Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

DEA Related Abstracts

18 A Super-Efficiency Model for Evaluating Efficiency in the Presence of Time Lag Effect

Authors: Yanshuang Zhang, Byungho Jeong


In many cases, there is a time lag between the consumption of inputs and the production of outputs. This time lag effect should be considered in evaluating the performance of organizations. Recently, a couple of DEA models were developed for considering time lag effect in efficiency evaluation of research activities. Multi-periods input(MpI) and Multi-periods output(MpO) models are integrated models to calculate simple efficiency considering time lag effect. However, these models can’t discriminate efficient DMUs because of the nature of basic DEA model in which efficiency scores are limited to ‘1’. That is, efficient DMUs can’t be discriminated because their efficiency scores are same. Thus, this paper suggests a super-efficiency model for efficiency evaluation under the consideration of time lag effect based on the MpO model. A case example using a long-term research project is given to compare the suggested model with the MpO model.

Keywords: DEA, super-efficiency, time lag, multi-periods input

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17 An Output Oriented Super-Efficiency Model for Considering Time Lag Effect

Authors: Yanshuang Zhang, Byungho Jeong


There exists some time lag between the consumption of inputs and the production of outputs. This time lag effect should be considered in calculating efficiency of decision making units (DMU). Recently, a couple of DEA models were developed for considering time lag effect in efficiency evaluation of research activities. However, these models can’t discriminate efficient DMUs because of the nature of basic DEA model in which efficiency scores are limited to ‘1’. This problem can be resolved a super-efficiency model. However, a super efficiency model sometimes causes infeasibility problem. This paper suggests an output oriented super-efficiency model for efficiency evaluation under the consideration of time lag effect. A case example using a long term research project is given to compare the suggested model with the MpO model

Keywords: DEA, super-efficiency, time lag, research activities

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16 Efficiency Measurement of Indian Sugar Manufacturing Firms - a DEA Approach

Authors: Amit Kumar Dwivedi, Priyanko Ghosh


Data Envelopment analysis (DEA) has been used to calculate the technical and scale efficiency measures of the public and private sugar manufacturing firms of the Indian Sugar Industry (2006 to 2010). Within DEA framework, the input & Output oriented Variable Returns to Scale (VRS) & Constant Return to Scale (CRS) model is employed for the study of Decision making units (DMUs). A representative sample of 43 firms which account for major portion of the total market share is studied. The selection criterion for the inclusion of a firm in the analysis was the total sales of INR 5,000 million or more in the year 2010. After reviewing the literature it is found that no study has been conducted in the context of Indian sugar manufacturing firms in the Post-liberalization era which motivates us to initiate the study.

Keywords: technical efficiency, DEA, Indian sugar manufacturing units, input output oriented

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15 Impacts of Financial Development and Operational Scale on Bank Efficiencies in Taiwan

Authors: Ying-Hsiu Chen, Pao-Peng Hsu


This paper adopts a two-stage data envelopment analysis to explore the impacts of financial development and bank operational scale on bank efficiencies. The sample comprises of unbalanced panel data of 32 Taiwanese enlisted in domestic commercial banks over the period 1998 to 2013. Empirical results show that technical efficiency is positively related to financial development, whereas the effect of financial development on scale efficiency is insignificant. The effect of operational scale exerts a significantly positive effect on bank efficiencies, but the gain of efficiency is decreased gradually when operational scale increases. Furthermore, increase in capital adequacy ratio and market power of banks leads to a growth of bank efficiencies.

Keywords: Efficiency, Financial Development, DEA, operational scale

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14 Marginal Productivity of Small Scale Yam and Cassava Farmers in Kogi State, Nigeria: Data Envelopment Analysis as a Complement

