, evaluation of BPNN classification accuracy by the confusion matrix shows that the overall accuracy can reach 94.4%, and the Kappa value is 0.7464.

Keywords: Lidar, Environmental Factors, back-propagation neural network, DEM, digital elevation model, BPNN

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2 Impact of Data and Model Choices to Urban Flood Risk Assessments

Authors: Abhishek Saha, Serene Tay, Gerard Pijcke

Abstract:

The availability of high-resolution topography and rainfall information in urban areas has made it necessary to revise modeling approaches used for simulating flood risk assessments. Lidar derived elevation models that have 1m or lower resolutions are becoming widely accessible. The classical approaches of 1D-2D flow models where channel flow is simulated and coupled with a coarse resolution 2D overland flow models may not fully utilize the information provided by high-resolution data. In this context, a study was undertaken to compare three different modeling approaches to simulate flooding in an urban area. The first model used is the base model used is Sobek, which uses 1D model formulation together with hydrologic boundary conditions and couples with an overland flow model in 2D. The second model uses a full 2D model for the entire area with shallow water equations at the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM). These models are compared against another shallow water equation solver in 2D, which uses a subgrid method for grid refinement. These models are simulated for different horizontal resolutions of DEM varying between 1m to 5m. The results show a significant difference in inundation extents and water levels for different DEMs. They are also sensitive to the different numerical models with the same physical parameters, such as friction. The study shows the importance of having reliable field observations of inundation extents and levels before a choice of model and data can be made for spatial flood risk assessments.

Keywords: Flooding, DEM, shallow water equations, subgrid

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1 Climate Changes Impact on Artificial Wetlands

Authors: Carla Idely Palencia-Aguilar

Abstract:

Artificial wetlands play an important role at Guasca Municipality in Colombia, not only because they are used for the agroindustry, but also because more than 45 species were found, some of which are endemic and migratory birds. Remote sensing was used to determine the changes in the area occupied by water of artificial wetlands by means of Aster and Modis images for different time periods. Evapotranspiration was also determined by three methods: Surface Energy Balance System-Su (SEBS) algorithm, Surface Energy Balance- Bastiaanssen (SEBAL) algorithm, and Potential Evapotranspiration- FAO. Empirical equations were also developed to determine the relationship between Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) versus net radiation, ambient temperature and rain with an obtained R2 of 0.83. Groundwater level fluctuations on a daily basis were studied as well. Data from a piezometer placed next to the wetland were fitted with rain changes (with two weather stations located at the proximities of the wetlands) by means of multiple regression and time series analysis, the R2 from the calculated and measured values resulted was higher than 0.98. Information from nearby weather stations provided information for ordinary kriging as well as the results for the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) developed by using PCI software. Standard models (exponential, spherical, circular, gaussian, linear) to describe spatial variation were tested. Ordinary Cokriging between height and rain variables were also tested, to determine if the accuracy of the interpolation would increase. The results showed no significant differences giving the fact that the mean result of the spherical function for the rain samples after ordinary kriging was 58.06 and a standard deviation of 18.06. The cokriging using for the variable rain, a spherical function; for height variable, the power function and for the cross variable (rain and height), the spherical function had a mean of 57.58 and a standard deviation of 18.36. Threatens of eutrophication were also studied, given the unconsciousness of neighbours and government deficiency. Water quality was determined over the years; different parameters were studied to determine the chemical characteristics of water. In addition, 600 pesticides were studied by gas and liquid chromatography. Results showed that coliforms, nitrogen, phosphorous and prochloraz were the most significant contaminants.

Keywords: Geostatistics, Evapotranspiration, DEM, NDVI

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