Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 56

degradation Related Abstracts

56 Performance Degradation for the GLR Test-Statistics for Spatial Signal Detection

Authors: Olesya Bolkhovskaya, Alexander Maltsev


Antenna arrays are widely used in modern radio systems in sonar and communications. The solving of the detection problems of a useful signal on the background of noise is based on the GLRT method. There is a large number of problem which depends on the known a priori information. In this work, in contrast to the majority of already solved problems, it is used only difference spatial properties of the signal and noise for detection. We are analyzing the influence of the degree of non-coherence of signal and noise unhomogeneity on the performance characteristics of different GLRT statistics. The description of the signal and noise is carried out by means of the spatial covariance matrices C in the cases of different number of known information. The partially coherent signal is simulated as a plane wave with a random angle of incidence of the wave concerning a normal. Background noise is simulated as random process with uniform distribution function in each element. The results of investigation of degradation of performance characteristics for different cases are represented in this work.

Keywords: Spatial Processing, GLRT, Neumann-Pearson’s criterion, Test-statistics, degradation, multielement antenna array

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55 Synthesis, Characterization, Photocatalytic and Photovoltaic Performance of Ag-Doped ZnO2 Loaded on the Pt-Carbon Spheres

Authors: M. Mujahid, Omar A. Al-Hartomy


Ag-doped ZnO2 loaded on the Pt-carbon spheres have been synthesized and characterized by standard analytical techniques. i.e., UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). In order to find the effect of loading of Ag doping on ZnO2, the concentration of Ag was varied from 0-3.5%. The XRD analysis showed that the obtained particles are anatase phase. The SEM images showed Ag-doped ZnO2 are loaded on the surface of the Pt-carbon spheres. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized particles was tested by studying the degradation of methyl orange dye and 4-chlorophenol as a function of time on irradiation in aqueous suspension. Ag-doped [email protected] sphere particle with platinum concentration of 3.0 % showed the highest photocatalytic activity as compared to the other Ag concentrations for the degradation of methyl orange and 4-chlorophenol.

Keywords: degradation, Ag-ZnO2, Pt-carbon spheres, methyl orange

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54 BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene) Degradation by Cold Plasma

Authors: Anelise Leal Vieira Cubas, Marina de Medeiros Machado, Marília de Medeiros Machado


The volatile organic compounds - BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene) petroleum derivatives, have high rates of toxicity, which may carry consequences for human health, biota and environment. In this direction, this paper proposes a method of treatment of these compounds by using corona discharge plasma technology. The efficiency of the method was tested by analyzing samples of BTEX after going through a plasma reactor by gas chromatography method. The results show that the optimal residence time of the sample in the reactor was 8 minutes.

Keywords: Ecological Sciences, degradation, BTEX, cold plasma

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53 The Influence of Conservation Measures, Limiting Soil Degradation, on the Quality of Surface Water Resources

Authors: V. Sobotková, B. Šarapatka, M. Dumbrovský, J. Uhrová, M. Bednář


The paper deals with the influence of implemented conservation measures on the quality of surface water resources. Recently, a new process of complex land consolidation in the Czech Republic has provided a unique opportunity to improve the quality of the environment and sustainability of crop production by means of better soil and water conservation. The most important degradation factor in our study area in the Hubenov drinking water reservoir catchment basin was water erosion together with loss of organic matter. Hubenov Reservoir water resources were monitored for twenty years (1990–2010) to collect water quality data for nitrate nitrogen (N-NO3-), total P, and undissolved substances. Results obtained from measurements taken before and after land consolidation indicated a decrease in the linear trend of N-NO3- and total P concentrations, this was achieved through implementation of conservation measures limiting soil degradation in the Hubenov reservoir catchment area.

Keywords: Soil and Water Conservation, Land Use, degradation, complex land consolidation, surface water resources

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52 Exergy Model for a Solar Water Heater with Flat Plate Collector

Authors: P. Sathyakala, G. Sai Sundara Krishnan


The objective of this paper is to derive an exergy model for a solar water heater with honey comb structure in order to identify the element which has larger irreversibility in the system. This will help us in finding the means to reduce the wasted work potential so that the overall efficiency of the system can be improved by finding the ways to reduce those wastages.

Keywords: Exergy, Energy Balance, degradation, entropy balance, work potential, honey comb, flat plate collector

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51 Biodegradable Polymeric Composites of Polylactide and Epoxidized Natural Rubber

Authors: Masek A., Zaborski M., Diakowska K.