Authors: M. A. Ojo, O. A. Ojo, A. I. Odine, A. Ogaji


The study examined marginal productivity analysis of small scale yam and cassava farmers in Kogi State, Nigeria. Data used for the study were obtained from primary source using a multi-stage sampling technique with structured questionnaires administered to 150 randomly selected yam and cassava farmers from three Local Government Areas of the State. Description statistics, data envelopment analysis and Cobb-Douglas production function were used to analyze the data. The DEA result on the overall technical efficiency of the farmers showed that 40% of the sampled yam and cassava farmers in the study area were operating at frontier and optimum level of production with mean technical efficiency of 1.00. This implies that 60% of the yam and cassava farmers in the study area can still improve their level of efficiency through better utilization of available resources, given the current state of technology. The results of the Cobb-Douglas analysis of factors affecting the output of yam and cassava farmers showed that labour, planting materials, fertilizer and capital inputs positively and significantly affected the output of the yam and cassava farmers in the study area. The study further revealed that yam and cassava farms in the study area operated under increasing returns to scale. This result of marginal productivity analysis further showed that relatively efficient farms were more marginally productive in resource utilization This study also shows that estimating production functions without separating the farms to efficient and inefficient farms bias the parameter values obtained from such production function. It is therefore recommended that yam and cassava farmers in the study area should form cooperative societies so as to enable them have access to productive inputs that will enable them expand. Also, since using a single equation model for production function produces a bias parameter estimates as confirmed above, farms should, therefore, be decomposed into efficient and inefficient ones before production function estimation is done.

Keywords: DEA, marginal productivity, production function, Kogi state

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13 Multivariate Control Chart to Determine Efficiency Measurements in Industrial Processes

Authors: J. J. Vargas, N. Prieto, L. A. Toro


Control charts are commonly used to monitor processes involving either variable or attribute of quality characteristics and determining the control limits as a critical task for quality engineers to improve the processes. Nonetheless, in some applications it is necessary to include an estimation of efficiency. In this paper, the ability to define the efficiency of an industrial process was added to a control chart by means of incorporating a data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. In depth, a Bayesian estimation was performed to calculate the posterior probability distribution of parameters as means and variance and covariance matrix. This technique allows to analyse the data set without the need of using the hypothetical large sample implied in the problem and to be treated as an approximation to the finite sample distribution. A rejection simulation method was carried out to generate random variables from the parameter functions. Each resulting vector was used by stochastic DEA model during several cycles for establishing the distribution of each efficiency measures for each DMU (decision making units). A control limit was calculated with model obtained and if a condition of a low level efficiency of DMU is presented, system efficiency is out of control. In the efficiency calculated a global optimum was reached, which ensures model reliability.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, multivariate control chart, DEA, rejection simulation method

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12 Data Envelopment Analysis of Allocative Efficiency among Small-Scale Tuber Crop Farmers in North-Central, Nigeria

Authors: Akindele Ojo, Olanike Ojo, Agatha Oseghale


The empirical study examined the allocative efficiency of small holder tuber crop farmers in North central, Nigeria. Data used for the study were obtained from primary source using a multi-stage sampling technique with structured questionnaires administered to 300 randomly selected tuber crop farmers from the study area. Descriptive statistics, data envelopment analysis and Tobit regression model were used to analyze the data. The DEA result on the classification of the farmers into efficient and inefficient farmers showed that 17.67% of the sampled tuber crop farmers in the study area were operating at frontier and optimum level of production with mean allocative efficiency of 1.00. This shows that 82.33% of the farmers in the study area can still improve on their level of efficiency through better utilization of available resources, given the current state of technology. The results of the Tobit model for factors influencing allocative inefficiency in the study area showed that as the year of farming experience, level of education, cooperative society membership, extension contacts, credit access and farm size increased in the study area, the allocative inefficiency of the farmers decreased. The results on effects of the significant determinants of allocative inefficiency at various distribution levels revealed that allocative efficiency increased from 22% to 34% as the farmer acquired more farming experience. The allocative efficiency index of farmers that belonged to cooperative society was 0.23 while their counterparts without cooperative society had index value of 0.21. The result also showed that allocative efficiency increased from 0.43 as farmer acquired high formal education and decreased to 0.16 with farmers with non-formal education. The efficiency level in the allocation of resources increased with more contact with extension services as the allocative efficeincy index increased from 0.16 to 0.31 with frequency of extension contact increasing from zero contact to maximum of twenty contacts per annum. These results confirm that increase in year of farming experience, level of education, cooperative society membership, extension contacts, credit access and farm size leads to increases efficiency. The results further show that the age of the farmers had 32% input to the efficiency but reduces to an average of 15%, as the farmer grows old. It is therefore recommended that enhanced research, extension delivery and farm advisory services should be put in place for farmers who did not attain optimum frontier level to learn how to attain the remaining 74.39% level of allocative efficiency through a better production practices from the robustly efficient farms. This will go a long way to increase the efficiency level of the farmers in the study area.

