Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

deep eutectic solvents Related Abstracts

6 Deep Eutectic Solvent/ Polyimide Blended Membranes for Anaerobic Digestion Gas Separation

Authors: Glemarie C. Hermosa, Sheng-Jie You, Chien Chih Hu


Efficient separation technologies are required for the removal of carbon dioxide from natural gas streams. Membrane-based natural gas separation has emerged as one of the fastest growing technologies, due to the compactness, higher energy efficiency and economic advantages which can be reaped. The removal of Carbon dioxide from gas streams using membrane technology will also give the advantage like environmental friendly process compared to the other technologies used in gas separation. In this study, Polyimide membranes, which are mostly used in the separation of gases, are blended with a new kind of solvent: Deep Eutectic Solvents or simply DES. The three types of DES are used are choline chloride based mixed with three different hydrogen bond donors: Lactic acid, N-methylurea and Urea. The blending of the DESs to Polyimide gave out high permeability performance. The Gas Separation performance for all the membranes involving CO2/CH4 showed low performance while for CO2/N2 surpassed the performance of some studies. Among the three types of DES used the solvent Choline Chloride/Lactic acid exhibited the highest performance for both Gas Separation applications. The values are 10.5 for CO2/CH4 selectivity and 60.5 for CO2/N2. The separation results for CO2/CH4 may be due to the viscosity of the DESs affecting the morphology of the fabricated membrane thus also impacts the performance. DES/blended Polyimide membranes fabricated are novel and have the potential of a low-cost and environmental friendly application for gas separation.

Keywords: Gas separation, deep eutectic solvents, polyimide blends, polyimide membranes

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5 Metal Extraction into Ionic Liquids and Hydrophobic Deep Eutectic Mixtures

Authors: E. E. Tereshatov, M. Yu. Boltoeva, V. Mazan, M. F. Volia, C. M. Folden III


Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are a class of liquid organic salts with melting points below 20 °C that are considered to be environmentally friendly ‘designers’ solvents. Pure hydrophobic ILs are known to extract metallic species from aqueous solutions. The closest analogues of ionic liquids are deep eutectic solvents (DESs), which are a eutectic mixture of at least two compounds with a melting point lower than that of each individual component. DESs are acknowledged to be attractive for organic synthesis and metal processing. Thus, these non-volatile and less toxic compounds are of interest for critical metal extraction. The US Department of Energy and the European Commission consider indium as a key metal. Its chemical homologue, thallium, is also an important material for some applications and environmental safety. The aim of this work is to systematically investigate In and Tl extraction from aqueous solutions into pure fluorinated ILs and hydrophobic DESs. The dependence of the Tl extraction efficiency on the structure and composition of the ionic liquid ions, metal oxidation state, and initial metal and aqueous acid concentrations have been studied. The extraction efficiency of the TlXz3–z anionic species (where X = Cl– and/or Br–) is greater for ionic liquids with more hydrophobic cations. Unexpectedly high distribution ratios (> 103) of Tl(III) were determined even by applying a pure ionic liquid as receiving phase. An improved mathematical model based on ion exchange and ion pair formation mechanisms has been developed to describe the co-extraction of two different anionic species, and the relative contributions of each mechanism have been determined. The first evidence of indium extraction into new quaternary ammonium- and menthol-based hydrophobic DESs from hydrochloric and oxalic acid solutions with distribution ratios up to 103 will be provided. Data obtained allow us to interpret the mechanism of thallium and indium extraction into ILs and DESs media. The understanding of Tl and In chemical behavior in these new media is imperative for the further improvement of separation and purification of these elements.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, thallium, deep eutectic solvents, indium

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4 COSMO-RS Prediction for Choline Chloride/Urea Based Deep Eutectic Solvent: Chemical Structure and Application as Agent for Natural Gas Dehydration

Authors: Tayeb Aissaoui, Inas M. AlNashef


In recent years, green solvents named deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been found to possess significant properties and to be applicable in several technologies. Choline chloride (ChCl) mixed with urea at a ratio of 1:2 and 80 °C was the first discovered DES. In this article, chemical structure and combination mechanism of ChCl: urea based DES were investigated. Moreover, the implementation of this DES in water removal from natural gas was reported. Dehydration of natural gas by ChCl:urea shows significant absorption efficiency compared to triethylene glycol. All above operations were retrieved from COSMOthermX software. This article confirms the potential application of DESs in gas industry.

