Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Deforestation Related Abstracts

20 Environmental and Economic Impact of Mangrove Deforestation: Case Study of Vadamaradchy East, Sri Lanka

Authors: Kumaraamy Sasikumar

Abstract:

The study was conducted in Vadamarachchi-East in Sri Lanka. Data collection was done for a period of two months from June to July 2011. The main focus of this study was to examine factors contributing to mangrove deforestation within the study area, and resultant impacts from deforestation. The study found that, the main factors that have contributed to deforestation include: Long civil wars in the region, poverty which pushed people to clear the forest to earn income through the sale of firewood and timber among others, industrial development, increasing demand for farm and settlement land, limited knowledge within the local community, weak government polices and implementation strategies, and natural disasters especially the 2004 Tsunami destruction. The impacts presented are those that impact both on the environment and the economy including; loss of income sources, loss of biodiversity, climate change, desertification, conflicts in the use of forest products and loss of land productivity due to reduced fertility caused by soil erosion. However, a few strategies have been put in place by the government to ensure the sustainable use of mangrove forest products, though these have not proved successful in reducing deforestation. The recommendations make suggestions to the government and other stakeholders to work together in ensuring sustainable use of natural resources, for example implementing laws and regulations aimed at controlling deforestation among others.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Economic, Environment, Impacts, Deforestation, actors

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19 Identifying the Phases of Indian Agriculture Towards Desertification: An Introspect of Karnataka State, India

Authors: Arun Das

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Indian agriculture is acclaimed from the dates of Indus civilization (2500 BC). Since this time until the day, there were tremendous expansion in terms of space and technology has taken place. Abrupt growth in technology took place past one and half century. Consequent to this development, the land which was brought under agriculture in the initial stages of introducing agriculture for the first time, that land is not possessing the same physical condition. Either it has lost the productive capacity or modified into semi agriculture land. On the grounds of its capacity and interwoven characteristics seven phases of agriculture scenario has been identified. Most of the land is on the march of desertification. Identifying the stages and the phase of the agriculture scenario is most relevant from the point of view of food security at regional, national and at global level. Secondly decisive measure can put back the degenerating environmental condition into arrest. GIS and Remote sensing applications have been used to identify the phases of agriculture.

Keywords: Deforestation, Desertification, agriculture phases, foods security, transmigration

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18 Perceived Environmental Effects of Charcoal Production among Rural Dwellers in Rainforest and Guinea Savannah Agro-Ecological Zones of Nigeria

Authors: P. O. Eniola, S. O. Odebode

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Charcoal production constitutes serious environmental problems to most developing countries of the world. Hence, the study assessed perceived environmental effects of charcoal production (CP) among the rural dwellers in rainforest and guinea savannah (GS) zones of Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 83 and 85 charcoal producers in GS and rainforest zones respectively. Eighteen statements on perceived environmental effects of charcoal production were collected. Data was collected through the use of structured interview schedule and analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive analysis showed that the mean age was 43 years, 90.5% males, 90.6% married and 35.3% of respondents had no formal education. The majority (80.0%) of the respondents make use of earth mound method of CP and 52.9% of respondents produced between 32-32000kg of charcoal per annum. Respondents (62.7%) perceived that charcoal production could lead to erosion, 62.4% reduce the available trees for future use (62.4%) and reduce available air in the environment (54.1%). A significant difference existed in the perceived environmental effects of charcoal production between rainforest and guinea savannah agro-ecological zones (F=14.62). There is a need for the government to quickly work on other available and affordable alternative household energy sources.

Keywords: Energy, Environment, Deforestation, earth mound method

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17 An Approach to Integrated Water Resources Management, a Plan for Action to Climate Change in India

Authors: H. K. Ramaraju

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World is in deep trouble and deeper denial. Worse, the denial is now entirely on the side of action. It is well accepted that climate change is a reality. Scientists say we need to cap temperature increases at 2°C to avoid catastrophe, which means capping emissions at 450 ppm .We know global average temperatures have already increased by 0.8°C and there is enough green house gas in the atmosphere to lead to another 0.8°C increase. There is still a window of opportunity, a tiny one, to tackle the crisis. But where is the action? In the 1990’s, when the world did even not understand, let alone accept, the crises, it was more willing to move to tackle climate change. Today we are in reverse in gear. The rich world has realized it is easy to talk big, but tough to take steps to actually reduce emissions. The agreement was that these countries would reduce so that the developing World could increase. Instead, between 1990 and 2006, their carbon dioxide emissions increased by a whopping 14.5 percent, even green countries of Europe are unable to match words with action. Stop deforestation and take a 20 percent advantage in our carbon balance sheet, with out doing anything at home called REDD (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation) and push for carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. There are warning signs elsewhere and they need to be read correctly and acted up on , if not the cases like flood –act of nature or manmade disaster. The full length paper orient in proper understanding of the issues and identifying the most appropriate course of action.