Keywords: tuber crop, DEA, allocative efficiency, Tobit regression

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11 Assessing Efficiency Trends in the Indian Sugar Industry

Authors: S. P. Singh


This paper measures technical and scale efficiencies of 40 Indian sugar companies for the period from 2004-05 to 2013-14. The efficiencies are estimated through input-oriented DEA models using one output variable—value of output (VOP) and five input variables—capital cost (CA), employee cost (EMP), raw material (RW), energy & fuel (E&F) and other manufacturing expenses (OME). The sugar companies are classified into integrated and non-integrated categories to know which one achieves higher level of efficiency. Sources of inefficiency in the industry are identified through decomposing the overall technical efficiency (TE) into pure technical efficiency (PTE) and scale efficiency (SE). The paper also estimates input-reduction targets for relatively inefficient companies and suggests measures to improve their efficiency level. The findings reveal that the TE does not evince any trend rather it shows fluctuations across years, largely due to erratic and cyclical pattern of sugar production. Further, technical inefficiency in the industry seems to be driven more by the managerial inefficiency than the scale inefficiency, which implies that TE can be improved through better conversion of inputs into output.

Keywords: technical efficiency, DEA, sugar industry, slacks

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10 Performance Measurement of Logistics Systems for Thailand's Wholesales and Retails Industries by Data Envelopment Analysis

Authors: Pornpimol Chaiwuttisak


The study aims to compare the performance of the logistics for Thailand’s wholesale and retail trade industries (except motor vehicles, motorcycle, and stalls) by using data (data envelopment analysis). Thailand Standard Industrial Classification in 2009 (TSIC - 2009) categories that industries into sub-group no. 45: wholesale and retail trade (except for the repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles), sub-group no. 46: wholesale trade (except motor vehicles and motorcycles), and sub-group no. 47: retail trade (except motor vehicles and motorcycles. Data used in the study is collected by the National Statistical Office, Thailand. The study consisted of four input factors include the number of companies, the number of personnel in logistics, the training cost in logistics, and outsourcing logistics management. Output factor includes the percentage of enterprises having inventory management. The results showed that the average relative efficiency of small-sized enterprises equals to 27.87 percent and 49.68 percent for the medium-sized enterprises.

Keywords: Logistics, Thailand, DEA, wholesales and retails

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9 Finding Data Envelopment Analysis Target Using the Multiple Objective Linear Programming Structure in Full Fuzzy Case

Authors: Raziyeh Shamsi


In this paper, we present a multiple objective linear programming (MOLP) problem in full fuzzy case and find Data Envelopment Analysis(DEA) targets. In the presented model, we are seeking the least inputs and the most outputs in the production possibility set (PPS) with the variable return to scale (VRS) assumption, so that the efficiency projection is obtained for all decision making units (DMUs). Then, we provide an algorithm for finding DEA targets interactively in the full fuzzy case, which solves the full fuzzy problem without defuzzification. Owing to the use of interactive methods, the targets obtained by our algorithm are more applicable, more realistic, and they are according to the wish of the decision maker. Finally, an application of the algorithm in 21 educational institutions is provided.

Keywords: DEA, target, MOLP, full fuzzy

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8 Finding DEA Targets Using Multi-Objective Programming

Authors: Farzad Sharifi, Raziyeh Shamsi


In this paper, we obtain the projection of inefficient units in data envelopment analysis (DEA) in the case of stochastic inputs and outputs using the multi-objective programming (MOP) structure. In some problems, the inputs might be stochastic while the outputs are deterministic, and vice versa. In such cases, we propose molti-objective DEA-R model, because in some cases (e.g., when unnecessary and irrational weights by the BCC model reduces the efficiency score), an efficient DMU is introduced as inefficient by the BCC model, whereas the DMU is considered efficient by the DEA-R model. In some other case, only the ratio of stochastic data may be available (e.g; the ratio of stochastic inputs to stochastic outputs). Thus, we provide multi objective DEA model without explicit outputs and prove that in-put oriented MOP DEA-R model in the invariable return to scale case can be replacing by MOP- DEA model without explicit outputs in the variable return to scale and vice versa. Using the interactive methods for solving the proposed model, yields a projection corresponding to the viewpoint of the DM and the analyst, which is nearer to reality and more practical. Finally, an application is provided.

