Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

deflection Related Abstracts

15 Enhancement of Cement Mortar Mechanical Properties with Replacement of Seashell Powder

Authors: Abdoullah Namdar, Fadzil Mat Yahaya


Many synthetic additives have been using for improve cement mortar and concrete characteristics, but natural additive is a friendly environment option. The quantity of (2% and 4%) seashell powder has been replaced in cement mortar, and compared with plain cement mortar in early age of 7 days. The strain gauges have been installed on beams and cube, for monitoring fluctuation of flexural and compressive strength. Main objective of this paper is to study effect of linear static force on flexural and compressive strength of modified cement mortar. The results have been indicated that the replacement of appropriate proportion of seashell powder enhances cement mortar mechanical properties. The replacement of 2% seashell causes improvement of deflection, time to failure and maximum load to failure on concrete beam and cube, the same occurs for compressive modulus elasticity. Increase replacement of seashell to 4% reduces all flexural strength, compressive strength and strain of cement mortar.

Keywords: compressive strength, flexural strength, compressive modulus elasticity, time to failure, deflection

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14 Improvement of Performance for R. C. Beams Made from Recycled Aggregate by Using Non-Traditional Admixture

Authors: A. H. Yehia, M. M. Rashwan, K. A. Assaf, K. Abd el Samee


The aim of this work is to use an environmental, cheap; organic non-traditional admixture to improve the structural behavior of sustainable reinforced concrete beams contains different ratios of recycled concrete aggregate. The used admixture prepared by using wastes from vegetable oil industry. Under and over reinforced concrete beams made from natural aggregate and different ratios of recycled concrete aggregate were tested under static load until failure. Eight beams were tested to investigate the performance and mechanism effect of admixture on improving deformation characteristics, modulus of elasticity and toughness of tested beams. Test results show efficiency of organic admixture on improving flexural behavior of beams contains 20% recycled concrete aggregate more over the other ratios.

Keywords: Toughness, strain, deflection, modulus of elasticity, recycled concrete aggregate, non-traditional admixture, under and over reinforcement

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13 Flexural Behaviour of Normal Strength and High Strength Fibre Concrete Beams

Authors: Mostefa Hamrat, Bensaid Boulekbache, Mohamed Chemrouk, Sofiane Amziane


The paper presents the results of an experimental work on the flexural behaviour of two types of concrete in terms of the progressive cracking process until failure and the crack opening, and beam deflection, using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. At serviceability limit states, comparisons of the building code equations and the equations developed by some researchers for the short-term deflections and crack widths have been made using the reinforced concrete test beams. The experimental results show that the addition of steel fibers increases the first cracking load and amplify the number of cracks that conducts to a remarkable decreasing in the crack width with an increasing in ductility. This study also shows that there is a good agreement between the deflection values for RC beams predicted by the major codes (Eurocode2, ACI 318, and the CAN/CSA-S806) and the experimental results for beams with steel fibers at service load. The most important added benefit of the DIC technique is that it allows detecting the first crack with a high precision easily measures the crack opening and follows the progressive cracking process until failure of reinforced concrete members.

Keywords: Beams, Serviceability, deflection, Digital Image Correlation (DIC), crack width, codes provisions

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12 Study of Deflection at Junction in the Precast on Cyclic Loading

Authors: Sun-Kyu Park, Sungnam Hong, Jinwoong Choi, Jongho Park, Ui-Cheol Shin


While the numerous structures built the industrialization are aging, the effort for the maintenance is concentrated in many countries. However, the traffic jam, environmental damage, and enormous maintenance cost, and etc become a problem. So, in order to solve this, the modular bridge has been studied. This bridge is the structure which utilizes and assembles the standard precast member. Through this, the substitution of the existing bridge and advantage of the easy maintenance will be achieved. However, the reliability in the long-term behavior is insufficient due to the junction part between modular precast members. Therefore, in this research, the cyclic load loading experiment was performed on the junction and deflection was analyzed by long-term service in modular slab connection. The deflection of modular slab with junction was mostly generated when initial and final test.