Keywords: Emissions, Deforestation, Waste water, catastrophe

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16 The Threats of Deforestation, Forest Fire and CO2 Emission toward Giam Siak Kecil Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve in Riau, Indonesia

Authors: Siti Badriyah Rushayati, Resti Meilani, Rachmad Hermawan

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A biosphere reserve is developed to create harmony amongst economic development, community development, and environmental protection, through partnership between human and nature. Giam Siak Kecil Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve (GSKBB BR) in Riau Province, Indonesia, is unique in that it has peat soil dominating the area, many springs essential for human livelihood, high biodiversity. Furthermore, it is the only biosphere reserve covering privately managed production forest areas. The annual occurrences of deforestation and forest fire pose a threat toward such unique biosphere reserve. Forest fire produced smokes that along with mass airflow reached neighboring countries, particularly Singapore and Malaysia. In this research, we aimed at analyzing the threat of deforestation and forest fire, and the potential of CO2 emission at GSKBB BR. We used Landsat image, arcView software, and ERDAS IMAGINE 8.5 Software to conduct spatial analysis of land cover and land use changes, calculated CO2 emission based on emission potential from each land cover and land use type, and exercised simple linear regression to demonstrate the relation between CO2 emission potential and deforestation. The result showed that, beside in the buffer zone and transition area, deforestation also occurred in the core area. Spatial analysis of land cover and land use changes from years 2010, 2012, and 2014 revealed that there were changes of land cover and land use from natural forest and industrial plantation forest to other land use types, such as garden, mixed garden, settlement, paddy fields, burnt areas, and dry agricultural land. Deforestation in core area, particularly at the Giam Siak Kecil Wildlife Reserve and Bukit Batu Wildlife Reserve, occurred in the form of changes from natural forest in to garden, mixed garden, shrubs, swamp shrubs, dry agricultural land, open area, and burnt area. In the buffer zone and transition area, changes also happened, what once swamp forest changed into garden, mixed garden, open area, shrubs, swamp shrubs, and dry agricultural land. Spatial analysis on land cover and land use changes indicated that deforestation rate in the biosphere reserve from 2010 to 2014 had reached 16 119 ha/year. Beside deforestation, threat toward the biosphere reserve area also came from forest fire. The occurrence of forest fire in 2014 had burned 101 723 ha of the area, in which 9 355 ha of core area, and 92 368 ha of buffer zone and transition area. Deforestation and forest fire had increased CO2 emission as much as 24 903 855 ton/year.

Keywords: Deforestation, CO2 emission, forest fire, biosphere reserve

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15 Monitoring Deforestation Using Remote Sensing And GIS

Authors: Tejaswi Agarwal, Amritansh Agarwal

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Forest ecosystem plays very important role in the global carbon cycle. It stores about 80% of all above ground and 40% of all below ground terrestrial organic carbon. There is much interest in the extent of tropical forests and their rates of deforestation for two reasons: greenhouse gas contributions and the impact of profoundly negative biodiversity. Deforestation has many ecological, social and economic consequences, one of which is the loss of biological diversity. The rapid deployment of remote sensing (RS) satellites and development of RS analysis techniques in the past three decades have provided a reliable, effective, and practical way to characterize terrestrial ecosystem properties. Global estimates of tropical deforestation vary widely and range from 50,000 to 170,000km2 /yr Recent FAO tropical deforestation estimates for 1990–1995 cite 116,756km2 / yr globally. Remote Sensing can prove to be a very useful tool in monitoring of forests and associated deforestation to a sufficient level of accuracy without the need of physically surveying the forest areas as many of them are physically inaccessible. The methodology for the assessment of forest cover using digital image processing (ERDAS) has been followed. The satellite data for the study was procured from Indian institute of remote Sensing (IIRS), Dehradoon in the digital format. While procuring the satellite data, care was taken to ensure that the data was cloud free and did not belong to dry and leafless season. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been used as a numerical indicator of the reduction in ground biomass. NDVI = (near I.R - Red)/ (near I.R + Red). After calculating the NDVI variations and associated mean, we have analysed the change in ground biomass. Through this paper, we have tried to indicate the rate of deforestation over a given period of time by comparing the forest cover at different time intervals. With the help of remote sensing and GIS techniques, it is clearly shown that the total forest cover is continuously degrading and transforming into various land use/land cover category.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Deforestation, change detection, supervised classification, NDVI