Polymeric materials have found their use almost in every branch of industry worldwide. Most of them constitute so-called “petropolymers" obtained from crude oil. However literature information sounds a warning that its global sources are running out. Thus, it seems that one should search for polymeric materials from renewable raw materials belonging to the group of green polymers. Therefore on account of environmental protection and the issue of sustainable technologies, nowadays greater and greater achievements have been observed in the field of green technology using engineering sciences to develop composite materials. The main aim of this study was to research what is the influence of biofillers on the properties. We used biofillers like : cellulose with different length of fiber, cellulose UFC100, silica and montmorillonite. In our research, we reported on biodegradable composites exhibitingspecificity properties by melt blending of polylactide (PLA), one of the commercially available biodegradable material, and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) containing 50 mol.%epoxy group. Blending hydrophilic natural polymers and aliphatic polyesters is of significant interest, since it could lead to the development of a new range of biodegradable polymeric materials. We research the degradation of composites on the basis epoxidized natural rubber and poly(lactide). The addition of biofillers caused far-reaching degradation processes. The greatest resistance to biodegradation showed a montmorillonite-based mixtures, the smallest inflated cellulose fibers of varying length.The final aim in the present study is to use ENR and poly(lactide) to design composite from renewable resources with controlled degradation.

Keywords: Renewable Resources, degradation, biopolymer, polylactide

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50 An Assessment of the Factors Affecting Green Building Technology (GBT) Adoption

Authors: Nuruddeen Usman, Usman Mohammed Gidado


A construction and post construction activity in buildings contributes to environmental degradation, because of the generation of solid waste during construction to the production of carbon dioxide by the occupants during utilization. These problems were caused as a result of lack of adopting green building technology during and after construction. However, this study aims at conceptualizing the factors that are affecting the adoption of green building technology with a view to suggest better ways for its successful adoption in the construction industry through developing a green building technology model. Thus, the research findings show that: Economic, social, cultural, and technological progresses are the factors affecting Green Building Technology Adoption. Therefore, identifying these factors and developing the model might help in the successful adoption of green building technology.

Keywords: Construction, Green Building Technology, degradation, post construction

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49 Stability-Indicating High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography Method for Estimation of Naftopidil

Authors: P. S. Jain, K. D. Bobade, S. J. Surana


A simple, selective, precise and Stability-indicating High-performance thin-layer chromatographic method for analysis of Naftopidil both in a bulk and in pharmaceutical formulation has been developed and validated. The method employed, HPTLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel as the stationary phase. The solvent system consisted of hexane: ethyl acetate: glacial acetic acid (4:4:2 v/v). The system was found to give compact spot for Naftopidil (Rf value of 0.43±0.02). Densitometric analysis of Naftopidil was carried out in the absorbance mode at 253 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r2=0.999±0.0001 with respect to peak area in the concentration range 200-1200 ng per spot. The method was validated for precision, recovery and robustness. The limits of detection and quantification were 20.35 and 61.68 ng per spot, respectively. Naftopidil was subjected to acid and alkali hydrolysis, oxidation and thermal degradation. The drug undergoes degradation under acidic, basic, oxidation and thermal conditions. This indicates that the drug is susceptible to acid, base, oxidation and thermal conditions. The degraded product was well resolved from the pure drug with significantly different Rf value. Statistical analysis proves that the method is repeatable, selective and accurate for the estimation of investigated drug. The proposed developed HPTLC method can be applied for identification and quantitative determination of Naftopidil in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulation.

Keywords: Stability, Validation, HPTLC, degradation, naftopidil

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48 Effect of Doping Ag and N on the Photo-Catalytic Activity of ZnO/CuO Nanocomposite for Degradation of Methyl Orange under UV and Visible Radiation

Authors: O. P. Yadav


Nano-size Ag-N co-doped ZnO/CuO composite photo-catalyst has been synthesized by chemical method and characterized using XRD, TEM, FTIR, AAS and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. Photo-catalytic activity of as-synthesized nanomaterial has been studied using degradation of methyl orange as a probe under UV as well as visible radiations. Ag-N co-doped ZnO/CuO composite showed higher photo-catalytic activity than Ag- or N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO-CuO composite photo-catalysts. The observed highest activity of Ag-N co-doped ZnO-CuO among the studied photo-catalysts is attributed to the cumulative effects of lowering of band-gap energy and decrease of recombination rate of photo-generated electrons and holes owing to doped N and Ag, respectively. Effects of photo-catalyst load, pH and substrate initial concentration on degradation of methyl orange have also been studied. Photo-catalytic degradation of methyl orange follows pseudo first order kinetics.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, nanocomposite, degradation, XRD, photocatalyst

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47 Review of Suitable Advanced Oxidation Processes for Degradation of Organic Compounds in Produced Water during Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: Smita Krishnan, Krittika Chandran, Chandra Mohan Sinnathambi


Produced water and its treatment and management are growing challenges in all producing regions. This water is generally considered as a nonrevenue product, but it can have significant value in enhanced oil recovery techniques if it meets the required quality standards. There is also an interest in the beneficial uses of produced water for agricultural and industrial applications. Advanced Oxidation Process is a chemical technology that has been growing recently in the wastewater treatment industry, and it is highly recommended for non-easily removal of organic compounds. The efficiency of AOPs is compound specific, therefore, the optimization of each process should be done based on different aspects.