Keywords: deflection, cyclic loading, modular bridge, junction

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11 The Impact on the Network Deflectometry

Authors: Djamel–Eddine Yassine Boutiba


In this present memory, we present the various impacts deflectometer leading to the sizing by strengthening of existing roadways. It reminds that the road network in Algeria plays a major role with regard to drainage in major strategic areas and especially in the fringe northern Algeria. Heavy traffic passing through the northern fringe (between 25% and 30% heavy vehicles) causes substantial degradations at both the surface layer and base layer. The work on site by means within the laboratory CTTP such as deflectographe Lacroix, allowed us to record a large number of deflection localized bending on RN19A (Carrefour CW73-Ain- Merane), whose analysis of the results led us to opt for a building throughout the band's project . By the recorder against HWD (Heavy Weight déflectometer) allowed us to learn about the behavior of the pavement on the banks. In addition, the Software Alize III has been essential in the verification of the increase in the thickness dimensioned.

Keywords: Capacity, degradation, deflection, deflectograph lacroix, hwd

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10 Analysis of Simply Supported Beams Using Elastic Beam Theory

Authors: M. K. Dce


The aim of this paper is to investigate the behavior of simply supported beams having rectangular section and subjected to uniformly distributed load (UDL). In this study five beams of span 5m, 6m, 7m and 8m have been considered. The width of all the beams is 400 mm and span to depth ratio has been taken as 12. The superimposed live load has been increased from 10 kN/m to 25 kN/m at the interval of 5 kN/m. The analysis of the beams has been carried out using the elastic beam theory. On the basis of present study it has been concluded that the maximum bending moment as well as deflection occurs at the mid-span of simply supported beam and its magnitude increases in proportion to magnitude of UDL. Moreover, the study suggests that the maximum moment is proportional to square of span and maximum deflection is proportional to fourth power of span.

Keywords: Bending Moment, deflection, beam, UDL, elastic beam theory

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9 Evaluation of Initial Graft Tension during ACL Reconstruction Using a Three-Dimensional Computational Finite Element Simulation: Effect of the Combination of a Band of Gracilis with the Former Graft

Authors: S. Alireza Mirghasemi, Javad Parvizi, Narges R. Gabaran, Shervin Rashidinia, Mahdi M. Bijanabadi, Dariush G. Savadkoohi


Background: The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the most frequent ligament to be disrupted. Surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament is a common practice to treat the disability or chronic instability of the knee. Several factors associated with success or failure of the ACL reconstruction including preoperative laxity of the knee, selection of the graft material, surgical technique, graft tension, and postoperative rehabilitation. We aimed to examine the biomechanical properties of any graft type and initial graft tensioning during ACL reconstruction using 3-dimensional computational finite element simulation. Methods: In this paper, 3-dimensional model of the knee was constructed to investigate the effect of graft tensioning on the knee joint biomechanics. Four different grafts were compared: 1) Bone-patellar tendon-bone graft (BPTB) 2) Hamstring tendon 3) BPTB and a band of gracilis4) Hamstring and a band of gracilis. The initial graft tension was set as “0, 20, 40, or 60N”. The anterior loading was set to 134 N. Findings: The resulting stress pattern and deflection in any of these models were compared to that of the intact knee. The obtained results showed that the combination of a band of gracilis with the former graft (BPTB or Hamstring) increases the structural stiffness of the knee. Conclusion: Required pretension during surgery decreases significantly by adding a band of gracilis to the proper graft.

Keywords: deflection, ACL reconstruction, finite element simulation, stress pattern

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8 Research on Straightening Process Model Based on Iteration and Self-Learning

Authors: Hong Lu, Xiong Xiao


Shaft parts are widely used in machinery industry, however, bending deformation often occurred when this kind of parts is being heat treated. This parts needs to be straightened to meet the requirement of straightness. As for the pressure straightening process, a good straightening stroke algorithm is related to the precision and efficiency of straightening process. In this paper, the relationship between straightening load and deflection during the straightening process is analyzed, and the mathematical model of the straightening process has been established. By the mathematical model, the iterative method is used to solve the straightening stroke. Compared to the traditional straightening stroke algorithm, straightening stroke calculated by this method is much more precise; because it can adapt to the change of material performance parameters. Considering that the straightening method is widely used in the mass production of the shaft parts, knowledge base is used to store the data of the straightening process, and a straightening stroke algorithm based on empirical data is set up. In this paper, the straightening process control model which combine the straightening stroke method based on iteration and straightening stroke algorithm based on empirical data has been set up. Finally, an experiment has been designed to verify the straightening process control model.