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14 NDVI as a Measure of Change in Forest Biomass

Authors: Amritansh Agarwal, Tejaswi Agarwal

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Forest ecosystem plays very important role in the global carbon cycle. It stores about 80% of all above ground and 40% of all below ground terrestrial organic carbon. There is much interest in the extent of tropical forests and their rates of deforestation for two reasons: greenhouse gas contributions and the impact of profoundly negative biodiversity. Deforestation has many ecological, social and economic consequences, one of which is the loss of biological diversity. The rapid deployment of remote sensing (RS) satellites and development of RS analysis techniques in the past three decades have provided a reliable, effective, and practical way to characterize terrestrial ecosystem properties. Global estimates of tropical deforestation vary widely and range from 50,000 to 170,000 km2 /yr Recent FAO tropical deforestation estimates for 1990–1995 cite 116,756km2 / yr globally. Remote Sensing can prove to be a very useful tool in monitoring of forests and associated deforestation to a sufficient level of accuracy without the need of physically surveying the forest areas as many of them are physically inaccessible. The methodology for the assessment of forest cover using digital image processing (ERDAS) has been followed. The satellite data for the study was procured from USGS website in the digital format. While procuring the satellite data, care was taken to ensure that the data was cloud and aerosol free by making using of FLAASH atmospheric correction technique. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been used as a numerical indicator of the reduction in ground biomass. NDVI = (near I.R - Red)/ (near I.R + Red). After calculating the NDVI variations and associated mean we have analysed the change in ground biomass. Through this paper we have tried to indicate the rate of deforestation over a given period of time by comparing the forest cover at different time intervals. With the help of remote sensing and GIS techniques it is clearly shows that the total forest cover is continuously degrading and transforming into various land use/land cover category.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Deforestation, supervised classification, NDVI change detection

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13 Challenges, Responses and Governance in the Conservation of Forest and Wildlife: The Case of the Aravali Ranges, Delhi NCR

Authors: Shashi Mehta, Krishan Kumar Yadav

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This paper presents an overview of issues pertaining to the conservation of the natural environment and factors affecting the coexistence of the forest, wildlife and people. As forests and wildlife together create the basis for economic, cultural and recreational spaces for overall well-being and life-support systems, the adverse impacts of increasing consumerism are only too evident. The IUCN predicts extinction of 41% of all amphibians and 26% of mammals. The major causes behind this threatened extinction are Deforestation, Dysfunctional governance, Climate Change, Pollution and Cataclysmic phenomena. Thus the intrinsic relationship between natural resources and wildlife needs to be understood in totality, not only for the eco-system but for humanity at large. To demonstrate this, forest areas in the Aravalis- the oldest mountain ranges of Asia—falling in the States of Haryana and Rajasthan, have been taken up for study. The Aravalis are characterized by extreme climatic conditions and dry deciduous forest cover on intermittent scattered hills. Extending across the districts of Gurgaon, Faridabad, Mewat, Mahendergarh, Rewari and Bhiwani, these ranges - with village common land on which the entire economy of the rural settlements depends - fall in the state of Haryana. Aravali ranges with diverse fauna and flora near Alwar town of state of Rajasthan also form part of NCR. Once, rich in biodiversity, the Aravalis played an important role in the sustainable co-existence of forest and people. However, with the advent of industrialization and unregulated urbanization, these ranges are facing deforestation, degradation and denudation. The causes are twofold, i.e. the need of the poor and the greed of the rich. People living in and around the Aravalis are mainly poor and eke out a living by rearing live-stock. With shrinking commons, they depend entirely upon these hills for grazing, fuel, NTFP, medicinal plants and even drinking water. But at the same time, the pressure of indiscriminate urbanization and industrialization in these hills fulfils the demands of the rich and powerful in collusion with Government agencies. The functionaries of federal and State Governments play largely a negative role supporting commercial interests. Additionally, planting of a non- indigenous species like prosopis juliflora across the ranges has resulted in the extinction of almost all the indigenous species. The wildlife in the area is also threatened because of the lack of safe corridors and suitable habitat. In this scenario, the participatory role of different stakeholders such as NGOs, civil society and local community in the management of forests becomes crucial not only for conservation but also for the economic wellbeing of the local people. Exclusion of villagers from protection and conservation efforts - be it designing, implementing or monitoring and evaluating could prove counterproductive. A strategy needs to be evolved, wherein Government agencies be made responsible by putting relevant legislation in place along with nurturing and promoting the traditional wisdom and ethics of local communities in the protection and conservation of forests and wild life in the Aravali ranges of States of Haryana and Rajasthan of the National Capital Region, Delhi.