Keywords: Photochemical Processes, Organic Contaminants, degradation, advanced oxidation process

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46 Assessment of Collapse Potential of Degrading SDOF Systems

Authors: Muzaffer Borekci, Murat Serdar Kirçil


Predicting the collapse potential of a structure during earthquakes is an important issue in earthquake engineering. Many researchers proposed different methods to assess the collapse potential of structures under the effect of strong ground motions. However most of them did not consider degradation and softening effect in hysteretic behavior. In this study, collapse potential of SDOF systems caused by dynamic instability with stiffness and strength degradation has been investigated. An equation was proposed for the estimation of collapse period of SDOF system which is a limit value of period for dynamic instability. If period of the considered SDOF system is shorter than the collapse period then the relevant system exhibits dynamic instability and collapse occurs.

Keywords: Collapse, Seismic Response, degradation, dynamic instability

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45 Correlations between Wear Rate and Energy Dissipation Mechanisms in a Ti6Al4V–WC/Co Sliding Pair

Authors: J. S. Rudas, J. M. Gutiérrez Cabeza, A. Corz Rodríguez, L. M. Gómez, A. O. Toro


The prediction of the wear rate of rubbing pairs has attracted the interest of many researchers for years. It has been recently proposed that the sliding wear rate can be inferred from the calculation of the energy rate dissipated by the tribological pair. In this paper some of the dissipative mechanisms present in a pin-on-disc configuration are discussed and both analytical and numerical calculations are carried out. Three dissipative mechanisms were studied: First, the energy release due to temperature gradients within the solid; second, the heat flow from the solid to the environment, and third, the energy loss due to abrasive damage of the surface. The Finite Element Method was used to calculate the dynamics of heat transfer within the solid, with the aid of commercial software. Validation the FEM model was assisted by virtual and laboratory experimentation using different operating points (sliding velocity and geometry contact). The materials for the experiments were Ti6Al4V alloy and Tungsten Carbide (WC-Co). The results showed that the sliding wear rate has a linear relationship with the energy dissipation flow. It was also found that energy loss due to micro-cutting is relevant for the system. This mechanism changes if the sliding velocity and pin geometry are modified though the degradation coefficient continues to present a linear behavior. We found that the less relevant dissipation mechanism for all the cases studied is the energy release by temperature gradients in the solid.

Keywords: Entropy, Wear, degradation, friction, dissipative mechanism, dry sliding

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44 The Risk of Ground Movements After Digging Two Parallel Vertical Tunnel in Urban

Authors: Djelloul Chafia, Demagh Rafik, Kareche Toufik


Human activities, made without precautions, accelerate the degradation of the soil structure and reduces its resistance. Operations, such as tunnel construction may exercise an influence more or less permanent on the grounds which surrounded them, these structures alter soil it is necessary to predict their impacts by suitable measures. This research is a numerical analysis that deals the risks and effects due to the weakening of the soil after digging two parallel vertical circular tunnels in urban areas, and suggests forecasting techniques based essentially on the organization of underground space. The simulations are performed using the finite-difference code FLAC in a two-dimensional case and with an elasto-plastic behavior of the soil.

Keywords: Prevention, Tunnel, degradation, sol, weakening

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43 Degradation Study of Food Colorants by SingletOxygen

Authors: A. T. Toci, M. V. B. Zanoni


The advanced oxidation processes have been defined as destructive technologies treatment of wastewater. These involve the formation of powerful oxidizing agents (usually hydroxyl radical .OH) capable of reacting with organic compounds present in wastewater, transforming damaging substances in CO2 and H2O (mineralization) or other innocuous products. However, the photochemical degradation with singlet oxygen has been little explored as oxidative pathway for the treatment of effluents containing food colorants. The molecular oxygen is an effective suppressor of organic molecules in the triplet excited state. One of the possible results of the physical withdrawal is the formation of singlet oxygen. Studies with singlet oxygen (1O2) show an high reactivity of the excited state of the molecule with olefins, aromatic hydrocarbons and a number of other organic and inorganic compounds. Its reactivity is about 2500 times larger than the oxygen in the ground state. Thus, in this work, it was studied the degradation of some dyes used in food industry (tartrazine, sunset yellow, erythrosine and carmoisine) by singlet oxygen. The sensitizer used for generating the 1O2 was methylene blue, which has a quantum yield generation of 0.50. Samples were prepared in water at a concentration of 5 ppm and irradiated with a sunlight simulator (Newport brand, model no. 67005) by consecutive 8h. The absorption spectra of UV-Vis molecules were made each hour irradiation. The degradation kinetics for each dye was determined using the maximum length of each dye absorption. The analysis by UV-Vis revealed that the processes were very efficient for the colorants sunset yellow and carmoisine. Both presented degradation kinetics of order zero with degradation constants 0.416 and 0.104, respectively. In the case of sunset yellow degradation reached 53% after 7h irradiation, Demonstrating the process efficiency. The erithrosine presented during the period irradiated a oscillating degradation kinetics, which requires further study. In the other hand, tartrazine was stable in the presence of 1O2. The investigation of the dyes degradation products owned degradation by 1O2 are underway, the techniques used for this are MS and NMR. The results of this study will enable the application of the cleanest methods for the treatment of industrial effluents, as there are other non-toxic and polluting molecules to generate 1O2.

