Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

dehumidification Related Abstracts

10 Study on the Heat Transfer Performance of the Annular Fin under Condensing Conditions

Authors: Abdenour Bourabaa, Mohamed Saighi, Malika Fekih


A numerical investigation of the fin efficiency and temperature distribution of an annular fin under dehumidification has been presented in this paper. The non-homogeneous second order differential equation that describes the temperature distribution from the fin base to the fin tip has been solved using the central finite difference method. The effects of variations in parameters including relative humidity, air temperature, air face velocity on temperature distribution and fin efficiency are investigated and compared with those under fully dry fin conditions. Also, the effect of fin pitch on the dimensionless temperature has been studied.

Keywords: Heat and Mass Transfer, annular fin, dehumidification, fin efficiency, wet fin

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9 Feasibility Study of a Solar Solid Desiccant Cooling System in Algerian Areas

Authors: N. Hatraf, L. Merabeti, M. Abbas


The interest in air conditioning using renewable energies is increasing. The Thermal energy produced from the solar energy can be transformed to useful cooling and heating through the thermo chemical or thermo physical processes by using thermally activated energy conversion system. Solid desiccant conditioning systems can represent a reliable alternative solution compared with other thermal cooling technologies. Their basic characteristics refer to the capability to regulate both temperature and humidity of the conditioned space in one side and to its potential in electrical energy saving in the other side. The ambient air contains so much water that very high dehumidification rates are required. For a continuous dehumidification of the process air the water adsorbed on the desiccant material has to be removed, which is done by allowing hot air to flow through the desiccant material (regeneration). Basically, solid desiccant cooling system transfers moisture from the inlet air to the silica gel by using two processes: absorption process and the regeneration process; The silica gel in the desiccant wheel which is the most important device in the system absorbs the moisture from the incoming air to the desiccant material in this case the silica gel, then it changes the heat with an rotary heat exchanger, after that the air passes through an humidifier to have the humidity required before entering to the local. The main aim of this paper is to study how the dehumidification rate, the generation temperature and many other factors influence the efficiency of a solid desiccant system by using TRNSYS software.

Keywords: Efficiency, dehumidification, TRNSYS, desiccation

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8 Preliminary Study of Desiccant Cooling System under Algerian Climates

Authors: N. Hatraf, N. Moummi


The interest in air conditioning using renewable energies is increasing. The thermal energy produced from the solar energy can be converted to useful cooling and heating through the thermochemical or thermophysical processes by using thermally activated energy conversion systems. The ambient air contains so much water that very high dehumidification rates are required. For a continuous dehumidification of the process air, the water adsorbed on the desiccant material has to be removed, which is done by allowing hot air to flow through the desiccant material (regeneration). A solid desiccant cooling system transfers moisture from the inlet air to the silica gel by using two processes: Absorption process and the regeneration process. The main aim of this paper is to study how the dehumidification rate, the generation temperature and many other factors influence the efficiency of a solid desiccant system by using TRNSYS software. The results show that the desiccant system could be used to decrease the humidity rate of the entering air.

Keywords: Efficiency, dehumidification, humidity, TRNSYS

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7 Enhancement Performance of Desalination System Using Humidification and Dehumidification Processes

Authors: Zeinab Syed Abdel Rehim


Water shortage is considered as one of the huge problems the world encounter now. Water desalination is considered as one of the more suitable methods governments can use to substitute the increased need for potable water. The humidification-dehumidification process for water desalination is viewed as a promising technique for small capacity production plants. The process has several attraction features which include the use of sustainable energy sources, low technology, and low-temperature dehumidification. A pilot experimental set-up plant was constructed with the conventional HVAC components such as air blower that supplies air to an air duct inside which air preheater, steam injector and cooling coil of a small refrigeration unit are placed. The present work evaluates the characteristics of humidification-dehumidification process for water desalination as a function of air flow rate, total power input and air inlet temperature in order to study the optimum conditions required to produce distilled water.

Keywords: Water desalination, Condensation, dehumidification, evaporation, humidification

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6 Solar Liquid Desiccant Regenerator for Two Stage KCOOH Based Fresh Air Dehumidifier