Keywords: Ecosystem, Governance, Deforestation, Urbanization

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12 Performance Tests of Wood Glues on Different Wood Species Used in Wood Workshops: Morogoro Tanzania

Authors: Japhet N. Mwambusi

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High tropical forests deforestation for solid wood furniture industry is among of climate change contributing agents. This pressure indirectly is caused by furniture joints failure due to poor gluing technology based on improper use of different glues to different wood species which lead to low quality and weak wood-glue joints. This study was carried in order to run performance tests of wood glues on different wood species used in wood workshops: Morogoro Tanzania whereby three popular wood species of C. lusitanica, T. glandis and E. maidenii were tested against five glues of Woodfix, Bullbond, Ponal, Fevicol and Coral found in the market. The findings were necessary on developing a guideline for proper glue selection for a particular wood species joining. Random sampling was employed to interview carpenters while conducting a survey on the background of carpenters like their education level and to determine factors that influence their glues choice. Monsanto Tensiometer was used to determine bonding strength of identified wood glues to different wood species in use under British Standard of testing wood shear strength (BS EN 205) procedures. Data obtained from interviewing carpenters were analyzed through Statistical Package of Social Science software (SPSS) to allow the comparison of different data while laboratory data were compiled, related and compared by the use of MS Excel worksheet software as well as Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Results revealed that among all five wood glues tested in the laboratory to three different wood species, Coral performed much better with the average shear strength 4.18 N/mm2, 3.23 N/mm2 and 5.42 N/mm2 for Cypress, Teak and Eucalyptus respectively. This displays that for a strong joint to be formed to all tree wood species for soft wood and hard wood, Coral has a first priority in use. The developed table of guideline from this research can be useful to carpenters on proper glue selection to a particular wood species so as to meet glue-bond strength. This will secure furniture market as well as reduce pressure to the forests for furniture production because of the strong existing furniture due to their strong joints. Indeed, this can be a good strategy on reducing climate change speed in tropics which result from high deforestation of trees for furniture production.

Keywords: Climate Change, Deforestation, Wood Species, gluing technology, joint failure, wood-glue

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11 Modelling the Impacts of Geophysical Parameters on Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Pre and Post Ban Logging Periods in Hindu Kush Himalayas

Authors: Alam Zeb, Glen W. Armstrong, Muhammad Qasim

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Loss of forest cover is one of the most important land cover changes and has been of great concern to policy makers. This study quantified forest cover changes over pre logging ban (1973-1993) and post logging ban (1993-2015) to examine the role of geophysical factors and spatial attributes of land in the two periods. We show that despite a complete ban on green felling, forest cover decreased by 28% and mostly converted to rangeland. Nevertheless, the logging ban was completely effective in controlling agriculture expansion. The binary logistic regression revealed that the south facing aspects at low elevation witnessed more deforestation in the pre-ban period compared to post-ban. Opposite to deforestation, forest degradation was more prominent on the northern aspects at higher elevation during the policy period. Agriculture expansion was widespread in the low elevation flat areas with gentle slope, while during the policy period agriculture contraction in the form of regeneration was observed on the low elevation areas of north facing slopes. All proximity variables, except distance to administrative boundary, showed a similar trend across the two periods and were important explanatory variables in understanding forest and agriculture expansion. The changes in determinants of forest and agriculture expansion and contraction over the two periods might be attributed to the influence of policy and a general decrease in resource availability.