Keywords: wastewater, degradation, food colourants, singlet oxygen, oxidative

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42 Weight Loss Degradation of Hybrid Blends LLDPE/Starch/PVA Upon Exposure to UV Light and Soil Burial

Authors: Noor Zuhaira Abd Aziz, Mohd Muizz Fahimi M., Rahmah M., Farhan M.


Polybag and mulch film for agricultural field pose environmental wastage upon disposal. Thus a degradable polybag was designed with hybrid sago starch (SS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Two Different blended composition of SS and PVA Hybrid have been compounded. Then, the hybrids blended are mixed with linear line density polyethylene (LLDPE) resin to fabricate polybag film through conventional film blowing process. Hybrid blends was compounded at different ratios. Samples of LLDPE, SS and PVA hybrid film were exposed to UV light and soil burial. The weight loss were determined during degradation process. Hybrid film by degradation of starch was found to decrease on esterification. However the hybrid film showed greater degradation in soil and uv radiation up to 60% of SS. Weight loss were also determined in control humidity oven with 70% humidity and temperature set up at 30 °C and left in humidity chamber for a month.

Keywords: degradation, UV radiation, PVA, LLDPE, sago starch, soil burial

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41 Prevention of Cellulose and Hemicellulose Degradation on Fungal Pretreatment of Water Hyacinth Using Phanerochaete Chrysosporium

Authors: Eka Sari


Potential degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the fungal pretreatment of lignocellulose has led to fermentable sugar yield will be low. This potential is even greater if the pretreatment of lignocellulosic that have low lignin such as water hyacinth. In order to prepare lignocellulose that have low lignin content, especially water hyacinth efforts are needed to prevent the degradation of cellulose and cellulose. One attempt to prevent the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose is to replace the substrate needed by the addition of a simple carbon compounds such as glucose. Glucose sources used in this study is molasses. The purpose of this research to get the right of concentration of molasses to reduce the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the pretreatment process and obtain fermentable sugar yields on high. The results showed that the addition of molasses with a concentration of 2% is able to reduce the degradation of cellulose from 25.53% to 10% and hemicellulose degradation of 20.12% to 10.89%. Fermentable sugar yields produced only reached 43.91%. To improve the yield of glucose is then performed additional combonation of molasses of 2% molasses and co-factor Mn2+ 0.5%. Fermentable sugar yield increased to 67.66% and the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose decreased to 2.44% and 2.71%, respectively.

Keywords: Pretreatment, Cellulose, degradation, fungus, water hyacinth, hemicelulose

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40 Temperature-Dependent Post-Mortem Changes in Human Cardiac Troponin-T (cTnT): An Approach in Determining Postmortem Interval

Authors: Sachil Kumar, Anoop Kumar Verma, Wahid Ali, Uma Shankar Singh


Globally approximately 55.3 million people die each year. In the India there were 95 lakh annual deaths in 2013. The number of deaths resulted from homicides, suicides and unintentional injuries in the same period was about 5.7 lakh. The ever-increasing crime rate necessitated the development of methods for determining time since death. An erroneous time of death window can lead investigators down the wrong path or possibly focus a case on an innocent suspect. In this regard a research was carried out by analyzing the temperature dependent degradation of a Cardiac Troponin-T protein (cTnT) in the myocardium postmortem as a marker for time since death. Cardiac tissue samples were collected from (n=6) medico-legal autopsies, (in the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow India) after informed consent from the relatives and studied post-mortem degradation by incubation of the cardiac tissue at room temperature (20±2 OC), 12 0C, 25 0C and 37 0C for different time periods ((~5, 26, 50, 84, 132, 157, 180, 205, and 230 hours). The cases included were the subjects of road traffic accidents (RTA) without any prior history of disease who died in the hospital and their exact time of death was known. The analysis involved extraction of the protein, separation by denaturing gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and visualization by Western blot using cTnT specific monoclonal antibodies. The area of the bands within a lane was quantified by scanning and digitizing the image using Gel Doc. The data shows a distinct temporal profile corresponding to the degradation of cTnT by proteases found in cardiac muscle. The disappearance of intact cTnT and the appearance of lower molecular weight bands are easily observed. Western blot data clearly showed the intact protein at 42 kDa, two major (27 kDa, 10kDa) fragments, two additional minor fragments (32 kDa) and formation of low molecular weight fragments as time increases. At 12 0C the intensity of band (intact cTnT) decreased steadily as compared to RT, 25 0C and 37 0C. Overall, both PMI and temperature had a statistically significant effect where the greatest amount of protein breakdown was observed within the first 38 h and at the highest temperature, 37 0C. The combination of high temperature (37 0C) and long Postmortem interval (105.15 hrs) had the most drastic effect on the breakdown of cTnT. If the percent intact cTnT is calculated from the total area integrated within a Western blot lane, then the percent intact cTnT shows a pseudo-first order relationship when plotted against the log of the time postmortem. These plots show a good coefficient of correlation of r = 0.95 (p=0.003) for the regression of the human heart at different temperature conditions. The data presented demonstrates that this technique can provide an extended time range during which Postmortem interval can be more accurately estimated.