Keywords: stochastic, DEA, MOLP, DEA-R

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7 An Efficiency Measurement of E-Government Performance for United Nation Ranking Index

Authors: Yassine Jadi, Lin Jie


In order to serve the society in an electronic manner, many developing countries have launched tremendous e-government projects. The strategies of development and implementation e-government system have reached different levels, and to ensure consistency of development, the governments need to evaluate e-government performance. The United nation has design e-government development ranking index (EGDI) that rely on three indexes, Online service index (OSI), Telecommunication Infrastructure index (TII), and human capital index( HCI) which are not reflecting the interaction between a government and their citizens. Based on data envelopment analyses (DEA) technique, we are using E-participating index (EPI) as an output of government effort to evaluate the performance of e-government system. Therefore, the ranking index can be achieved in efficiency manner.

Keywords: e-Government, DEA, efficiency measurement, EGDI

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6 Efficiency Analysis of Trader in Thailand and Laos Border Trade: Case Study of Textile and Garment Products

Authors: Varutorn Tulnawat, Padcharee Phasuk


This paper investigates the issue of China’s dumping on border trade between Thailand and Laos. From the pass mostly, the border trade goods are traditional textile and garment mainly served locals and tourists which majority of traders is of small and medium size. In the present day the competition is fierce, the volume of trade has expanded far beyond its original intent. The major competitors in Thai-Laos border trade are China, Vietnam and also South Korea. This research measures and compares the efficiency and ability to survive the onslaught of Thai and Laos firm along Thailand (Nong Kai province) and Laos (Vientiane) border. Two attack strategies are observed, price cutting and incense such as full facilitation for big volume order. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is applied to data surveyed from 90 Thai and Laos entrepreneurs. The expected results are the proportion of efficiency and inefficiency firms. Points of inefficiency and suggested improvement are also discussed.

Keywords: Textile, Garment, DEA, border trade

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5 A Non-Parametric Analysis of District Disaster Management Authorities in Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Zahid Hussain


Provincial Disaster Management Authority (PDMA) Punjab was established under NDM Act 2010 and now working under Senior Member Board of Revenue, deals with the whole spectrum of disasters including preparedness, mitigation, early warning, response, relief, rescue, recovery and rehabilitation. The District Disaster Management Authorities (DDMA) are acting as implementing arms of PDMA in the districts to respond any disaster. DDMAs' role is very important in disaster mitigation, response and recovery as they are the first responder and closest tier to the community. Keeping in view the significant role of DDMAs, technical and human resource capacity are need to be checked. For calculating the technical efficiencies of District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA) in Punjab, three inputs like number of labour, the number of transportation and number of equipment, two outputs like relief assistance and the number of rescue and 25 districts as decision making unit have been selected. For this purpose, 8 years secondary data from 2005 to 2012 has been used. Data Envelopment Analysis technique has been applied. DEA estimates the relative efficiency of peer entities or entities performing the similar tasks. The findings show that all decision making unit (DMU) (districts) are inefficient on techonological and scale efficiency scale while technically efficient on pure and total factor productivity efficiency scale. All DMU are found technically inefficient only in the year 2006. Labour and equipment were not efficiently used in the year 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2012. Furthermore, only three years 2006, 2010 and 2011 show that districts could not efficiently use transportation in a disaster situation. This study suggests that all districts should curtail labour, transportation and equipment to be efficient. Similarly, overall all districts are not required to achieve number of rescue and relief assistant, these should be reduced.