Keywords: Deforestation, Pakistan, Forest conservation, Logistic Regression, Forest Degradation, wood harvesting ban, agriculture expansion, Chitral

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10 Geospatial Assessments on Impacts of Land Use Changes and Climate Change in Nigeria Forest Ecosystems

Authors: Samuel O. Akande

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The human-induced climate change is likely to have severe consequences on forest ecosystems in Nigeria. Recent discussions and emphasis on issues concerning the environment justify the need for this research which examined deforestation monitoring in Oban Forest, Nigeria using Remote Sensing techniques. The Landsat images from TM (1986), ETM+ (2001) and OLI (2015) sensors were obtained from Landsat online archive and processed using Erdas Imagine 2014 and ArcGIS 10.3 to obtain the land use/land cover and Normalized Differential Vegetative Index (NDVI) values. Ground control points of deforested areas were collected for validation. It was observed that the forest cover decreased in area by about 689.14 km² between 1986 and 2015. The NDVI was used to determine the vegetation health of the forest and its implications on agricultural sustainability. The result showed that the total percentage of the healthy forest cover has reduced to about 45.9% from 1986 to 2015. The results obtained from analysed questionnaires shown that there was a positive correlation between the causes and effects of deforestation in the study area. The coefficient of determination value was calculated as R² ≥ 0.7, to ascertain the level of anthropogenic activities, such as fuelwood harvesting, intensive farming, and logging, urbanization, and engineering construction activities, responsible for deforestation in the study area. Similarly, temperature and rainfall data were obtained from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) for the period of 1986 to 2015 in the study area. It was observed that there was a significant increase in temperature while rainfall decreased over the study area. Responses from the administered questionnaires also showed that futile destruction of forest ecosystem in Oban forest could be reduced to its barest minimum if fuelwood harvesting is disallowed. Thus, the projected impacts of climate change on Nigeria’s forest ecosystems and environmental stability is better imagined than experienced.

Keywords: Ecosystems, Sustainability, Deforestation, normalized differential vegetative index

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9 Environment-Friendly Biogas Technology: Comparative Analysis of Benefits as Perceived by Biogas Users and Non-User Livestock Farmers of Tehsil Jhang

Authors: Anees Raza, Liu Chunyan

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Renewable energy technologies are need of the time and are already making the big impact in the climatic outlook of the world. Biogas technology is one of those, and it has a lot of benefits for its users. It is cost effective because it is produced from the raw material which is available free of cost to the livestock farmers. Bio-slurry, a by-product of biogas, is being used as fertilizer for the crops production and increasing soil fertility. There are many other household benefits of technology. Research paper discusses the benefits of biogas as perceived by the biogas users as well as non-users of Tehsil Jhang. Data were collected from 60 respondents (30 users and 30 non-users) selected purposively through validated and pre-tested interview schedule from the respondents. Collected data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Household benefits like ‘makes cooking easy,’ ‘Less breathing issues for working women in kitchens’ and ‘Use of bio-slurry as organic fertilizer’ had the highly significant relationship between them with t-values of 3.24, 4.39 and 2.80 respectively. Responses of the respondents about environmental benefits of biogas technology showed that ‘less air pollution’ had a significant relationship between them while ‘less temperature rise up than due to the burning of wood /dung’ had the non-significant relationship in the responses of interviewed respondents. It was clear from the research that biogas users were becoming influential in convincing non-users to adopt this technology due to its noticeable benefits. Research area where people were depending on wood to be used as fire fuel could be helped in reduction of cutting of trees which will help in controlling deforestation and saving the environment.People should be encouraged in using of biogas technology through providing them subsidies and low mark up loans.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Deforestation, Biogas Technology, environmental benefits

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8 The Use of Geographically Weighted Regression for Deforestation Analysis: Case Study in Brazilian Cerrado