Keywords: temperature, degradation, proteolysis, postmortem interval, troponin

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39 The Effect of Elapsed Time on the Cardiac Troponin-T Degradation and Its Utility as a Time Since Death Marker in Cases of Death Due to Burn

Authors: Sachil Kumar, Uma Shankar Singh, Anoop K.Verma


It’s extremely important to study postmortem interval in different causes of death since it assists in a great way in making an opinion on the exact cause of death following such incident often times. With diligent knowledge of the interval one could really say as an expert that the cause of death is not feigned hence there is a great need in evaluating such death to have been at the CRIME SCENE before performing an autopsy on such body. The approach described here is based on analyzing the degradation or proteolysis of a cardiac protein in cases of deaths due to burn as a marker of time since death. Cardiac tissue samples were collected from (n=6) medico-legal autopsies, (Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology), King George’s Medical University, Lucknow India, after informed consent from the relatives and studied post-mortem degradation by incubation of the cardiac tissue at room temperature (20±2 OC) for different time periods (~7.30, 18.20, 30.30, 41.20, 41.40, 54.30, 65.20, and 88.40 Hours). The cases included were the subjects of burn without any prior history of disease who died in the hospital and their exact time of death was known. The analysis involved extraction of the protein, separation by denaturing gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and visualization by Western blot using cTnT specific monoclonal antibodies. The area of the bands within a lane was quantified by scanning and digitizing the image using Gel Doc. As time postmortem progresses the intact cTnT band degrades to fragments that are easily detected by the monoclonal antibodies. A decreasing trend in the level of cTnT (% of intact) was found as the PM hours increased. A significant difference was observed between <15 h and other PM hours (p<0.01). Significant difference in cTnT level (% of intact) was also observed between 16-25 h and 56-65 h & >75 h (p<0.01). Western blot data clearly showed the intact protein at 42 kDa, three major (28 kDa, 30kDa, 10kDa) fragments, three additional minor fragments (12 kDa, 14kDa, and 15 kDa) and formation of low molecular weight fragments. Overall, both PMI and cardiac tissue of burned corpse had a statistically significant effect where the greatest amount of protein breakdown was observed within the first 41.40 Hrs and after it intact protein slowly disappears. If the percent intact cTnT is calculated from the total area integrated within a Western blot lane, then the percent intact cTnT shows a pseudo-first order relationship when plotted against the time postmortem. A strong significant positive correlation was found between cTnT and PM hours (r=0.87, p=0.0001). The regression analysis showed a good variability explained (R2=0.768) The post-mortem Troponin-T fragmentation observed in this study reveals a sequential, time-dependent process with the potential for use as a predictor of PMI in cases of burning.

Keywords: degradation, burn, postmortem interval, troponin-T

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38 Change Detection and Analysis of Desertification Processes in Semi Arid Land in Algeria Using Landsat Data

Authors: Zegrar Ahmed, Ghabi Mohamed


The degradation of arid and semi-arid ecosystems in Algeria has become a palpable fact that only hinders progress and rural development. In these exceptionally fragile environments, the decline of vegetation is done according to an alarming increase and wind erosion dominates. The ecosystem is subjected to a long hot dry season and low annual average rainfall. The urgency of the fight against desertification is imposed by the very nature of the process that tends to self-accelerate, resulting when human intervention is not forthcoming the irreversibility situations, preventing any possibility of restoration state of these zones. These phenomena have led to different degradation processes, such as the destruction of vegetation, soil erosion, and deterioration of the physical environment. In this study, the work is mainly based on the criteria for classification and identification of physical parameters for spatial analysis and multi-sources to determine the vulnerability of major steppe formations and their impact on desertification. we used Landsat data with two different dates March 2010 and November 2014 in order to determine the changes in land cover, sand moving and land degradation for the diagnosis of the desertification Phenomenon. The application, through specific processes, including the supervised classification was used to characterize the main steppe formations. An analysis of the vulnerability of plant communities was conducted to assign weights and identify areas most susceptible to desertification. Vegetation indices are used to characterize the steppe formations to determine changes in land use.

Keywords: Ecosystem, Remote Sensing, Desertification, degradation, sig

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37 The Impact on the Network Deflectometry

Authors: Djamel–Eddine Yassine Boutiba


In this present memory, we present the various impacts deflectometer leading to the sizing by strengthening of existing roadways. It reminds that the road network in Algeria plays a major role with regard to drainage in major strategic areas and especially in the fringe northern Algeria. Heavy traffic passing through the northern fringe (between 25% and 30% heavy vehicles) causes substantial degradations at both the surface layer and base layer. The work on site by means within the laboratory CTTP such as deflectographe Lacroix, allowed us to record a large number of deflection localized bending on RN19A (Carrefour CW73-Ain- Merane), whose analysis of the results led us to opt for a building throughout the band's project . By the recorder against HWD (Heavy Weight déflectometer) allowed us to learn about the behavior of the pavement on the banks. In addition, the Software Alize III has been essential in the verification of the increase in the thickness dimensioned.

