Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Data Related Abstracts

18 An Examination of Changes on Natural Vegetation due to Charcoal Production Using Multi Temporal Land SAT Data

Authors: T. Garba, Y. Y. Babanyara, M. Isah, A. K. Muktari, R. Y. Abdullahi

Abstract:

The increased in demand of fuel wood for heating, cooking and sometimes bakery has continued to exert appreciable impact on natural vegetation. This study focus on the use of multi-temporal data from land sat TM of 1986, land sat EMT of 1999 and lands sat ETM of 2006 to investigate the changes of Natural Vegetation resulting from charcoal production activities. The three images were classified based on bare soil, built up areas, cultivated land, and natural vegetation, Rock out crop and water bodies. From the classified images Land sat TM of 1986 it shows natural vegetation of the study area to be 308,941.48 hectares equivalent to 50% of the area it then reduces to 278,061.21 which is 42.92% in 1999 it again depreciated to 199,647.81 in 2006 equivalent to 30.83% of the area. Consequently cultivated continue increasing from 259,346.80 hectares (42%) in 1986 to 312,966.27 hectares (48.3%) in 1999 and then to 341.719.92 hectares (52.78%). These show that within the span of 20 years (1986 to 2006) the natural vegetation is depreciated by 119,293.81 hectares. This implies that if the menace is not control the natural might likely be lost in another twenty years. This is because forest cleared for charcoal production is normally converted to farmland. The study therefore concluded that there is the need for alternatives source of domestic energy such as the use of biomass which can easily be accessible and affordable to people. In addition, the study recommended that there should be strong policies enforcement for the protection forest reserved.

Keywords: Data, Images, classification, Land Use, charcoal, natural vegetation

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17 Culture and Commodification: A Study of William Gibson's the Bridge Trilogy

Authors: Aruna Bhat

Abstract:

Culture can be placed within the social structure that embodies both the creation of social groups, and the manner in which they interact with each other. As many critics have pointed out, culture in the Postmodern context has often been considered a commodity, and indeed it shares many attributes with commercial products. Popular culture follows many patterns of behavior derived from Economics, from the simple principle of supply and demand, to the creation of marketable demographics which fit certain criterion. This trend is exemplary visible in contemporary fiction, especially in contemporary science fiction; Cyberpunk fiction in particular which is an off shoot of pure science fiction. William Gibson is one such author who in his works portrays such a scenario, and in his The Bridge Trilogy he adds another level of interpretation to this state of affairs, by describing a world that is centered on industrialization of a new kind – that focuses around data in the cyberspace. In this new world, data has become the most important commodity, and man has become nothing but a nodal point in a vast ocean of raw data resulting into commodification of each thing including Culture. This paper will attempt to study the presence of above mentioned elements in William Gibson’s The Bridge Trilogy. The theories applied will be Postmodernism and Cultural studies.

Keywords: Postmodern, Culture, Data, commodity, cyberpunk

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16 On the Estimation of Crime Rate in the Southwest of Nigeria: Principal Component Analysis Approach

Authors: Femi Ayoola, Kayode Balogun

Abstract:

Crime is at alarming rate in this part of world and there are many factors that are contributing to this antisocietal behaviour both among the youths and old. In this work, principal component analysis (PCA) was used as a tool to reduce the dimensionality and to really know those variables that were crime prone in the study region. Data were collected on twenty-eight crime variables from National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) databank for a period of fifteen years, while retaining as much of the information as possible. We use PCA in this study to know the number of major variables and contributors to the crime in the Southwest Nigeria. The results of our analysis revealed that there were eight principal variables have been retained using the Scree plot and Loading plot which implies an eight-equation solution will be appropriate for the data. The eight components explained 93.81% of the total variation in the data set. We also found that the highest and commonly committed crimes in the Southwestern Nigeria were: Assault, Grievous Harm and Wounding, theft/stealing, burglary, house breaking, false pretence, unlawful arms possession and breach of public peace.

Keywords: Data, Principal Component Analysis, Variables, crime rates, Southwest Nigeria

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15 Data Mining Practices: Practical Studies on the Telecommunication Companies in Jordan

Authors: Dina Ahmad Alkhodary

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the practices of Data Mining on the telecommunication companies in Jordan, from the viewpoint of the respondents. In order to achieve the goal of the study, and test the validity of hypotheses, the researcher has designed a questionnaire to collect data from managers and staff members from main department in the researched companies. The results shows improvements stages of the telecommunications companies towered Data Mining.