Authors: Ana Paula Camelo, Keila Sanches

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The Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) was proposed in geography literature to allow relationship in a regression model to vary over space. In Brazil, the agricultural exploitation of the Cerrado Biome is the main cause of deforestation. In this study, we propose a methodology using geostatistical methods to characterize the spatial dependence of deforestation in the Cerrado based on agricultural production indicators. Therefore, it was used the set of exploratory spatial data analysis tools (ESDA) and confirmatory analysis using GWR. It was made the calibration a non-spatial model, evaluation the nature of the regression curve, election of the variables by stepwise process and multicollinearity analysis. After the evaluation of the non-spatial model was processed the spatial-regression model, statistic evaluation of the intercept and verification of its effect on calibration. In an analysis of Spearman’s correlation the results between deforestation and livestock was +0.783 and with soybeans +0.405. The model presented R²=0.936 and showed a strong spatial dependence of agricultural activity of soybeans associated to maize and cotton crops. The GWR is a very effective tool presenting results closer to the reality of deforestation in the Cerrado when compared with other analysis.

Keywords: Land Use, Deforestation, Spatial analysis, geographically weighted regression

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7 Overview of the 2017 Fire Season in Amazon

Authors: Ana C. V. Freitas, Luciana B. M. Pires, Joao P. Martins

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In recent years, fire dynamics in deforestation areas of tropical forests have received considerable attention because of their relationship to climate change. Climate models project great increases in the frequency and area of drought in the Amazon region, which may increase the occurrence of fires. This study analyzes the historical record number of fire outbreaks in 2017 using satellite-derived data sets of active fire detections, burned area, precipitation, and data of the Fire Program from the Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies (CPTEC/INPE). A downward trend in the number of fire outbreaks occurred in the first half of 2017, in relation to the previous year. This decrease can be related to the fact that 2017 was not an El Niño year and, therefore, the observed rainfall and temperature in the Amazon region was close to normal conditions. Meanwhile, the worst period in history for fire outbreaks began with the subsequent arrival of the dry season. September of 2017 exceeded all monthly records for number of fire outbreaks per month in the entire series. This increase was mainly concentrated in Bolivia and in the states of Amazonas, northeastern Pará, northern Rondônia and Acre, regions with high densities of rural settlements, which strongly suggests that human action is the predominant factor, aggravated by the lack of precipitation during the dry season allowing the fires to spread and reach larger areas. Thus, deforestation in the Amazon is primarily a human-driven process: climate trends may be providing additional influences.

Keywords: Climate Change, Deforestation, Amazon forest, human-driven process, fire outbreaks

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6 Driving Forces of Net Carbon Emissions in a Tropical Dry Forest, Oaxaca, México

Authors: Rogelio Omar Corona-Núñez, Alma Mendoza-Ponce

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The Tropical Dry Forest not only is one of the most important tropical ecosystems in terms of area, but also it is one of the most degraded ecosystems. However, little is known about the degradation impacts on carbon stocks, therefore in carbon emissions. There are different studies which explain its deforestation dynamics, but there is still a lack of understanding of how they correlate to carbon losses. Recently different authors have built current biomass maps for the tropics and Mexico. However, it is not clear how well they predict at the local scale, and how they can be used to estimate carbon emissions. This study quantifies the forest net carbon losses by comparing the potential carbon stocks and the different current biomass maps in the Southern Pacific coast in Oaxaca, Mexico. The results show important differences in the current biomass estimates with not a clear agreement. However, by the aggregation of the information, it is possible to infer the general patterns of biomass distribution and it can identify the driving forces of the carbon emissions. This study estimated that currently ~44% of the potential carbon stock estimated for the region is still present. A total of 6,764 GgC has been emitted due to deforestation and degradation of the forest at a rate of above ground biomass loss of 66.4 Mg ha-1. Which, ~62% of the total carbon emissions can be regarded as being due to forest degradation. Most of carbon losses were identified in places suitable for agriculture, close to rural areas and to roads while the lowest losses were accounted in places with high water stress and within the boundaries of the National Protected Area. Moreover, places not suitable for agriculture, but close to the coast showed carbon losses as a result of urban settlements.