Keywords: deflection, straightness, straightening stroke, shaft parts

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7 Crack Propagation Effect at the Interface of a Composite Beam

Authors: Mezidi Amar


In this research work, crack propagation at the interface of a composite beam is considered. The behavior of composite beams (CB) depends upon a law based on relationship between tangential or normal efforts with inelastic propagation. Throughout this study, composite beams are classified like composite beams with partial connection or sandwich beams of three layers. These structural systems are controlled by the same nature of differential equations regarding their behavior in the plane, as well as out-of-plane. Multi-layer elements with partial connection are typically met in the field of timber construction where the elements are assembled by joining. The formalism of the behavior in the plane and out-of-plane of these composite beams is obtained and their results concerning the engineering aspect or simple of interpretation are proposed for the case of composite beams made up of rectangular section and simply supported section. An apparent analytical peculiarity or paradox in the bending behavior of elastic–composite beams with interlayer slip, sandwich beam or other similar problems subjected to boundary moments exists. For a fully composite beam subjected to end moments, the partial composite model will render a non-vanishing uniform value for the normal force in the individual subelement. Obtained results are similar to those for the case of vibrations in the plane as well for the composite beams as for the sandwich beams where eigen-frequencies increase with related rigidity.

Keywords: Behaviour, Interface, propagation, deflection, composite beam

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6 Assessment of Mechanical Properties of Induction Furnace Slag as Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate in Concrete

Authors: TARIQ ALI, Muhammad Javed Bhatti, Muazz Ali


Due to growing environmental awareness in Pakistan, the researchers are increasingly turning to assess and analyze properties of industrial waste and finding solutions on using industrial waste as secondary material. Due to industrialization, enormous by-products are produced and to utilize these by-products is the main challenge faced in Pakistan. Induction furnace slag is one of the industrial by-products from the iron and steel making industries. This paper highlights the true utilization of induction furnace slag as partial replacement of fine aggregate. For the experimental investigation, mixes were prepared with fine aggregate replacement using 0 percent, 5 percent, 10 percent, 15 percent, 20 percent, 25 percent, 30 percent, 35 percent and 40 percent induction furnace slag to evaluate the workability, compaction factor, compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity.

Keywords: compressive strength, workability, deflection, induction furnace slag

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5 Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of Forced Vibrations in Micro-Scale Microstretch Thermoelastic Simply Supported Beam

Authors: Geeta Partap, Nitika Chugh


The present paper deals with the flexural vibrations of homogeneous, isotropic, generalized micropolar microstretch thermoelastic thin Euler-Bernoulli beam resonators, due to Exponential time varying load. Both the axial ends of the beam are assumed to be at simply supported conditions. The governing equations have been solved analytically by using Laplace transforms technique twice with respect to time and space variables respectively. The inversion of Laplace transform in time domain has been performed by using the calculus of residues to obtain deflection.The analytical results have been numerically analyzed with the help of MATLAB software for magnesium like material. The graphical representations and interpretations have been discussed for Deflection of beam under Simply Supported boundary condition and for distinct considered values of time and space as well. The obtained results are easy to implement for engineering analysis and designs of resonators (sensors), modulators, actuators.

Keywords: microstretch, deflection, Laplace transforms, exponential load, residue theorem, simply supported

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4 The Side Effect of the Perforation Shape towards Behaviour Flexural in Castellated Beam

Authors: Harrys Purnama, Wardatul Jannah, Rizkia Nita Hawari


In the development of the times, there are many materials used to plan a building structure. Steel became one of the most widely used materials in building construction that works as the main structure. Steel Castellated Beam is a type of innovation in the use of steel in building construction. Steel Castellated Beam is a beam that used for long span construction (more than 10 meters). The Castellated Beam is two steel profiles that unified into one to get the appropriate profile height (more than 10 meters). The profile is perforated to minimize the profile's weight, increase the rate, save costs, and have architectural value. The perforations shape in the Castellated Beam can be circular, elliptical, hexagonal, and rectangular. The Castellated beam has a height (h) almost 50% higher than the initial profile thus increasing the axial bending value and the moment of inertia (Iₓ). In this analysis, there are 3 specimens were used with 12.1 meters span of Castellated Beam as the sample with varied perforation, such us round, hexagon, and octagon. Castellated Beam testing system is done with computer-based applications that named Staad Pro V8i. It is to provide a central load in the middle of the steel beam span. It aims to determine the effect of perforation on bending behavior on the steel Castellated Beam by applying some form of perforations on the steel Castellated Beam with test specimen WF From the analysis, results found the behavior of steel Castellated Beam when receiving such central load. From the results of the analysis will be obtained the amount of load, shear, strain, and Δ (deflection). The result of analysis by using Staad Pro V8i shows that with the different form of perforations on the profile of Castellated steel, then we get the different tendency of inertia moment. From the analysis, results obtained the moment of the greatest inertia can increase the stiffness of Castellated steel. By increasing the stiffness of the steel Castellated Beam the deflection will be smaller, so it can withstand the moment and a large strength. The results of the analysis show that the most effective and efficient perforations are the steel beam with a hexagon perforation shape.