Keywords: Business, Development, Mining, Data

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14 Design of Knowledge Management System with Geographic Information System

Authors: Angga Hidayah Ramadhan, Luciana Andrawina, M. Azani Hasibuan

Abstract:

Data will be as a core of the decision if it has a good treatment or process, which is process that data into information, and information into knowledge to make a wisdom or decision. Today, many companies have not realize it include XYZ University Admission Directorate as executor of National Admission called Seleksi Masuk Bersama (SMB) that during the time, the workers only uses their feeling to make a decision. Whereas if it done, then that company can analyze the data to make a right decision to get a pin sales from student candidate or registrant that follow SMB as many as possible. Therefore, needs Knowledge Management System (KMS) with Geographic Information System (GIS) use 5C4C that can process that company data becomes more useful and can help make decisions. This information system can process data into information based on the pin sold data with 5C (Contextualized, Categorize, Calculation, Correction, Condensed) and convert information into knowledge with 4C (Comparing, Consequence, Connection, Conversation) that has been several steps until these data can be useful to make easier to take a decision or wisdom, resolve problems, communicate, and quicker to learn to the employees have not experience and also for ease of viewing/visualization based on spatial data that equipped with GIS functionality that can be used to indicate events in each province with indicator that facilitate in this system. The system also have a function to save the tacit on the system then to be proceed into explicit in expert system based on the problems that will be found from the consequences of information. With the system each team can make a decision with same ways, structured, and the important is based on the actual event/data.

Keywords: Information, Knowledge, Data

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13 The Study of Security Techniques on Information System for Decision Making

Authors: Tejinder Singh

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Information system is the flow of data from different levels to different directions for decision making and data operations in information system (IS). Data can be violated by different manner like manual or technical errors, data tampering or loss of integrity. Security system called firewall of IS is effected by such type of violations. The flow of data among various levels of Information System is done by networking system. The flow of data on network is in form of packets or frames. To protect these packets from unauthorized access, virus attacks, and to maintain the integrity level, network security is an important factor. To protect the data to get pirated, various security techniques are used. This paper represents the various security techniques and signifies different harmful attacks with the help of detailed data analysis. This paper will be beneficial for the organizations to make the system more secure, effective, and beneficial for future decisions making.

Keywords: Information Systems, Data, Decision, Vulnerability, data integrity, TCP/IP network

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12 Preservation Model to Process 'La Bomba Del Chota' as a Living Cultural Heritage

Authors: Lucia Carrion Gordon, Maria Gabriela Lopez Yanez

Abstract:

This project focuses on heritage concepts and their importance in every evolving and changing Digital Era where system solutions have to be sustainable, efficient and suitable to the basic needs. The prototype has to cover the principal requirements for the case studies. How to preserve the sociological ideas of dances in Ecuador like ‘La Bomba’ is the best example and challenge to preserve the intangible data. The same idea is applicable with books and music. The History and how to keep it, is the principal mission of Heritage Preservation. The dance of La Bomba is rooted on a specific movement system whose main part is the sideward hip movement. La Bomba´s movement system is the surface manifestation of a whole system of knowledge whose principal characteristics are the historical relation of Chote˜nos with their land and their families.

Keywords: Ontology, Data, Metadata, heritage, Digital Preservation, IT management, serendipity

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11 Architectural Framework to Preserve Information of Cardiac Valve Control

Authors: Lucia Carrion Gordon, Jaime Santiago Sanchez Reinoso

Abstract:

According to the relation of Digital Preservation and the Health field as a case of study, the architectural model help us to explain that definitions. .The principal goal of Data Preservation is to keep information for a long term. Regarding of Mediacal information, in order to perform a heart transplant, physicians need to preserve this organ in an adequate way. This approach between the two perspectives, the medical and the technological allow checking the similarities about the concepts of preservation. Digital preservation and medical advances are related in the same level as knowledge improvement.

Keywords: Data, Preservation, Digital, heritage, Medical Management

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10 The Study of Implications on Modern Businesses Performances by Digital Communities: Case of Data Leak

Authors: Asim Majeed, Anwar Ul Haq, Arshad Jamal, Usman Butt, Ayesha Asim, Mike Lloyd-Williams

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the impact of data leak of M&S customers on digital communities. Modern businesses are using digital communities as an important public relations tool for marketing purposes. This form of communication helps companies to build better relationship with their customers which also act as another source of information. The communication between the customers and the organizations is not regulated so users may post positive and negative comments. There are new platforms being developed on a daily basis and it is very crucial for the businesses to not only get themselves familiar with those but also know how to reach their existing and perspective consumers. The driving force of marketing and communication in modern businesses is the digital communities and these are continuously increasing and developing. This phenomenon is changing the way marketing is conducted. The current research has discussed the implications on M&S business performance since the data was exploited on digital communities; users contacted M&S and raised the security concerns. M&S closed down its website for few hours to try to resolve the issue. The next day M&S made a public apology about this incidence. This information was proliferated on various digital communities and it has impacted negatively on M&S brand name, sales and customers. The content analysis approach is being used to collect qualitative data from 100 digital bloggers including social media communities such as Facebook and Twitter. The results and finding provide useful new insights into the nature and form of security concerns of digital users. Findings have theoretical and practical implications. This research will showcase a large corporation utilizing various digital community platforms and can serve as a model for future organizations.

