Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Daylighting Related Abstracts

6 Sustainability with Health: A Daylighting Approach

Authors: Mohamed Boubekri

Abstract:

Daylight in general and sunlight in particular are vital to life on earth, and it is not difficult to believe that their absence fosters conditions that promote disease. Through photosynthesis and other processes, sunlight provides photochemical ingredients necessary for our lives. There are fundamental biological, hormonal, and physiological functions coordinated by cycles that are crucial to life for cells, plants, animals, and humans. Many plants and animals, including humans, develop abnormal behaviors when sunlight is absent because their diurnal cycle is disturbed. Building​ codes disregard this aspect of daylighting when promulgating windows for buildings. This paper discusses the health aspects of daylighting design.

Keywords: Cancer, Health, Disorders, Sleep, Daylighting, sunlight, circadian rythm

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5 The Impact of Hospital Intensive Care Unit Window Design on Daylighting and Energy Performance in Desert Climate

Authors: A. Sherif, R. Arafa, H. Sabry, A. Elzafarany, M. Gadelhak, M. Aly

Abstract:

This paper addresses the design of hospital Intensive Care Unit windows for the achievement of visual comfort and energy savings. The aim was to identify the window size and shading system configurations that could fulfill daylighting adequacy, avoid glare and reduce energy consumption. The study focused on addressing the effect of utilizing different shading systems in association with a range of Window-to-Wall Ratios (WWR) in different orientations under the desert clear-sky of Cairo, Egypt. The results of this study demonstrated that solar penetration is a critical concern affecting the design of ICU windows in desert locations, as in Cairo, Egypt. Use of shading systems was found to be essential in providing acceptable daylight performance and energy saving. Careful positioning of the ICU window towards a proper orientation can dramatically improve performance. It was observed that ICU windows facing the north direction enjoyed the widest range of successful window configuration possibilities at different WWRs. ICU windows facing south enjoyed a reasonable number of configuration options as well. By contrast, the ICU windows facing the east orientation had a very limited number of options that provide acceptable performance. These require additional local shading measures at certain times due to glare incidence. Moreover, use of horizontal sun breakers and solar screens to protect the ICU windows proved to be more successful than the other alternatives in a wide range of Window to Wall Ratios. By contrast, the use of light shelves and vertical shading devices seemed questionable.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Daylighting, shading, desert

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4 Evaluating Daylight Performance in an Office Environment in Malaysia, Using Venetian Blind System: Case Study

Authors: Fatemeh Deldarabdolmaleki, Mohamad Fakri Zaky Bin Ja'afar

Abstract:

Having a daylit space together with view results in a pleasant and productive environment for office employees. A daylit space is a space which utilizes daylight as a basic source of illumination to fulfill user’s visual demands and minimizes the electric energy consumption. Malaysian weather is hot and humid all over the year because of its location in the equatorial belt. however, because most of the commercial buildings in Malaysia are air-conditioned, huge glass windows are normally installed in order to keep the physical and visual relation between inside and outside. As a result of climatic situation and mentioned new trend, an ordinary office has huge heat gain, glare, and discomfort for occupants. Balancing occupant’s comfort and energy conservation in a tropical climate is a real challenge. This study concentrates on evaluating a venetian blind system using per pixel analyzing tools based on the suggested cut-out metrics by the literature. Workplace area in a private office room has been selected as a case study. Eight-day measurement experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different venetian blind angles in an office area under daylight conditions in Serdang, Malaysia. The study goal was to explore daylight comfort of a commercially available venetian blind system, its’ daylight sufficiency and excess (8:00 AM to 5 PM) as well as Glare examination. Recently developed software, analyzing High Dynamic Range Images (HDRI captured by CCD camera), such as radiance based Evalglare and hdrscope help to investigate luminance-based metrics. The main key factors are illuminance and luminance levels, mean and maximum luminance, daylight glare probability (DGP) and luminance ratio of the selected mask regions. The findings show that in most cases, morning session needs artificial lighting in order to achieve daylight comfort. However, in some conditions (e.g. 10° and 40° slat angles) in the second half of day the workplane illuminance level exceeds the maximum of 2000 lx. Generally, a rising trend is discovered toward mean window luminance and the most unpleasant cases occur after 2 P.M. Considering the luminance criteria rating, the uncomfortable conditions occur in the afternoon session. Surprisingly in no blind condition, extreme case of window/task ratio is not common. Studying the daylight glare probability, there is not any DGP value higher than 0.35 in this experiment.