Keywords: stress, deflection, bending test, castellated beam, the moment of inertia

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3 Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of a Shaft Failure Behaviour Using Three-Point Bending Test

Authors: Sara Salman Hassan Al-Maeeni, Bernd Engel


A substantial amount of natural resources are nowadays consumed at a growing rate, as humans all over the world used materials obtained from the Earth. Machinery manufacturing industry is one of the major resource consumers on a global scale. Even though the incessant finding out of the new material, metals, and resources, it is urgent for the industry to develop methods to use the Earth's resources intelligently and more sustainable than before. Re-engineering of machine tools regarding design and failure analysis is an approach whereby out-of-date machines are upgraded and returned to useful life. To ensure the reliable future performance of the used machine components, it is essential to investigate the machine component failure through the material, design, and surface examinations. This paper presents an experimental approach aimed at inspecting the shaft of the rotary draw bending machine as a case to study. The testing methodology, which is based on the principle of the three-point bending test, allows assessing the shaft elastic behavior under loading. Furthermore, the shaft elastic characteristics include the maximum linear deflection, and maximum bending stress was determined by using an analytical approach and finite element (FE) analysis approach. In the end, the results were compared with the ones obtained by the experimental approach. In conclusion, it is seen that the measured bending deflection and bending stress were well close to the permissible design value. Therefore, the shaft can work in the second life cycle. However, based on previous surface tests conducted, the shaft needs surface treatments include re-carburizing and refining processes to ensure the reliable surface performance.

Keywords: stress, deflection, FE analysis, shaft, three-point bending

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2 Structural Performance of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Plates: Experimental Study

Authors: Mazin Mohammed S. Sarhan


This study presents the performance of concrete beams reinforced with steel plates as a technique of reinforcement. Three reinforced concrete beams with the dimensions of 200 mm x 300 mm x 4000 mm (width x height x length, respectively) were experimentally investigated under flexural loading. The deformed steel bars were used as the main reinforcement for the first beam. A steel plate placed horizontally was used as the main reinforcement for the second beam. The bond between the steel plate and the surrounding concrete was enhanced by using steel bolts (with a diameter of 20 mm and length of 100 mm) welded to the steel plate at a regular distance of 200 mm. A pair of steel plates placed vertically was used as the main reinforcement for the third beam. The bond between the pair steel plates and the surrounding concrete was enhanced by using 4 equal steel angles (with the dimensions of 75 mm x 75 mm and the thickness of 8 mm) for each vertical steel plate. Two steel angles were welded at each end of the steel plate. The outcomes revealed that the bending stiffness of the beams reinforced with steel plates was higher than that reinforced with deformed steel bars. Also, the flexural ductile behavior of the second beam was much higher than the rest beams.

Keywords: Ductility, Plate, deflection, concrete beam

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1 Monitoring of Bridges by Using Static and Dynamic Data from Micro Electro Mechanical System Accelerometers

Authors: Mathieu Desbazeille, Nathalie Saguin Sprynski, Viviane Cattin, Malvina Billeres, Laurent Jouanet, Audrey Vidal


Structural Health Monitoring methods may be divided into two major categories depending on the type of data used during the damage identification: static or dynamic. In this paper, it is shown that both analyses can be performed with the same instrumentation composed only of Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) accelerometers. The latter has the capability to measure static and dynamic data. In very low frequency, accelerometers are used as inclination sensors to estimate static deflection. In higher frequency, accelerometers are used as vibration sensors to perform modal analysis. Both analyses are illustrated in the case of a real footbridge. Static deflections and modal flexibility-based deflections are compared in artificially-introduced damage conditions. Very good agreements are obtained, showing the relevance of the two approaches. Static and dynamic analyses could be used in a complementary way and provide additional information in order to reinforce the confidence and the accuracy of the damage identification.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, Damage Identification, deflection, static and dynamic data, modal flexibility matrix, modal flexibility-based deflection

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