Keywords: Capacity, degradation, deflection, deflectograph lacroix, hwd

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36 On-Farm Biopurification Systems: Fungal Bioaugmentation of Biomixtures For Carbofuran Removal

Authors: Carlos E. Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Karla Ruiz-Hidalgo, Kattia Madrigal-Zúñiga, Juan Salvador Chin-Pampillo, Mario Masís-Mora, Elizabeth Carazo-Rojas


One of the main causes of contamination linked to agricultural activities is the spillage and disposal of pesticides, especially during the loading, mixing or cleaning of agricultural spraying equipment. One improvement in the handling of pesticides is the use of biopurification systems (BPS), simple and cheap degradation devices where the pesticides are biologically degraded at accelerated rates. The biologically active core of BPS is the biomixture, which is constituted by soil pre-exposed to the target pesticide, a lignocellulosic substrate to promote the activity of ligninolitic fungi and a humic component (peat or compost), mixed at a volumetric proportion of 50:25:25. Considering the known ability of lignocellulosic fungi to degrade a wide range of organic pollutants, and the high amount of lignocellulosic waste used in biomixture preparation, the bioaugmentation of biomixtures with these fungi represents an interesting approach for improving biomixtures. The present work aimed at evaluating the effect of the bioaugmentation of rice husk based biomixtures with the fungus Trametes versicolor in the removal of the insectice/nematicide carbofuran (CFN) and to optimize the composition of the biomixture to obtain the best performance in terms of CFN removal and mineralization, reduction in formation of transformation products and decrease in residual toxicity of the matrix. The evaluation of several lignocellulosic residues (rice husk, wood chips, coconut fiber, sugarcane bagasse or newspaper print) revealed the best colonization by T. versicolor in rice husk. Pre-colonized rice husk was then used in the bioaugmentation of biomixtures also containing soil pre-exposed to CFN and either peat (GTS biomixture) or compost (GCS biomixture). After spiking with 10 mg/kg CBF, the efficiency of the biomixture was evaluated through a multi-component approach that included: monitoring of CBF removal and production of CBF transformation products, mineralization of radioisotopically labeled carbofuran (14C-CBF) and changes in the toxicity of the matrix after the treatment (Daphnia magna acute immobilization test). Estimated half-lives of CBF in the biomixtures were 3.4 d and 8.1 d in GTS and GCS, respectively. The transformation products 3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran were detected at the moment of CFN application, however their concentration continuously disappeared. Mineralization of 14C-CFN was also faster in GTS than GCS. The toxicological evaluation showed a complete toxicity removal in the biomixtures after 48 d of treatment. The composition of the GCS biomixture was optimized using a central composite design and response surface methodology. The design variables were the volumetric content of fungally pre-colonized rice husk and the volumetric ratio compost/soil. According to the response models, maximization of CFN removal and mineralization rate, and minimization in the accumulation of transformation products were obtained with an optimized biomixture of composition 30:43:27 (pre-colonized rice husk:compost:soil), which differs from the 50:25:25 composition commonly employed in BPS. Results suggest that fungal bioaugmentation may enhance the performance of biomixtures in CFN removal. Optimization reveals the importance of assessing new biomixture formulations in order to maximize their performance.

Keywords: Toxicity, Pesticides, Fungi, Bioaugmentation, degradation, biopurification systems

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35 An Ecological Reading of Indian Regional Literature: A Comparative Ecocritical Analysis of Punjabi Poet Shiv Kumar Batalvi and Surjit Patar's Poetry

Authors: Zameerpal Kaur


Ecocriticism comes into existence in 1990s, it tries to explore the relationship of literature with the natural world and further it examines the role that natural surroundings and environment play in the minds of the creative writers during their imagination and creative process. The present study is an attempt to focus on the comparative ecocritical analysis of Shiv Kumar Batalvi and Surjit Patar’s selected poetry in the theoretical framework of ecocriticism in order to shed light on the poet’s vigilant views about the relationship of human life and nature. Shiv Kumar Batalvi is a renowned modern Punjabi poet. He is essentially a poet of nature and love. His opinions towards nature support his position to be considered as a major representative of recent environmental issues and ecocritical concerns in Punjabi literature. He is one of the most outstanding modern Punjabi poets, is endowed with the most artistic temperament in whose poetry nature always has a dominating existence. He seems to consciously portray the scenes of natural surroundings into his poetry; in fact the titles of his poems in themselves signify his love for the nature. Surjit Patar, an imminent modern Punjabi poet tries to present a different picture of nature into his poems; he also uses to write poems about contemporary problems. Surjit Patar’s radical quarrel with the modern cultural context makes him reject all the absolutes and finalities in the form of transcendental reason and religion, history and evolution, he freely writes about the deterioration of nature at selfish materialistic society. He is modern poet who weaves the natural imagery with the syntax of his poems. Patar’s work reflects a universal voice that is dribbled with nuanced humanism and a sense of modernity that seemed neither dated, nor trapped in regional boundaries. Through his poetry he has given a voice to the fragile, disrupting borders, disturbing the status quo. An attempt to analyse the poetic works of above said poets from ecocritical perspective as well as especially focussing on various aspects of ecocriticism like ecocentric ethics, ecoaesthetics, anthropomorphism etc. has been made throughout the comparative study of the selected works.