Keywords: Data, Performance, Communities, Digital, implications, Exploitation, Dissemination

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9 The Effect of Data Integration to the Smart City

Authors: Emma Mulliner, Richard Byrne

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Smart cities are a vision for the future that is increasingly becoming a reality. While a key concept of the smart city is the ability to capture, communicate, and process data that has long been produced through day-to-day activities of the city, much of the assessment models in place neglect this fact to focus on ‘smartness’ concepts. Although it is true technology often provides the opportunity to capture and communicate data in more effective ways, there are also human processes involved that are just as important. The growing importance with regards to the use and ownership of data in society can be seen by all with companies such as Facebook and Google increasingly coming under the microscope, however, why is the same scrutiny not applied to cities? The research area is therefore of great importance to the future of our cities here and now, while the findings will be of just as great importance to our children in the future. This research aims to understand the influence data is having on organisations operating throughout the smart cities sector and employs a mixed-method research approach in order to best answer the following question: Would a data-based evaluation model for smart cities be more appropriate than a smart-based model in assessing the development of the smart city? A fully comprehensive literature review concluded that there was a requirement for a data-driven assessment model for smart cities. This was followed by a documentary analysis to understand the root source of data integration to the smart city. A content analysis of city data platforms enquired as to the alternative approaches employed by cities throughout the UK and draws on best practice from New York to compare and contrast. Grounded in theory, the research findings to this point formulated a qualitative analysis framework comprised of: the changing environment influenced by data, the value of data in the smart city, the data ecosystem of the smart city and organisational response to the data orientated environment. The framework was applied to analyse primary data collected through the form of interviews with both public and private organisations operating throughout the smart cities sector. The work to date represents the first stage of data collection that will be built upon by a quantitative research investigation into the feasibility of data network effects in the smart city. An analysis into the benefits of data interoperability supporting services to the smart city in the areas of health and transport will conclude the research to achieve the aim of inductively forming a framework that can be applied to future smart city policy. To conclude, the research recognises the influence of technological perspectives in the development of smart cities to date and highlights this as a challenge to introduce theory applied with a planning dimension. The primary researcher has utilised their experience working in the public sector throughout the investigation to reflect upon what is perceived as a gap in practice of where we are today, to where we need to be tomorrow.

Keywords: Planning, Data, Smart Cities, Policy Development

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8 Strategic Workplace Security: The Role of Malware and the Threat of Internal Vulnerability

Authors: Modesta E. Ezema, Christopher C. Ezema, Christian C. Ugwu, Udoka F. Eze, Florence M. Babalola

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Some employees knowingly or unknowingly contribute to loss of data and also expose data to threat in the process of getting their jobs done. Many organizations today are faced with the challenges of how to secure their data as cyber criminals constantly devise new ways of attacking the organization’s secret data. However, this paper enlists the latest strategies that must be put in place in order to protect these important data from being attacked in a collaborative work place. It also introduces us to Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) and how it works. The empirical study was conducted to collect data from the employee in data centers on how data could be protected from malicious codes and cyber criminals and their responses are highly considered to help checkmate the activities of malicious code and cyber criminals in our work places.

Keywords: Data, Malware, Work place, employee

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7 E-Governance: A Key for Improved Public Service Delivery

Authors: Ayesha Akbar

Abstract:

