Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

decontamination Related Abstracts

9 Text Mining Analysis of the Reconstruction Plans after the Great East Japan Earthquake

Authors: Minami Ito, Akihiro Iijima


On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred off the coast of Sanriku, Japan. It is important to build a sustainable society through the reconstruction process rather than simply restoring the infrastructure. To compare the goals of reconstruction plans of quake-stricken municipalities, Japanese language morphological analysis was performed by using text mining techniques. Frequently-used nouns were sorted into four main categories of “life”, “disaster prevention”, “economy”, and “harmony with environment”. Because Soma City is affected by nuclear accident, sentences tagged to “harmony with environment” tended to be frequent compared to the other municipalities. Results from cluster analysis and principle component analysis clearly indicated that the local government reinforces the efforts to reduce risks from radiation exposure as a top priority.

Keywords: decontamination, eco-friendly reconstruction, harmony with environment, nuclear disaster

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8 Comparison Study of 70% Ethanol Effect on Direct and Retrival Culture of Contaminated Umblical Cord Tissue for Expansion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Ganeshkumar, Ashika, Valavan, Ramesh, Thangam, Chirayu


MSCs are found in much higher concentration in the Wharton’s jelly compared to the umbilical cord blood, which is a rich source of hematopoietic stem cells. Umbilical cord tissue is collected at the time of birth; it is processed and stored in liquid nitrogen for future therapeutical purpose. The source of contamination might be either from vaginal tract of mother or from hospital environment or from personal handling during cord tissue sample collection. If the sample were contaminated, decontamination procedure will be done with 70% ethanol (1 minute) in order to avoid sample rejection. Ethanol is effective against a wide range of bacteria, protozoa and fungi and has low toxicity to humans. Among the 1954 samples taken for the study, 24 samples were found to be contaminated with microorganism. The organisms isolated from the positive samples were found to be E. coli, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas aueroginosa, Enterococcus fecalis, Acinetobacter bowmani, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter cloacae, and Proteus mirabilis. Among these organisms 70% ethanol successfully eliminated E. coli, Enterococcus fecalis, Acinetobacter bowmani, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Proteus mirabilis. 70% ethanol was unsuccessful in eliminating Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas aueroginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas aueroginosa have the ability to form biofilm that make them resistant to alcohol. Biofilm act as protective layer for bacteria and which protects them from host defense and antibiotic wash. Finally it was found 70% ethanol wash saved 58.3% cord tissue samples from rejection and it is ineffective against 41% of the samples. The contamination rate can be reduced by maintaining proper aseptic techniques during sample collection and processing.

Keywords: Contamination, decontamination, umblical cord tissue

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7 Synthesis and Applications of Biosorbent from Barley Husk for Adsorption of Heavy Metals and Bacteria from Water

Authors: Sudarshan Kalsulkar, Sunil S. Bhagwat


Biosorption is a physiochemical process that occurs naturally in certain biomass which allows it to passively concentrate and bind contaminants onto its cellular structure. Activated carbons (AC) are one such efficient biosorbents made by utilizing lignocellulosic materials from agricultural waste. Steam activated carbon (AC) was synthesized from Barley husk. Its synthesis parameters of time and temperature were optimized. Its physico-chemical properties like density, surface area, pore volume, Methylene blue and Iodine values were characterized. BET surface area was found to be 42 m²/g. Batch Adsorption tests were carried out to determine the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) for various metal ions. Cd+2 48.74 mg/g, Pb+2 19.28 mg/g, Hg+2 39.1mg/g were the respective qmax values. pH and time were optimized for adsorption of each ion. Column Adsorptions were carried for each to obtain breakthrough data. Microbial adsorption was carried using E. coli K12 strain. 78% reduction in cell count was observed at operating conditions. Thus the synthesized Barley husk AC can be an economically feasible replacement for commercially available AC prepared from the costlier coconut shells. Breweries and malting industries where barley husk is a primary waste generated on a large scale can be a good source for bulk raw material.