Keywords: DEA, DMU, PDMA, DDMA

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4 Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Technological Change in Armed Forces: Indonesian Case

Authors: Citra Pertiwi, Muhammad Fikruzzaman Rahawarin


Government of Indonesia had committed to increasing its national defense the budget up to 1,5 percent of GDP. However, the budget increase does not necessarily allocate efficiently and effectively. Using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), the operational units of Indonesian Armed Forces are considered as a proxy to measure those two aspects. The bootstrap technique is being used as well to reduce uncertainty in the estimation. Additionally, technological change is being measured as a nonstationary component. Nearly half of the units are being estimated as fully efficient, with less than a third is considered as effective. Longer and larger sets of data might increase the robustness of the estimation in the future.

Keywords: Military, Efficiency, Effectiveness, Technological Change, bootstrap, DEA, Malmquist

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3 Evaluating the Performance of 28 EU Member Countries on Health2020: A Data Envelopment Analysis Evaluation of the Successful Implementation of Policies

Authors: Elias K. Maragos, Petros E. Maravelakis, Apostolos I. Linardis


Health2020 is a promising framework of policies provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) and aiming to diminish the health and well-being inequalities among the citizens of the European Union (EU) countries. The major demographic, social and environmental changes, in addition to the resent economic crisis prevent the unobstructed and successful implementation of this framework. The unemployment rates and the percentage of people at risk of poverty have increased among the citizens of EU countries. At the same time, the adopted fiscal, economic policies do not help governments to serve their social role and mitigate social and health inequalities. In those circumstances, there is a strong pressure to organize all health system resources efficiently and wisely. In order to provide a unified and value-based framework of valuation, we propose a valuation framework using data envelopment analysis (DEA) and dynamic DEA. We believe that the adopted methodology could provide a robust tool which can capture the degree of success with which policies have been implemented and is capable to determine which of the countries developed the requested policies efficiently and which of the countries have been lagged. Using the proposed methodology, we evaluated the performance of 28 EU member-countries in relation to the Health2020 peripheral targets. We adopted several versions of evaluation, measuring the effectiveness and the efficiency of EU countries from 2011 to 2016. Our results showed stability in technological changes and revealed a group of countries which were benchmarks in most of the years for the inefficient countries.

Keywords: Well-being, Health Inequalities, DEA, malmquist index, Health2020, policies evaluation

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2 Non-parametric Linear Technique for Measuring the Efficiency of Winter Road Maintenance in the Arctic Area

Authors: Mahshid Hatamzad, Geanette Polanco


Improving the performance of Winter Road Maintenance (WRM) can increase the traffic safety and reduce the cost as well as environmental impacts. This study evaluates the efficiency of WRM technique, named salting, in the Arctic area by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is a non-parametric linear method to measure the efficiencies of decision-making units (DMUs) based on handling multiple inputs and multiple outputs at the same time that their associated weights are not known. Here, roads are considered as DMUs for which the efficiency must be determined. The three input variables considered are traffic flow, road area and WRM cost. In addition, the two output variables included are level of safety in the roads and environment impacts resulted from WRM, which is also considered as an uncontrollable factor in the second scenario. The results show the performance of DMUs from the most efficient WRM to the inefficient/least efficient one and this information provides decision makers with technical support and the required suggested improvements for inefficient WRM, in order to achieve a cost-effective WRM and a safe road transportation during wintertime in the Arctic areas.

Keywords: Environmental Impacts, DEA, WRM, risk and safety

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1 Impact of Urbanization on the Performance of Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Chandan Jha, Amit Sachan, Arnab Adhikari, Sayantan Kundu


The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) of India and examine the impact of urbanization on the performance of HEIs. In this study, the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has been used, and the authors have collected the required data related to performance measures from the National Institutional Ranking Framework web portal. In this study, the authors have evaluated the performance of HEIs by using two different DEA models. In the first model, geographic locations of the institutes have been categorized into two categories, i.e., Urban Vs. Non-Urban. However, in the second model, these geographic locations have been classified into three categories, i.e., Urban, Semi-Urban, Non-Urban. The findings of this study provide several insights related to the degree of urbanization and the performance of HEIs.

Keywords: Higher Education, Performance Evaluation, Urbanization, DEA

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