Authors: M. V. Rane, Tareke Tekia


Liquid desiccant based fresh air dehumidifiers can be gainfully deployed for air-conditioning, agro-produce drying and in many industrial processes. Regeneration of liquid desiccant can be done using direct firing, high temperature waste heat or solar energy. Solar energy is clean and available in abundance; however, it is costly to collect. A two stage liquid desiccant fresh air dehumidification system can offer Coefficient of Performance (COP), in the range of 1.6 to 2 for comfort air conditioning applications. High COP helps reduce the size and cost of collectors required. Performance tests on high temperature regenerator of a two stage liquid desiccant fresh air dehumidifier coupled with seasonally tracked flat plate like solar collector will be presented in this paper. The two stage fresh air dehumidifier has four major components: High Temperature Regenerator (HTR), Low Temperature Regenerator (LTR), High and Low Temperature Solution Heat Exchangers and Fresh Air Dehumidifier (FAD). This open system can operate at near atmospheric pressure in all the components. These systems can be simple, maintenance-free and scalable. Environmentally benign, non-corrosive, moderately priced Potassium Formate, KCOOH, is used as a liquid desiccant. Typical KCOOH concentration in the system is expected to vary between 65 and 75%. Dilute liquid desiccant at 65% concentration exiting the fresh air dehumidifier will be pumped and preheated in solution heat exchangers before entering the high temperature solar regenerator. In the solar collector, solution will be regenerated to intermediate concentration of 70%. Steam and saturated solution exiting the solar collector array will be separated. Steam at near atmospheric pressure will then be used to regenerate the intermediate concentration solution up to a concentration of 75% in a low temperature regenerator where moisture vaporized be released in to atmosphere. Condensed steam can be used as potable water after adding a pinch of salt and some nutrient. Warm concentrated liquid desiccant will be routed to solution heat exchanger to recycle its heat to preheat the weak liquid desiccant solution. Evacuated glass tube based seasonally tracked solar collector is used for regeneration of liquid desiccant at high temperature. Temperature of regeneration for KCOOH is 133°C at 70% concentration. The medium temperature collector was designed for temperature range of 100 to 150°C. Double wall polycarbonate top cover helps reduce top losses. Absorber integrated heat storage helps stabilize the temperature of liquid desiccant exiting the collectors during intermittent cloudy conditions, and extends the operation of the system by couple of hours beyond the sunshine hours. This solar collector is light in weight, 12 kg/m2 without absorber integrated heat storage material, and 27 kg/m2 with heat storage material. Cost of the collector is estimated to be 10,000 INR/m2. Theoretical modeling of the collector has shown that the optical efficiency is 62%. Performance test of regeneration of KCOOH will be reported.

Keywords: Air Conditioning, Solar, Regeneration, dehumidification, liquid desiccant

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5 Experimental Study on Dehumidification Performance of Supersonic Nozzle

Authors: Esam Jassim


Supersonic nozzles are commonly used to purify natural gas in gas processing technology. As an innovated technology, it is employed to overcome the deficit of the traditional method, related to gas dynamics, thermodynamics and fluid dynamics theory. An indoor test rig is built to study the dehumidification process of moisture fluid. Humid air was chosen for the study. The working fluid was circulating in an open loop, which had provision for filtering, metering, and humidifying. A stainless steel supersonic separator is constructed together with the C-D nozzle system. The result shows that dehumidification enhances as NPR increases. This is due to the high intensity in the turbulence caused by the shock formation in the divergent section. Such disturbance strengthens the centrifugal force, pushing more particles toward the near-wall region. In return return, the pressure recovery factor, defined as the ratio of the outlet static pressure of the fluid to its inlet value, decreases with NPR.

Keywords: dehumidification, nozzle geometry, supersonic nozzle, particle separation

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4 Efficient Liquid Desiccant Regeneration for Fresh Air Dehumidification Application

Authors: M. V. Rane, Tareke Tekia


Fresh Air Dehumidifier having a capacity of 1 TR has been developed by Heat Pump Laboratory at IITB. This fresh air dehumidifier is based on potassium formate liquid desiccant. The regeneration of the liquid desiccant can be done in two stages. The first stage of liquid desiccant regeneration involves the boiling of liquid desiccant inside the evacuated glass type solar thermal collectors. Further regeneration of liquid desiccant can be achieved using Low Temperature Regenerator, LTR. The coefficient of performance of the fresh air dehumidifier greatly depends on the performance of the major components such as high temperature regenerator, low temperature regenerator, fresh air dehumidifier, and solution heat exchangers. High effectiveness solution heat exchanger has been developed and tested. The solution heat exchanger is based on a patented aluminium extrusion with special passage geometry to enhance the heat transfer rate. Effectiveness up to 90% was achieved. Before final testing of the dehumidifier, major components have been tested individually. Testing of the solar thermal collector as hot water and steam generator reveals that efficiency up to 55% can be achieved. In this paper, the development of 1 TR fresh air dehumidifier with special focus on solution heat exchangers and solar thermal collector performance is presented.