Keywords: Water Treatment, decontamination, activated carbon, biosorption, Barley husk, heavy metal removal

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6 Sustainable Technologies for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

Authors: Ahmed Stifi, Sascha Gentes


The German nuclear industry, while implementing the German policy, believes that the journey towards the green-field, namely phasing out of nuclear energy, should be achieved through green techniques. The most important techniques required for the wide range of decommissioning activities are decontamination techniques, cutting techniques, radioactivity measuring techniques, remote control techniques, techniques for worker and environmental protection and techniques for treating, preconditioning and conditioning nuclear waste. Many decontamination techniques are used for removing contamination from metal, concrete or other surfaces like the scales inside pipes. As the pipeline system is one of the important components of nuclear power plants, the process of decontamination in tubing is of more significance. The development of energy sectors like oil sector, gas sector and nuclear sector, since the middle of 20th century, increased the pipeline industry and the research in the decontamination of tubing in each sector is found to serve each other. The extraction of natural products and material through the pipeline can result in scale formation. These scales can be radioactively contaminated through an accumulation process especially in the petrochemical industry when oil and gas are extracted from the underground reservoir. The radioactivity measured in these scales can be significantly high and pose a great threat to people and the environment. At present, the decontamination process involves using high pressure water jets with or without abrasive material and this technology produces a high amount of secondary waste. In order to overcome it, the research team within Karlsruhe Institute of Technology developed a new sustainable method to carry out the decontamination of tubing without producing any secondary waste. This method is based on vibration technique which removes scales and also does not require any auxiliary materials. The outcome of the research project proves that the vibration technique used for decontamination of tubing is environmental friendly in other words a sustainable technique.

Keywords: Sustainable Technologies, decontamination, Pipeline, nuclear industry

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5 Effectivity Analysis of The Decontamination Products for Radioactive 99mTc Used in Nuclear Medicine

Authors: Hayrettin Eroglu, Oguz Aksakal


In this study, it is analysed that which decontamination products are more effective and how decontamination process should be performed in the case of contamination of radioactive 99mTc which is the most common radioactive element used in nuclear applications dealing with the human body or the environment. Based on the study, it is observed that existing radioactive washers are less effective than expected, alcohol has no effect on the decontamination of 99mTc, and temperature and pH are the most important factors. In the light of the analysis, it is concluded that the most effective decontamination product is DM-D (Decontamination Material-D). When the effect of DM-D on surfaces is analysed, it is observed that decontamination is very fast on scrubs and formica with both DM-D and water, and although DM-D is very effective on skin, it is not effective on f ceramic tiles and plastic floor covering material. Also in this study, the effectiveness of different molecular groups in the decontaminant was investigated. As a result, the acetate group has been observed as the most effective component of the decontaminant.

Keywords: Contamination, decontamination, radioactive, technetium

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4 Guidelines to Designing Generic Protocol for Responding to Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Incidents

Authors: Mohammad H. Yarmohammadian, Mehdi Nasr Isfahani, Elham Anbari


Introduction: The awareness of using chemical, biological, and nuclear agents in everyday industrial and non-industrial incidents has increased recently; release of these materials can be accidental or intentional. Since hospitals are the forefronts of confronting Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear( CBRN) incidents, the goal of the present research was to provide a generic protocol for CBRN incidents through a comparative review of CBRN protocols and guidelines of different countries and reviewing various books, handbooks and papers. Method: The integrative approach or research synthesis was adopted in this study. First a simple narrative review of programs, books, handbooks, and papers about response to CBRN incidents in different countries was carried out. Then the most important and functional information was discussed in the form of a generic protocol in focus group sessions and subsequently confirmed. Results: Findings indicated that most of the countries had various protocols, guidelines, and handbooks for hazardous materials or CBRN incidents. The final outcome of the research synthesis was a 50 page generic protocol whose main topics included introduction, definition and classification of CBRN agents, four major phases of incident and disaster management cycle, hospital response management plan, equipment, and recommended supplies and antidotes for decontamination (radiological/nuclear, chemical, biological); each of these also had subtopics. Conclusion: In the majority of international protocols, guidelines, handbooks and also international and Iranian books and papers, there is an emphasis on the importance of incident command system, determining the safety degree of decontamination zones, maps of decontamination zones, decontamination process, triage classifications, personal protective equipment, and supplies and antidotes for decontamination; these are the least requirements for such incidents and also consistent with the provided generic protocol.