Keywords: Nature, Anthropocentrism, degradation, environment and literature

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34 Environmental Degradation in Niger-Delta and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: Issues for Consideration



The issue of environmental degradation in Nigeria is of serious concern. The colonial period brought a major change in environmental awareness and relationship with the environment. This period introduced a model of development, the major thrust of which was the exploration and transformation of natural and human resources for the benefit of the colonial masters. There is abundant evidence in the literature that there are various manifestations of environmental degradation in Nigeria, which have resulted in the various problems found throughout the Nigeria national space. The idea of the environment acting as a constraint to the growth of human activity has given way to the contrary. Environmental education, going by the literature, exists at the primary, secondary and tertiary institutions. In short, the 1st National conference on environmental education gave several suggestions on how it could be realised. Thus, to realise sustainable environmental development we need to accelerate the process of providing basic education for both the old and young. Environmental education should cover the whole federation, and resources should be made available for the training of environmental education teachers and research into environmental education for the development of appropriate learning resources.

Keywords: Education, Development, Sustainable, Environment, degradation

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33 Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons-Contaminated Soil by Proxy-Acid Method

Authors: Reza Samsami


The aim of the study was to degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by proxy-acid method. The amounts of PAHs were determined in a silty-clay soil sample of an aged oil refinery field in Abadan, Iran. Proxy-acid treatment method was investigated. The results have shown that the proxy-acid system is an effective method for degradation of PAHs. The results also demonstrated that the number of fused aromatic rings have not significant effects on PAH removal by proxy-acid method. The results also demonstrated that the number of fused aromatic rings have not significant effects on PAH removal by proxy-acid method.

Keywords: PAHs, degradation, proxy-acid treatment, silty-clay soil

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32 Sulfamethoxazole Degradation by Conventional Fenton and Microwave-Assisted Fenton Reaction

Authors: Derradji Chebli, Abdallah Bouguettoucha, Zoubir Manaa, Amrane Abdeltif


Pharmaceutical products, such as sulfamethoxazole (SMX) are rejected in the environment at trace level by human and animals (ng/L to mg/L), in their original form or as byproducts. Antibiotics are toxic contaminants for the aquatic environment, owing to their adverse effects on the aquatic life and humans. Even at low concentrations, they can negatively impact biological water treatment leading to the proliferation of antibiotics-resistant pathogens. It is therefore of major importance to develop efficient methods to limit their presence in the aquatic environment. In this aim, advanced oxidation processes (AOP) appear relevant compared to other methods, since they are based on the production of highly reactive free radicals, and especially ●OH. The objective of this work was to evaluate the degradation of SMX by microwave-assisted Fenton reaction (MW/Fe/H2O2). Hydrogen peroxide and ferrous ions concentrations, as well as the microwave power were optimized. The results showed that the SMX degradation by MW/Fe/H2O2 followed a pseudo-first order kinetic. The treatment of 20 mg/L initial SMX by the Fenton reaction in the presence of microwave showed the positive impact of this latter owing to the higher degradation yields observed in a reduced reaction time if compared to the conventional Fenton reaction, less than 5 min for a total degradation. In addition, increasing microwave power increased the degradation kinetics. Irrespective of the application of microwave, the optimal pH for the Fenton reaction remained 3. Examination of the impact of the ionic strength showed that carbonate and sulfate anions increased the rate of SMX degradation.

Keywords: Antibiotic, Microwave, degradation, elimination, fenton, polluant

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31 Sulfamethaxozole (SMX) Removal by Microwave-Assisted Heterogenous Fenton Reaction Involving Synthetic Clay (LDHS)

Authors: Abdallah Bouguettoucha, Zoubir Manaa, Chebli Derradji, S. Nacef, A. Amrane


Antibiotics are major pollutants of wastewater not only due to their stability in biological systems, but also due to their impact on public health. Their degradation by means of hydroxyl radicals generated through the application of microwave in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and two solid catalysts, iron-based synthetic clay (LDHs) and goethite (FeOOH) have been examined. A drastic reduction of the degradation yield was observed above pH 4, and hence the optimal conditions were found to be a pH of 3, 0.1 g/L of clay, a somewhat low amount of H2O2 (1.74 mmol/L) and a microwave intensity of 850 W. It should be observed that to maintain an almost constant temperature, a cooling with cold water was always applied between two microwaves running; and hence the ratio between microwave heating time and cooling time was 1. The obtained SMX degradation was 98.8 ± 0.2% after 30 minutes of microwave treatment. It should be observed that in the absence of the solid catalyst, LDHs, no SMX degradation was observed. From this, the use of microwave in the presence of a solid source of iron (LDHs) appears to be an efficient solution for the treatment of wastewater containing SMX.

