Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Data Visualization Related Abstracts

12 The Wear Recognition on Guide Surface Based on the Feature of Radar Graph

Authors: Youhang Zhou, Weimin Zeng, Qi Xie


Abstract: In order to solve the wear recognition problem of the machine tool guide surface, a new machine tool guide surface recognition method based on the radar-graph barycentre feature is presented in this paper. Firstly, the gray mean value, skewness, projection variance, flat degrees and kurtosis features of the guide surface image data are defined as primary characteristics. Secondly, data Visualization technology based on radar graph is used. The visual barycentre graphical feature is demonstrated based on the radar plot of multi-dimensional data. Thirdly, a classifier based on the support vector machine technology is used, the radar-graph barycentre feature and wear original feature are put into the classifier separately for classification and comparative analysis of classification and experiment results. The calculation and experimental results show that the method based on the radar-graph barycentre feature can detect the guide surface effectively.

Keywords: Data Visualization, Feature Extraction, guide surface, wear defects

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11 Using Data from Foursquare Web Service to Represent the Commercial Activity of a City

Authors: Taras Agryzkov, Almudena Nolasco-Cirugeda, Jose L. Oliver, Leticia Serrano-Estrada, Leandro Tortosa, Jose F. Vicent


This paper aims to represent the commercial activity of a city taking as source data the social network Foursquare. The city of Murcia is selected as case study, and the location-based social network Foursquare is the main source of information. After carrying out a reorganisation of the user-generated data extracted from Foursquare, it is possible to graphically display on a map the various city spaces and venues –especially those related to commercial, food and entertainment sector businesses. The obtained visualisation provides information about activity patterns in the city of Murcia according to the people`s interests and preferences and, moreover, interesting facts about certain characteristics of the town itself.

Keywords: Social Networks, Data Visualization, Spatial analysis, Geocomputation, Foursquare

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10 Virtual 3D Environments for Image-Based Navigation Algorithms

Authors: V. B. Bastos, M. P. Lima, P. R. G. Kurka


This paper applies to the creation of virtual 3D environments for the study and development of mobile robot image based navigation algorithms and techniques, which need to operate robustly and efficiently. The test of these algorithms can be performed in a physical way, from conducting experiments on a prototype, or by numerical simulations. Current simulation platforms for robotic applications do not have flexible and updated models for image rendering, being unable to reproduce complex light effects and materials. Thus, it is necessary to create a test platform that integrates sophisticated simulated applications of real environments for navigation, with data and image processing. This work proposes the development of a high-level platform for building 3D model’s environments and the test of image-based navigation algorithms for mobile robots. Techniques were used for applying texture and lighting effects in order to accurately represent the generation of rendered images regarding the real world version. The application will integrate image processing scripts, trajectory control, dynamic modeling and simulation techniques for physics representation and picture rendering with the open source 3D creation suite - Blender.

Keywords: Simulation, Data Visualization, Mobile robot, Visual Navigation

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9 Informing, Enabling and Inspiring Social Innovation by Geographic Systems Mapping: A Case Study in Workforce Development

Authors: Cassandra A. Skinner, Linda R. Chamberlain


The nonprofit and public sectors are increasingly turning to Geographic Information Systems for data visualizations which can better inform programmatic and policy decisions. Additionally, the private and nonprofit sectors are turning to systems mapping to better understand the ecosystems within which they operate. This study explores the potential which combining these data visualization methods—a method which is called geographic systems mapping—to create an exhaustive and comprehensive understanding of a social problem’s ecosystem may have in social innovation efforts. Researchers with Grand Valley State University collaborated with Talent 2025 of West Michigan to conduct a mixed-methods research study to paint a comprehensive picture of the workforce development ecosystem in West Michigan. Using semi-structured interviewing, observation, secondary research, and quantitative analysis, data were compiled on workforce development organizations’ locations, programming, metrics for success, partnerships, funding sources, and service language. To best visualize and disseminate the data, a geographic system map was created which identifies programmatic, operational, and geographic gaps in workforce development services of West Michigan. By combining geographic and systems mapping methods, the geographic system map provides insight into the cross-sector relationships, collaboration, and competition which exists among and between workforce development organizations. These insights identify opportunities for and constraints around cross-sectoral social innovation in the West Michigan workforce development ecosystem. This paper will discuss the process utilized to prepare the geographic systems map, explain the results and outcomes, and demonstrate how geographic systems mapping illuminated the needs of the community and opportunities for social innovation. As complicated social problems like unemployment often require cross-sectoral and multi-stakeholder solutions, there is potential for geographic systems mapping to be a tool which informs, enables, and inspires these solutions.