Keywords: hospital, decontamination, CBRN, generic protocol, CBRN Incidents

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3 Farmers Perception in Pesticide Usage in Curry Leaf (Murraya koeinigii (L.))

Authors: Swarupa Shashi Senivarapu Vemuri


Curry leaf (Murraya koeinigii (L.)) exported from India had insecticide residues above maximum residue limits, which are hazardous to consumer health and caused rejection of the commodity at the point of entry in Europe and middle east resulting in a check on export of curry leaf. Hence to study current pesticide usage patterns in major curry leaf growing areas, a survey on pesticide use pattern was carried out in curry leaf growing areas in Guntur districts of Andhra Pradesh during 2014-15, by interviewing farmers growing curry leaf utilizing the questionnaire to assess their knowledge and practices on crop cultivation, general awareness on pesticide recommendations and use. Education levels of farmers are less, where 13.96 per cent were only high school educated, and 13.96% were illiterates. 18.60% farmers were found cultivating curry leaf crop in less than 1 acre of land, 32.56% in 2-5 acres, 20.93% in 5-10 acres and 27.91% of the farmers in more than 10 acres of land. Majority of the curry leaf farmers (93.03%) used pesticide mixtures rather than applying single pesticide at a time, basically to save time, labour, money and to combat two or more pests with single spray. About 53.48% of farmers applied pesticides at 2 days interval followed by 34.89% of the farmers at 4 days interval, and about 11.63% of the farmers sprayed at weekly intervals. Only 27.91% of farmers thought that the quantity of pesticides used at their farm is adequate, 90.69% of farmers had perception that pesticides are helpful in getting good returns. 83.72% of farmers felt that crop change is the only way to control sucking pests which damages whole crop. About 4.65% of the curry leaf farmers opined that integrated pest management practices are alternative to pesticides and only 11.63% of farmers felt natural control as an alternative to pesticides. About 65.12% of farmers had perception that high pesticide dose will give higher yields. However, in general, Curry leaf farmers preferred to contact pesticide dealers (100%) and were not interested in contacting either agricultural officer or a scientist. Farmers were aware of endosulfan ban 93.04%), in contrast, only 65.12, per cent of farmers knew about the ban of monocrotophos on vegetables. Very few farmers knew about pesticide residues and decontamination by washing. Extension educational interventions are necessary to produce fresh curry leaf free from pesticide residues.

Keywords: decontamination, endosulfan, Curry leaf, leaf roller, psyllids, tetranychid mite

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2 The Use of Microbiological Methods to Reduce Aflatoxin M1 in Cheese

Authors: Bruna Goncalves, Jennifer Henck, Romulo Uliana, Eliana Kamimura, Carlos Oliveira, Carlos Corassin