Keywords: Air Conditioning, Solar, Regeneration, dehumidification, coefficient of performance, liquid desiccant

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3 Specification Requirements for a Combined Dehumidifier/Cooling Panel: A Global Scale Analysis

Authors: Frédéric Kuznik, Damien Gondre, Hatem Ben Maad, Abdelkrim Trabelsi, Joseph Virgone


The use of a radiant cooling solution would enable to lower cooling needs which is of great interest when the demand is initially high (hot climate). But, radiant systems are not naturally compatibles with humid climates since a low-temperature surface leads to condensation risks as soon as the surface temperature is close to or lower than the dew point temperature. A radiant cooling system combined to a dehumidification system would enable to remove humidity for the space, thereby lowering the dew point temperature. The humidity removal needs to be especially effective near the cooled surface. This requirement could be fulfilled by a system using a single desiccant fluid for the removal of both excessive heat and moisture. This task aims at providing an estimation of the specification requirements of such system in terms of cooling power and dehumidification rate required to fulfill comfort issues and to prevent any condensation risk on the cool panel surface. The present paper develops a preliminary study on the specification requirements, performances and behavior of a combined dehumidifier/cooling ceiling panel for different operating conditions. This study has been carried using the TRNSYS software which allows nodal calculations of thermal systems. It consists of the dynamic modeling of heat and vapor balances of a 5m x 3m x 2.7m office space. In a first design estimation, this room is equipped with an ideal heating, cooling, humidification and dehumidification system so that the room temperature is always maintained in between 21C and 25C with a relative humidity in between 40% and 60%. The room is also equipped with a ventilation system that includes a heat recovery heat exchanger and another heat exchanger connected to a heat sink. Main results show that the system should be designed to meet a cooling power of 42W.m−2 and a desiccant rate of 45 gH2O.h−1. In a second time, a parametric study of comfort issues and system performances has been achieved on a more realistic system (that includes a chilled ceiling) under different operating conditions. It enables an estimation of an acceptable range of operating conditions. This preliminary study is intended to provide useful information for the system design.

Keywords: dehumidification, nodal calculation, radiant cooling panel, system sizing

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2 Energy Saving Potential of a Desiccant-Based Indirect-Direct Evaporative Cooling System

Authors: Amirreza Heidari, Akram Avami, Ehsan Heidari


Evaporative cooling systems are known as energy efficient cooling systems, with much lower electricity consumption than conventional vapor compression systems. A serious limitation of these systems, however, is that they are not applicable in humid regions. Combining a desiccant wheel with these systems, known as desiccant-based evaporative cooling systems, makes it possible to use evaporative cooling in humid climates. This paper evaluates the performane of a cooling system combining desiccant wheel, direct and indirect evaporative coolers (called desiccant-based indirect-direct evaporative cooling (DIDE) system) and then evaluates the energy saving potential of this system over the conventional vapor compression cooling and drying system. To illustrate the system ability of providing comfort conditions, a dynamic hourly simulation of this system is performed for a typical 60 m² building in Sydney, Australia. To evaluate the energy saving potential of this system, a conventional cooling and drying system is also simulated for the same cooling capacity. It has been found that the DIE system is able to provide comfort temperature and relative humidity in a subtropical humid climate like Sydney. The electricity and natural gas consumption of this system are respectively 39.2% and 2.6% lower than that of conventional system over a week. As the research has demonstrated, the innovative DIDE system is an energy efficient cooling system for subtropical humid regions.

Keywords: dehumidification, evaporative cooling, desiccant, indirect evaporative cooler

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1 Energy Saving in Handling the Air-Conditioning Latent-Load Using a Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner: Parametric Experimental Analysis

Authors: Mustafa Jaradat


Reasonable energy saving for dehumidification is feasible with the use of desiccants. Desiccants are able to lower the humidity content in the air irrespective of the dew point temperature. In this paper, a tube bundle liquid desiccant air conditioner was experimentally designed and evaluated using lithium chloride as a desiccant. Several experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of the inlet parameters on the dehumidifier performance. The results show a reduction in the relative humidity in the range of 17 to 46%, and the change in the humidity ratio was between 1.5 to 4.7 g/kg, depending on the inlet conditions. A water removal rate in the range between 0.54 and 1.67 kg/h was observed. The effects of air relative humidity and the desiccant flow rate on the dehumidifier’s performance were investigated. It was found that the moisture removal rate remarkably increased with increasing desiccant flow rate and air inlet humidity ratio. The dehumidifier effectiveness increased sharply with increasing desiccant flow rate. Also, it was found that the dehumidifier effectiveness slightly decreased with air humidity ratio.

Keywords: Air Conditioning, dehumidification, tube bundle, desiccant, lithium chloride

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