Keywords: Social innovation, Data Visualization, Workforce development, cross-sector collaboration, geographic systems mapping

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8 The Coexistence of Creativity and Information in Convergence Journalism: Pakistan's Evolving Media Landscape

Authors: Misha Mirza


In recent years, the definition of journalism in Pakistan has changed, so has the mindset of people and their approach towards a news story. For the audience, news has become more interesting than a drama or a film. This research thus provides an insight into Pakistan’s evolving media landscape. It tries not only to bring forth the outcomes of cross-platform cooperation among print and broadcast journalism but also gives an insight into the interactive data visualization techniques being used. The storytelling in journalism in Pakistan has evolved from depicting merely the truth to tweaking, fabricating and producing docu-dramas. It aims to look into how news is translated to a visual. Pakistan acquires a diverse cultural heritage and by engaging audience through media, this history translates into the storytelling platform today. The paper explains how journalists are thriving in a converging media environment and provides an analysis of the narratives in television talk shows today.’ Jack of all, master of none’ is being challenged by the journalists today. One has to be a quality information gatherer and an effective storyteller at the same time. Are journalists really looking more into what sells rather than what matters? Express Tribune is a very popular news platform among the youth. Not only is their newspaper more attractive than the competitors but also their style of narrative and interactive web stories lead to well-rounded news. Interviews are used as the basic methodology to get an insight into how data visualization is compassed. The quest for finding out the difference between visualization of information versus the visualization of knowledge has led the author to delve into the work of David McCandless in his book ‘Knowledge is beautiful’. Journalism in Pakistan has evolved from information to combining knowledge, infotainment and comedy. What is being criticized the most by the society most often becomes the breaking news. Circulation in today’s world is carried out in cultural and social networks. In recent times, we have come across many examples where people have gained overnight popularity by releasing songs with substandard lyrics or senseless videos perhaps because creativity has taken over information. This paper thus discusses the various platforms of convergence journalism from Pakistan’s perspective. The study concludes with proving how Pakistani pop culture Truck art is coexisting with all the platforms in convergent journalism. The changing media landscape thus challenges the basic rules of journalism. The slapstick humor and ‘jhatka’ in Pakistani talk shows has evolved from the Pakistani truck art poetry. Mobile journalism has taken over all the other mediums of journalism; however, the Pakistani culture coexists with the converging landscape.

Keywords: Data Visualization, mobile journalism, convergence journalism in Pakistan, interactive narrative in Pakistani news, Pakistan's truck art culture

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7 Anomaly Detection of Log Analysis using Data Visualization Techniques for Digital Forensics Audit and Investigation

Authors: Mohamed Fadzlee Sulaiman, Zainurrasyid Abdullah, Mohd Zabri Adil Talib, Aswami Fadillah Mohd Ariffin


In common digital forensics cases, investigation may rely on the analysis conducted on specific and relevant exhibits involved. Usually the investigation officer may define and advise digital forensic analyst about the goals and objectives to be achieved in reconstructing the trail of evidence while maintaining the specific scope of investigation. With the technology growth, people are starting to realize the importance of cyber security to their organization and this new perspective creates awareness that digital forensics auditing must come in place in order to measure possible threat or attack to their cyber-infrastructure. Instead of performing investigation on incident basis, auditing may broaden the scope of investigation to the level of anomaly detection in daily operation of organization’s cyber space. While handling a huge amount of data such as log files, performing digital forensics audit for large organization proven to be onerous task for the analyst either to analyze the huge files or to translate the findings in a way where the stakeholder can clearly understand. Data visualization can be emphasized in conducting digital forensic audit and investigation to resolve both needs. This study will identify the important factors that should be considered to perform data visualization techniques in order to detect anomaly that meet the digital forensic audit and investigation objectives.

Keywords: Data Visualization, Digital Forensic, Visualization Techniques, Anomaly Detection, log analysis, forensic audit

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6 Dissimilarity-Based Coloring for Symbolic and Multivariate Data Visualization

Authors: K. Umbleja, M. Ichino, H. Yaguchi


In this paper, we propose a coloring method for multivariate data visualization by using parallel coordinates based on dissimilarity and tree structure information gathered during hierarchical clustering. The proposed method is an extension for proximity-based coloring that suffers from a few undesired side effects if hierarchical tree structure is not balanced tree. We describe the algorithm by assigning colors based on dissimilarity information, show the application of proposed method on three commonly used datasets, and compare the results with proximity-based coloring. We found our proposed method to be especially beneficial for symbolic data visualization where many individual objects have already been aggregated into a single symbolic object.