Keywords: Microwave, Antibiotics, Oxidation, degradation, fenton, heterogenous fenton

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30 Revealing of the Wave-Like Process in Kinetics of the Structural Steel Radiation Degradation

Authors: E. A. Krasikov


Dependence of the materials properties on neutron irradiation intensity (flux) is a key problem while usage data of the accelerated materials irradiation in test reactors for forecasting of their capacity for work in realistic (practical) circumstances of operation. Investigations of the reactor pressure vessel steel radiation degradation dependence on fast neutron fluence (embrittlement kinetics) at low flux reveal the instability in the form of the scatter of the experimental data and wave-like sections of embrittlement kinetics appearance. Disclosure of the steel degradation oscillating is a sign of the steel structure cyclic self-recovery transformation as it take place in self-organization processes. This assumption has received support through the discovery of the similar ‘anomalous’ data in scientific publications and by means of own additional experiments. Data obtained stimulate looking-for ways to management of the structural steel radiation stability (for example, by means of nano - structure modification for radiation defects annihilation intensification) for creation of the intelligent self-recovering material. Expected results: - radiation degradation theory and mechanisms development, - more adequate models of the radiation embrittlement elaboration, - surveillance specimen programs improvement, - methods and facility development for usage data of the accelerated materials irradiation for forecasting of their capacity for work in realistic (practical) circumstances of operation, - search of the ways for creating of the radiation stable self-recovery intelligent materials.

Keywords: Radiation, steel, degradation, wave-like kinetics

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29 Recycling of Polymers in the Presence of Nanocatalysts: A Green Approach towards Sustainable Environment

Authors: Beena Sethi


This work involves the degradation of plastic waste in the presence of three different nanocatalysts. A thin film of LLDPE was formed with all three nanocatalysts separately in the solvent. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) analysis of polymers suggest that the presence of these catalysts lowers the degradation temperature and the change mechanism of degradation. Gas chromatographic analysis was carried out for two films. In gas chromatography (GC) analysis, it was found that degradation of pure polymer produces only 32% C3/C4 hydrocarbons and 67.6% C5/C9 hydrocarbons. In the presence of these catalysts, more than 80% of polymer by weight was converted into either liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons. Change in the mechanism of degradation of polymer was observed therefore more C3/C4 hydrocarbons along with valuable feedstock are produced. Adjustment of dose of nanocatalyst, use of nano-admixtures and recycling of catalyst can make this catalytic feedstock recycling method a good tool to get sustainable environment. The obtained products can be utilized as fuel or can be transformed into other useful products. In accordance with the principles of sustainable development, chemical recycling i.e. tertiary recycling of polymers along with the reuse (zero order recycling) of plastics can be the most appropriate and promising method in this direction. The tertiary recycling is attracting much attention from the viewpoint of the energy resource.

Keywords: Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Gas Chromatography, degradation, feedstock recycling, thermogravimetric analysis

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28 Online Compressor Washing for Gas Turbine Power Output

Authors: Enyia James Diwa, Isaiah Thank-God Ebi, Dodeye Ina Igbong


The privatization of utilities has brought about very strong competition in industries such as petrochemical and gas distribution among others, considering the continuous increase in cost of fuel. This has brought about the intense reason for gas turbine owners and operators to reduce and control performance degradation of the engine in other to minimize cost. The most common and very crucial problem of the gas turbine is the fouling of compressor, which is mostly caused by a reduction in flow capacity, compressor efficiency, and pressure ratio, this, in turn, lead to the engine compressor re-matching and output power and thermal efficiency reduction. The content of this paper encompasses a detailed presentation of the major causes, effects and control mechanism of fouling. The major emphasis is on compressor water washing to enable power augmentation. A modelled gas turbine similar to that of GE LM6000 is modelled for the current study, based on TURBOMATCH which is a Cranfield University software specifically made for gas turbine performance simulation and fouling detection. The compounded and intricate challenges of compressor online water washing of large output gas turbine are carried out. The treatment is applied to axial compressor used in the petrochemical and hydrocarbon industry.

Keywords: Gas Turbine, Fouling, degradation, compressor washing

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27 Effects of Operating Conditions on Creep Life of Industrial Gas Turbine

Authors: Enyia James Diwa, Dodeye Ina Igbong, Archibong Eso Archibong


The creep life of an industrial gas turbine is determined through a physics-based model used to investigate the high pressure temperature (HPT) of the blade in use. A performance model was carried out via the Cranfield University TURBOMATCH simulation software to size the blade and to determine the corresponding stress. Various effects such as radial temperature distortion factor, turbine entry temperature, ambient temperature, blade metal temperature, and compressor degradation on the blade creep life were investigated. The output results show the difference in creep life and the location of failure along the span of the blade enabling better-informed advice for the gas turbine operator.

Keywords: Performance, Creep, degradation, living

Procedia PDF Downloads 249