Keywords: Deforestation, degradation, driving forces, above ground biomass, tropical deciduous forest

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5 Trends of Conservation and Development in Mexican Biosphere Reserves: Spatial Analysis and Linear Mixed Model

Authors: Cecilia Sosa, Fernanda Figueroa, Leonardo Calzada

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Biosphere reserves (BR) are considered as the main strategy for biodiversity and ecosystems conservation. Mexican BR are mainly inhabited by rural communities who strongly depend on forests and their resources. Even though the dual objective of conservation and development has been sought in BR, land cover change is a common process in these areas, while most rural communities are highly marginalized, partly as a result of restrictions imposed by conservation to the access and use of resources. Achieving ecosystems conservation and social development face serious challenges. Factors such as financial support for development projects (public/private), environmental conditions, infrastructure and regional economic conditions might influence both land use change and wellbeing. Examining the temporal trends of conservation and development in BR is central for the evaluation of outcomes for these conservation strategies. In this study, we analyzed changes in primary vegetation cover (as a proxy for conservation) and the index of marginalization (as a proxy for development) in Mexican BR (2000-2015); we also explore the influence of various factors affecting these trends, such as conservation-development projects financial support (public or private), geographical distribution in ecoregions (as a proxy for shared environmental conditions) and in economic zones (as a proxy for regional economic conditions). We developed a spatial analysis at the municipal scale (2,458 municipalities nationwide) in ArcGIS, to obtain road densities, geographical distribution in ecoregions and economic zones, the financial support received, and the percent of municipality area under protection by protected areas and, particularly, by BR. Those municipalities with less than 25% of area under protection were regarded as part of the protected area. We obtained marginalization indexes for all municipalities and, using MODIS in Google Earth Engine, the number of pixels covered by primary vegetation. We used a linear mixed model in RStudio for the analysis. We found a positive correlation between the marginalization index and the percent of primary vegetation cover per year (r=0.49-0.5); i.e., municipalities with higher marginalization also show higher percent of primary vegetation cover. Also, those municipalities with higher area under protection have more development projects (r=0.46) and some environmental conditions were relevant for percent of vegetation cover. Time, economic zones and marginalization index were all important. Time was particularly, in 2005, when both marginalization and deforestation decreased. Road densities and financial support for conservation-development projects were irrelevant as factors in the general correlation. Marginalization is still being affected by the conservation strategies applied in BR, even though that this management category considers both conservation and development of local communities as its objectives. Our results suggest that roads densities and support for conservation-development projects have not been a factor of poverty alleviation. As better conservation is being attained in the most impoverished areas, we face the dilemma of how to improve wellbeing in rural communities under conservation, since current strategies have not been able to leave behind the conservation-development contraposition.

Keywords: Protected Areas, Deforestation, Marginalization, Local Development

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4 Dynamics of the Landscape in the Different Colonization Models Implemented in the Legal Amazon

Authors: Valdir Moura, FranciléIa De Oliveira E. Silva, Erivelto Mercante, Ranieli Dos Anjos De Souza, Jerry Adriani Johann

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Several colonization projects were implemented in the Brazilian Legal Amazon in the 1970s and 1980s. Among all of these colonization projects, the most prominent were those with the Fishbone and Topographic models. Within this scope, the projects of settlements known as Anari and Machadinho were created, which stood out because they are contiguous areas with different models and structure of occupation and colonization. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the dynamics of Land-Use and Land-Cover (LULC) in two different colonization models, implanted in the State of Rondonia in the 1980s. The Fishbone and Topographic models were implanted in the Anari and Machadinho settlements respectively. The understanding of these two forms of occupation will help in future colonization programs of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. These settlements are contiguous areas with different occupancy structures. A 32-year Landsat time series (1984-2016) was used to evaluate the rates and trends in the LULC process in the different colonization models. In the different occupation models analyzed, the results showed a rapid loss of primary and secondary forests (deforestation), mainly due to the dynamics of use, established by the Agriculture/Pasture (A/P) relation and, with heavy dependence due to road construction.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Deforestation, land-cover, rate fragments, secondary succession

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3 Creatures of the Clearing: Forests, People, and Ants in Imperial Brazil

Authors: Diogo de Carvalho Cabral

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This article offers a non-declensionist account of tropical deforestation, arguing that, rather than social stamp upon the environment or ecological endgame, deforestation is part of social site-making and remaking, the process through which humans produce sociality by carrying out nature-mediated – and therefore nature-transforming – practices that inevitably reset the very conditions of those practices. Human landscape-shaping inadvertently alters other species’ habitats –most often decimating them, but sometimes improving them–, the outcomes of which always resonate back upon human inhabitation and land use. Despite the overall tendency of biotic homogenization resulting from modern deforestation processes, there are always winners, i.e., species that gain competitive advantages enabling them to thrive in the novel ecosystems. Here it is examined one such case of deforestation-boosted species, namely leafcutter ants, which wrought havoc in the rural landscapes of nineteenth-century Brazil by defoliating a wide range of crops. By combining Historical GIS analysis and qualitative interpretation, it is shown how agricultural deforestation might have changed the ant species' biogeographies, and how in turn these changes – construed as 'infestation' – stimulated social innovations and rearrangements such as technical ingenuity, legal-administrative practices, and even local electoral arenas.