Keywords: Data Visualization, dissimilarity-based coloring, proximity-based coloring, symbolic data

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5 Social Network Analysis as a Research and Pedagogy Tool in Problem-Focused Undergraduate Social Innovation Courses

Authors: Sean McCarthy, Patrice M. Ludwig, Will Watson


This exploratory case study explores the deployment of Social Network Analysis (SNA) in mapping community assets in an interdisciplinary, undergraduate, team-taught course focused on income insecure populations in a rural area in the US. Specifically, it analyzes how students were taught to collect data on community assets and to visualize the connections between those assets using Kumu, an SNA data visualization tool. Further, the case study shows how social network data was also collected about student teams via their written communications in Slack, an enterprise messaging tool, which enabled instructors to manage and guide student research activity throughout the semester. The discussion presents how SNA methods can simultaneously inform both community-based research and social innovation pedagogy through the use of data visualization and collaboration-focused communication technologies.

Keywords: pedagogy, Social innovation, Data Visualization, Social Network Analysis, Problem-Based Learning, information communication technologies

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4 A Review of Data Visualization Best Practices: Lessons for Open Government Data Portals

Authors: Bahareh Ansari


Background: The Open Government Data (OGD) movement in the last decade has encouraged many government organizations around the world to make their data publicly available to advance democratic processes. But current open data platforms have not yet reached to their full potential in supporting all interested parties. To make the data useful and understandable for everyone, scholars suggested that opening the data should be supplemented by visualization. However, different visualizations of the same information can dramatically change an individual’s cognitive and emotional experience in working with the data. This study reviews the data visualization literature to create a list of the methods empirically tested to enhance users’ performance and experience in working with a visualization tool. This list can be used in evaluating the OGD visualization practices and informing the future open data initiatives. Methods: Previous reviews of visualization literature categorized the visualization outcomes into four categories including recall/memorability, insight/comprehension, engagement, and enjoyment. To identify the papers, a search for these outcomes was conducted in the abstract of the publications of top-tier visualization venues including IEEE Transactions for Visualization and Computer Graphics, Computer Graphics, and proceedings of the CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. The search results are complemented with a search in the references of the identified articles, and a search for 'open data visualization,' and 'visualization evaluation' keywords in the IEEE explore and ACM digital libraries. Articles are included if they provide empirical evidence through conducting controlled user experiments, or provide a review of these empirical studies. The qualitative synthesis of the studies focuses on identification and classifying the methods, and the conditions under which they are examined to positively affect the visualization outcomes. Findings: The keyword search yields 760 studies, of which 30 are included after the title/abstract review. The classification of the included articles shows five distinct methods: interactive design, aesthetic (artistic) style, storytelling, decorative elements that do not provide extra information including text, image, and embellishment on the graphs), and animation. Studies on decorative elements show consistency on the positive effects of these elements on user engagement and recall but are less consistent in their examination of the user performance. This inconsistency could be attributable to the particular data type or specific design method used in each study. The interactive design studies are consistent in their findings of the positive effect on the outcomes. Storytelling studies show some inconsistencies regarding the design effect on user engagement, enjoyment, recall, and performance, which could be indicative of the specific conditions required for the use of this method. Last two methods, aesthetics and animation, have been less frequent in the included articles, and provide consistent positive results on some of the outcomes. Implications for e-government: Review of the visualization best-practice methods show that each of these methods is beneficial under specific conditions. By using these methods in a potentially beneficial condition, OGD practices can promote a wide range of individuals to involve and work with the government data and ultimately engage in government policy-making procedures.

Keywords: Data Visualization, literature review, best practices, open government data

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3 Alternate Methods to Visualize 2016 U.S. Presidential Election Result