Keywords: Daylighting, Energy Simulation, office environment, Venetian blind

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3 Optimizing the Window Geometry Using Fractals

Authors: K. Geetha Ramesh, A. Ramachandraiah

Abstract:

In an internal building space, daylight becomes a powerful source of illumination. The challenge therefore, is to develop means of utilizing both direct and diffuse natural light in buildings while maintaining and improving occupant's visual comfort, particularly at greater distances from the windows throwing daylight. The geometrical features of windows in a building have significant effect in providing daylight. The main goal of this research is to develop an innovative window geometry, which will effectively provide the daylight component adequately together with internal reflected component(IRC) and also the external reflected component(ERC), if any. This involves exploration of a light redirecting system using fractal geometry for windows, in order to penetrate and distribute daylight more uniformly to greater depths, minimizing heat gain and glare, and also to reduce building energy use substantially. Of late the creation of fractal geometrical window and the occurrence of daylight illuminance due to such windows is becoming an interesting study. The amount of daylight can change significantly based on the window geometry and sky conditions. This leads to the (i) exploration of various fractal patterns suitable for window designs, and (ii) quantification of the effect of chosen fractal window based on the relationship between the fractal pattern, size, orientation and glazing properties for optimizing daylighting. There are a lot of natural lighting applications able to predict the behaviour of a light in a room through a traditional opening - a regular window. The conventional prediction methodology involves the evaluation of the daylight factor, the internal reflected component and the external reflected component. Having evaluated the daylight illuminance level for a conventional window, the technical performance of a fractal window for an optimal daylighting is to be studied and compared with that of a regular window. The methodologies involved are highlighted in this paper.

Keywords: Optimization, Fractal geometry, Daylighting, fractal window

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2 Evaluating Daylight Performance in an Office Environment in Malaysia, Using Venetian Blind Systems

Authors: Fatemeh Deldarabdolmaleki, Mohamad Fakri Zaky Bin Ja'afar

Abstract:

This paper presents fenestration analysis to study the balance between utilizing daylight and eliminating the disturbing parameters in a private office room with interior venetian blinds taking into account different slat angles. Mean luminance of the scene and window, luminance ratio of the workplane and window, work plane illumination and daylight glare probability(DGP) were calculated as a function of venetian blind design properties. Recently developed software, analyzing High Dynamic Range Images (HDRI captured by CCD camera), such as radiance based evalglare and hdrscope help to investigate luminance-based metrics. A total of Eight-day measurement experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of different venetian blind angles in an office environment under daylight condition in Serdang, Malaysia. Detailed result for the selected case study showed that artificial lighting is necessary during the morning session for Malaysian buildings with southwest windows regardless of the venetian blind’s slat angle. However, in some conditions of afternoon session the workplane illuminance level exceeds the maximum illuminance of 2000 lx such as 10° and 40° slat angles. Generally, a rising trend is discovered toward mean window luminance level during the day. All the conditions have less than 10% of the pixels exceeding 2000 cd/m² before 1:00 P.M. However, 40% of the selected hours have more than 10% of the scene pixels higher than 2000 cd/m² after 1:00 P.M. Surprisingly in no blind condition, there is no extreme case of window/task ratio, However, the extreme cases happen for 20°, 30°, 40° and 50° slat angles. As expected mean window luminance level is higher than 2000 cd/m² after 2:00 P.M for most cases except 60° slat angle condition. Studying the daylight glare probability, there is not any DGP value higher than 0.35 in this experiment, due to the window’s direction, location of the building and studied workplane. Specifically, this paper reviews different blind angle’s response to the suggested metrics by the previous standards, and finally conclusions and knowledge gaps are summarized and suggested next steps for research are provided. Addressing these gaps is critical for the continued progress of the energy efficiency movement.

Keywords: Daylighting, Energy Simulation, office environment, Venetian blind

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1 Benchmarking Electric Light versus Sunshine

Authors: Courret Gilles, Pidoux Damien

Abstract:

Considering that sunshine is the ultimate reference in lighting, we have examined the spectral correlation between a series of electric light sources and sunlight. As the latter is marked by fluctuations, we have taken two spectra of reference: on the one hand, the CIE daylight standard illuminant, and on the other hand, the global illumination by the clear sky with the sun at 30° above the horizon. We determined the coefficients of correlation between the spectra filtered by the sensitivity of the CIE standard observer for photopic vision. We also calculated the luminous efficiency of the radiation in order to compare the ideal energy performances as well as the CIE color indexes Ra, Ra14, and Rf, since the choice of a light source requires a trade-off between color rendering and luminous efficiency. The benchmarking includes the most commonly used bulbs, various white LED (Lighting Emitting Diode) of warm white or cold white types, incandescent halogen as well as two HID lamps (High-Intensity Discharge) and two plasma lamps of different types, a solar simulator and a new version of the sulfur lamp. The latter obtains the best correlation, whether in comparison with the solar spectrum or that of the standard illuminant.

Keywords: Daylighting, sunlight, electric light sources, plasma lamp, spectral correlation

Procedia PDF Downloads 60