Studies have shown evidence of human exposure to aflatoxin M1 due to the consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products (mainly cheeses). This poses a great risk to public health, since milk and milk products are frequently consumed by a portion of the population considered immunosuppressed, children and the elderly. Knowledge of the negative impacts of aflatoxins on health and economics has led to investigations of strategies to prevent their formation in food, as well as to eliminate, inactivate or reduce the bioavailability of these toxins in contaminated products This study evaluated the effect of microbiological methods using lactic acid bacteria on aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) reduction in Minas Frescal cheese (typical Brazilian product, being among the most consumed cheeses in Brazil) spiked with 1 µg/L AFM1. Inactivated lactic acid bacteria (0,5%, v/v de L. rhamnosus e L. lactis) were added during the cheese production process. Nine cheeses were produced, divided into three treatments: negative controls (without AFM1 or lactic acid bacteria), positive controls (AFM1 only), and lactic acid bacteria + AFM1. Samples of cheese were collected on days 2, 10, 20 and 30 after the date of production and submitted to composition analyses and determination of AFM1 by high-performance liquid chromatography. The reductions of AFM1 in cheese by lactic acid bacteria at the end of the trial indicate a potential application of inactivated lactic acid bacteria in reducing the bioavailability of AFM1 in Minas frescal cheese without physical-chemical and microbiological modifications during the 30-day experimental period. The authors would like to thank São Paulo Research Foundation – FAPESP (grants #2017/20081-6 and #2017/19683-1).

Keywords: Milk, decontamination, aflatoxin, minas frescal cheese

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1 Addressing the Biocide Residue Issue in Museum Collections Already in the Planning Phase: An Investigation Into the Decontamination of Biocide Polluted Museum Collections Using the Temperature and Humidity Controlled Integrated Contamination Manageme

Authors: Nikolaus Wilke, Boaz Paz


Museum staff, conservators, restorers, curators, registrars, art handlers but potentially also museum visitors are often exposed to the harmful effects of biocides, which have been applied to collections in the past for the protection and preservation of cultural heritage. Due to stable light, moisture, and temperature conditions, the biocidal active ingredients were preserved for much longer than originally assumed by chemists, pest controllers, and museum scientists. Given the requirements to minimize the use and handling of toxic substances and the obligations of employers regarding safe working environments for their employees, but also for visitors, the museum sector worldwide needs adequate decontamination solutions. Today there are millions of contaminated objects in museums. This paper introduces the results of a systematic investigation into the reduction rate of biocide contamination in various organic materials that were treated with the humidity and temperature controlled ICM (Integrated Contamination Management) method. In the past, collections were treated with a wide range, at times even with a combination of toxins, either preventively or to eliminate active insect or fungi infestations. It was only later that most of those toxins were recognized as CMR (cancerogenic mutagen reprotoxic) substances. Among them were numerous chemical substances that are banned today because of their toxicity. While the biocidal effect of inorganic salts such as arsenic (arsenic(III) oxide), sublimate (mercury(II) chloride), copper oxychloride (basic copper chloride) and zinc chloride was known very early on, organic tar distillates such as paradichlorobenzene, carbolineum, creosote and naphthalene were increasingly used from the 19th century onwards, especially as wood preservatives. With the rapid development of organic synthesis chemistry in the 20th century and the development of highly effective warfare agents, pesticides and fungicides, these substances were replaced by chlorogenic compounds (e.g. γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), pentachlorophenol (PCP), hormone-like derivatives such as synthetic pyrethroids (e.g., permethrin, deltamethrin, cyfluthrin) and phosphoric acid esters (e.g., dichlorvos, chlorpyrifos). Today we know that textile artifacts (costumes, uniforms, carpets, tapestries), wooden objects, herbaria, libraries, archives and historical wall decorations made of fabric, paper and leather were also widely treated with toxic inorganic and organic substances. The migration (emission) of pollutants from the contaminated objects leads to continuous (secondary) contamination and accumulation in the indoor air and dust. It is important to note that many of mentioned toxic substances are also material-damaging; they cause discoloration and corrosion. Some, such as DDT, form crystals, which in turn can cause micro tectonic, destructive shifting, for example, in paint layers. Museums must integrate sustainable solutions to address the residual biocide problems already in the planning phase. Gas and dust phase measurements and analysis must become standard as well as methods of decontamination.

Keywords: decontamination, Museum Collections, Biocides, toxic substances in museums

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