Keywords: Natural Gas, Structure, dehydration, COSMO-RS, deep eutectic solvents, organic salt

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3 Kinetic Study on Extracting Lignin from Black Liquor Using Deep Eutectic Solvents

Authors: Fatemeh Saadat Ghareh Bagh, Srimanta Ray, Jerald Lalman


Lignin, the largest inventory of organic carbon with a high caloric energy value is a major component in woody and non-woody biomass. In pulping mills, a large amount of the lignin is burned for energy. At the same time, the phenolic structure of lignin enables it to be converted to value-added compounds.This study has focused on extracting lignin from black liquor using deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Therefore, three choline chloride (ChCl)-DESs paired with lactic acid (LA) (1:11), oxalic acid.2H₂O (OX) (1:4), and malic acid (MA) (1:3) were synthesized at 90oC and atmospheric pressure. The kinetics of lignin recovery from black liquor using DES was investigated at three moderate temperatures (338, 353, and 368 K) at time intervals from 30 to 210 min. The extracted lignin (acid soluble lignin plus Klason lignin) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The FTIR studies included comparing the extracted lignin with a model Kraft lignin. The extracted lignin was characterized spectrophotometrically to determine the acid soluble lignin (ASL) [TAPPI UM 250] fraction and Klason lignin was determined gravimetrically using TAPPI T 222 om02. The lignin extraction reaction using DESs was modeled by first-order reaction kinetics and the activation energy of the process was determined. The ChCl:LA-DES recovered lignin was 79.7±2.1% at 368K and a DES:BL ratio of 4:1 (v/v). The quantity of lignin extracted for the control solvent, [emim][OAc], was 77.5+2.2%. The activation energy measured for the LA-DES system was 22.7 KJ mol⁻¹, while the activation energy for the OX-DES and MA-DES systems were 7.16 KJ·mol⁻¹ and 8.66 KJ·mol⁻¹ when the total lignin recovery was 75.4 ±0.9% and 62.4 ±1.4, % respectively.

Keywords: Kinetics, Lignin, black liquor, deep eutectic solvents

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2 Metal-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents for Extractive Desulfurization of Fuels: Analysis from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

Authors: Dhawal Shah, Aibek Kukpayev


Combustion of sour fuels containing high amount of sulfur leads to the formation of sulfur oxides, which adversely harm the environment and has a negative impact on human health. Considering this, several legislations have been imposed to bring down the sulfur content in fuel to less than 10 ppm. In recent years, novel deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been developed to achieve deep desulfurization, particularly to extract thiophenic compounds from liquid fuels. These novel DESs, considered as analogous to ionic liquids are green, eco-friendly, inexpensive, and sustainable. We herein, using molecular dynamic simulation, analyze the interactions of metal-based DESs with model oil consisting of thiophenic compounds. The DES used consists of polyethylene glycol (PEG-200) as a hydrogen bond donor, choline chloride (ChCl) or tetrabutyl ammonium chloride (TBAC) as a hydrogen bond acceptor, and cobalt chloride (CoCl₂) as metal salt. In particular, the combination of ChCl: PEG-200:CoCl₂ at a ratio 1:2:1 and the combination of TBAC:PEG-200:CoCl₂ at a ratio 1:2:0.25 were simulated, separately, with model oil consisting of octane and thiophenes at 25ᵒC and 1 bar. The results of molecular dynamics simulations were analyzed in terms of interaction energies between different components. The simulations revealed a stronger interaction between DESs/thiophenes as compared with octane/thiophenes, suggestive of an efficient desulfurization process. In addition, our analysis suggests that the choice of hydrogen bond acceptor strongly influences the efficiency of the desulfurization process. Taken together, the results also show the importance of the metal ion, although present in small amount, in the process, and the role of the polymer in desulfurization of the model fuel.

Keywords: Molecular Dynamics Simulations, desulfurization, deep eutectic solvents, thiophenes

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1 An Eco-Friendly Preparations of Izonicotinamide Quaternary Salts in Deep Eutectic Solvents

Authors: Dajana Gašo-Sokač, Valentina Bušić


Deep eutectic solvents (DES) are liquids composed of two or three safe, inexpensive components, often interconnected by noncovalent hydrogen bonds which produce eutectic mixture whose melting point is lower than that of each component. No data in literature have been found on the quaternization reaction in DES. The use of DES have several advantages: they are environmentally benign and biodegradable, easy for purification and simple for preparation. An environmentally sustainable method for preparing quaternary salts of izonicotinamide and substituted 2-bromoacetophenones was demonstrated here using choline chloride-based DES. The quaternization reaction was carried out by three synthetic approaches: conventional method, microwave and ultrasonic irradiation. We showed that the highest yields were obtained by the microwave method.

Keywords: microwave synthesis, deep eutectic solvents, ultrasonic irradiation, izonicotinamide salts

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