Authors: Hong Beom Hur


Politics in America is polarized. The best illustration of this is the 2016 presidential election result map. States with megacities like California, New York, Illinois, Virginia, and others are marked blue to signify the color of the Democratic party. States located in inland and south like Texas, Florida, Tennesse, Kansas and others are marked red to signify the color of the Republican party. Such a stark difference between two colors, red and blue, combined with geolocations of each state with their borderline remarks one central message; America is divided into two colors between urban Democrats and rural Republicans. This paper seeks to defy the visualization by pointing out its limitations and search for alternative ways to visualize the 2016 election result. One such limitation is that geolocations of each state and state borderlines limit the visualization of population density. As a result, the election result map does not convey the fact that Clinton won the popular vote and only accentuates the voting patterns of urban and rural states. The paper seeks whether an alternative narrative can be observed by factoring in the population number into the size of each state and manipulating the state borderline according to the normalization. Yet another alternative narrative may be reached by factoring the size of each state by the number of the electoral college of each state by voting and visualize the number. Other alternatives will be discussed but are not implemented in visualization. Such methods include dividing the land of America into about 120 million cubes each representing a voter or by the number of whole population 300 million cubes. By exploring these alternative methods to visualize the politics of the 2016 election map, the public may be able to question whether it is possible to be free from the narrative of the divide-conquer when interpreting the election map and to look at both parties as a story of the United States of America.

Keywords: Data Visualization, population scale, geo-political

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2 Thresholding Approach for Automatic Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms from Fluorescence in situ Hybridization Images

Authors: Zonglin Yang, Tatsuya Akiyama, Kerry S. Williamson, Michael J. Franklin, Thiruvarangan Ramaraj


Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that forms surface-associated microbial communities (biofilms) on artificial implant devices and on human tissue. Biofilm infections are difficult to treat with antibiotics, in part, because the bacteria in biofilms are physiologically heterogeneous. One measure of biological heterogeneity in a population of cells is to quantify the cellular concentrations of ribosomes, which can be probed with fluorescently labeled nucleic acids. The fluorescent signal intensity following fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis correlates to the cellular level of ribosomes. The goals here are to provide computationally and statistically robust approaches to automatically quantify cellular heterogeneity in biofilms from a large library of epifluorescent microscopy FISH images. In this work, the initial steps were developed toward these goals by developing an automated biofilm detection approach for use with FISH images. The approach allows rapid identification of biofilm regions from FISH images that are counterstained with fluorescent dyes. This methodology provides advances over other computational methods, allowing subtraction of spurious signals and non-biological fluorescent substrata. This method will be a robust and user-friendly approach which will enable users to semi-automatically detect biofilm boundaries and extract intensity values from fluorescent images for quantitative analysis of biofilm heterogeneity.

Keywords: Computer Vision, Data Visualization, Fish, Biofilm, Image informatics, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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1 Index t-SNE: Tracking Dynamics of High-Dimensional Datasets with Coherent Embeddings

Authors: Gaelle Candel, David Naccache


t-SNE is an embedding method that the data science community has widely used. It helps two main tasks: to display results by coloring items according to the item class or feature value; and for forensic, giving a first overview of the dataset distribution. Two interesting characteristics of t-SNE are the structure preservation property and the answer to the crowding problem, where all neighbors in high dimensional space cannot be represented correctly in low dimensional space. t-SNE preserves the local neighborhood, and similar items are nicely spaced by adjusting to the local density. These two characteristics produce a meaningful representation, where the cluster area is proportional to its size in number, and relationships between clusters are materialized by closeness on the embedding. This algorithm is non-parametric. The transformation from a high to low dimensional space is described but not learned. Two initializations of the algorithm would lead to two different embeddings. In a forensic approach, analysts would like to compare two or more datasets using their embedding. A naive approach would be to embed all datasets together. However, this process is costly as the complexity of t-SNE is quadratic and would be infeasible for too many datasets. Another approach would be to learn a parametric model over an embedding built with a subset of data. While this approach is highly scalable, points could be mapped at the same exact position, making them indistinguishable. This type of model would be unable to adapt to new outliers nor concept drift. This paper presents a methodology to reuse an embedding to create a new one, where cluster positions are preserved. The optimization process minimizes two costs, one relative to the embedding shape and the second relative to the support embedding’ match. The embedding with the support process can be repeated more than once, with the newly obtained embedding. The successive embedding can be used to study the impact of one variable over the dataset distribution or monitor changes over time. This method has the same complexity as t-SNE per embedding, and memory requirements are only doubled. For a dataset of n elements sorted and split into k subsets, the total embedding complexity would be reduced from O(n²) to O(n²=k), and the memory requirement from n² to 2(n=k)², which enables computation on recent laptops. The method showed promising results on a real-world dataset, allowing to observe the birth, evolution, and death of clusters. The proposed approach facilitates identifying significant trends and changes, which empowers the monitoring high dimensional datasets’ dynamics.

Keywords: Data Visualization, monitoring, unsupervised learning, Dimension Reduction, reusability, embedding, concept drift, t-SNE

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