Keywords: Deforestation, leafcutter ants, nineteenth-century Brazil, socio-ecological change

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2 Assessing the High Rate of Deforestation Caused by the Operations of Timber Industries in Ghana

Authors: Obed Asamoah

Abstract:

Forests are very vital for human survival and our well-being. During the past years, the world has taken an increasingly significant role in the modification of the global environment. The high rate of deforestation in Ghana is of primary national concern as the forests provide many ecosystem services and functions that support the country’s predominantly agrarian economy and foreign earnings. Ghana forest is currently major source of carbon sink that helps to mitigate climate change. Ghana forests, both the reserves and off-reserves, are under pressure of deforestation. The causes of deforestation are varied but can broadly be categorized into anthropogenic and natural factors. For the anthropogenic factors, increased wood fuel collection, clearing of forests for agriculture, illegal and poorly regulated timber extraction, social and environmental conflicts, increasing urbanization and industrialization are the primary known causes for the loss of forests and woodlands. Mineral exploitation in the forest areas is considered as one of the major causes of deforestation in Ghana. Mining activities especially mining of gold by both the licensed mining companies and illegal mining groups who are locally known as "gallantly mining" also cause damage to the nation's forest reserves. Several works have been conducted regarding the causes of the high rate of deforestation in Ghana, major attention has been placed on illegal logging and using forest lands for illegal farming and mining activities. Less emphasis has been placed on the timber production companies on their harvesting methods in the forests in Ghana and other activities that are carried out in the forest. The main objective of the work is to find out the harvesting methods and the activities of the timber production companies and their effects on the forests in Ghana. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were engaged in the research work. The study population comprised of 20 Timber industries (Sawmills) forest areas of Ghana. These companies were selected randomly. The cluster sampling technique was engaged in selecting the respondents. Both primary and secondary data were employed. In the study, it was observed that most of the timber production companies do not know the age, the weight, the distance covered from the harvesting to the loading site in the forest. It was also observed that old and heavy machines are used by timber production companies in their operations in the forest, which makes the soil compact prevents regeneration and enhances soil erosion. It was observed that timber production companies do not abide by the rules and regulations governing their operations in the forest. The high rate of corruption on the side of the officials of the Ghana forestry commission makes the officials relax and do not embark on proper monitoring on the operations of the timber production companies which makes the timber companies to cause more harm to the forest. In other to curb this situation the Ghana forestry commission with the ministry of lands and natural resources should monitor the activities of the timber production companies and sanction all the companies that make foul play in their activities in the forest. The commission should also pay more attention to the policy “fell one plant 10” to enhance regeneration in both reserves and off-reserves forest.

Keywords: Forest, Deforestation, Timber, Companies, Ghana

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1 Livelihood and Willingness to Accept Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Degradation by Local People in the Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Adebayo John Julius, Emmanuel Imoagene

Abstract:

Mitigating global warming through reducing emission from deforestation and degradation (REDD) has been given increasing attentions in government-to-government negotiations while discussions among decision-makers have been going on, it is important to learn about the perception of local people in relation to REDD because the implementation will affect their lives. A survey was conducted using questionnaires to examine the livelihood and forest dependency of the local people in the vicinity of Onigambari and Ido area. Respondents’ income from forest activities and forest resources are collected. Participation in tourism related activities among the household members was also investigated to measure the potential of this “eco-friendly” income generation activity in the local communities. There was a general indication of reducing slash-and-burn activities with distance from the park and involvement in tourism-related job. Most of the local people were willing to accept compensation as alternative for slash-and-burn activities. The compensation preferred is in various form of development and different level of forest and environmental activities

Keywords: Emission, Deforestation, Local People, degradation, livelihood, Southwest Nigeria

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