Public service delivery has witnessed a significant improvement with the integration of information communication technology (ICT). It not only improves management structure with advanced technology for surveillance of service delivery but also provides evidence for informed decisions and policy. Pakistan’s public sector organizations have not been able to produce some good results to ensure service delivery. Notwithstanding, some of the public sector organizations in Pakistan has diffused modern technology and proved their credence by providing better service delivery standards. These good indicators provide sound basis to integrate technology in public sector organizations and shift of policy towards evidence based policy making. Rescue-1122 is a public sector organization which provides emergency services and proved to be a successful model for the provision of service delivery to save human lives and to ensure human development in Pakistan. The information about the organization has been received by employing qualitative research methodology. The information is broadly based on primary and secondary sources which includes Rescue-1122 website, official reports of organizations; UNDP (United Nation Development Program), WHO (World Health Organization) and by conducting 10 in-depth interviews with the high administrative staff of organizations who work in the Lahore offices. The information received has been incorporated with the study for the better understanding of the organization and their management procedures. Rescue-1122 represents a successful model in delivering the services in an efficient way to deal with the disaster management. The management of Rescue has strategized the policies and procedures in such a way to develop a comprehensive model with the integration of technology. This model provides efficient service delivery as well as maintains the standards of the organization. The service delivery model of rescue-1122 works on two fronts; front-office interface and the back-office interface. Back-office defines the procedures of operations and assures the compliance of the staff whereas, front-office equipped with the latest technology and good infrastructure handles the emergency calls. Both ends are integrated with satellite based vehicle tracking, wireless system, fleet monitoring system and IP camera which monitors every move of the staff to provide better services and to pinpoint the distortions in the services. The standard time of reaching to the emergency spot is 7 minutes, and during entertaining the case; driver‘s behavior, traffic volume and the technical assistance being provided to the emergency case is being monitored by front-office. Then the whole information get uploaded to the main dashboard of Lahore headquarter from the provincial offices. The latest technology is being materialized by Rescue-1122 for delivering the efficient services, investigating the flaws; if found, and to develop data to make informed decision making. The other public sector organizations of Pakistan can also develop such models to integrate technology for improving service delivery and to develop evidence for informed decisions and policy making.

Keywords: Data, Policy, e-Governance, evidence

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6 Meanings and Concepts of Standardization in Systems Medicine

Authors: Imme Petersen, Wiebke Sick, Regine Kollek

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In systems medicine, high-throughput technologies produce large amounts of data on different biological and pathological processes, including (disturbed) gene expressions, metabolic pathways and signaling. The large volume of data of different types, stored in separate databases and often located at different geographical sites have posed new challenges regarding data handling and processing. Tools based on bioinformatics have been developed to resolve the upcoming problems of systematizing, standardizing and integrating the various data. However, the heterogeneity of data gathered at different levels of biological complexity is still a major challenge in data analysis. To build multilayer disease modules, large and heterogeneous data of disease-related information (e.g., genotype, phenotype, environmental factors) are correlated. Therefore, a great deal of attention in systems medicine has been put on data standardization, primarily to retrieve and combine large, heterogeneous datasets into standardized and incorporated forms and structures. However, this data-centred concept of standardization in systems medicine is contrary to the debate in science and technology studies (STS) on standardization that rather emphasizes the dynamics, contexts and negotiations of standard operating procedures. Based on empirical work on research consortia that explore the molecular profile of diseases to establish systems medical approaches in the clinic in Germany, we trace how standardized data are processed and shaped by bioinformatics tools, how scientists using such data in research perceive such standard operating procedures and which consequences for knowledge production (e.g. modeling) arise from it. Hence, different concepts and meanings of standardization are explored to get a deeper insight into standard operating procedures not only in systems medicine, but also beyond.

Keywords: Data, Systems Medicine, standardization, science and technology studies (STS)

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5 Achieving High Renewable Energy Penetration in Western Australia Using Data Digitisation and Machine Learning

Authors: A. D. Tayal

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The energy industry is undergoing significant disruption. This research outlines that, whilst challenging; this disruption is also an emerging opportunity for electricity utilities. One such opportunity is leveraging the developments in data analytics and machine learning. As the uptake of renewable energy technologies and complimentary control systems increases, electricity grids will likely transform towards dense microgrids with high penetration of renewable generation sources, rich in network and customer data, and linked through intelligent, wireless communications. Data digitisation and analytics have already impacted numerous industries, and its influence on the energy sector is growing, as computational capabilities increase to manage big data, and as machines develop algorithms to solve the energy challenges of the future. The objective of this paper is to address how far the uptake of renewable technologies can go given the constraints of existing grid infrastructure and provides a qualitative assessment of how higher levels of renewable energy penetration can be facilitated by incorporating even broader technological advances in the fields of data analytics and machine learning. Western Australia is used as a contextualised case study, given its abundance and diverse renewable resources (solar, wind, biomass, and wave) and isolated networks, making a high penetration of renewables a feasible target for policy makers over coming decades.

Keywords: Innovation, renewable, Data, Solar

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4 Data Mining Algorithms Analysis: Case Study of Price Predictions of Lands

Authors: Julio Albuja, David Zaldumbide

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Data analysis is an important step before taking a decision about money. The aim of this work is to analyze the factors that influence the final price of the houses through data mining algorithms. To our best knowledge, previous work was researched just to compare results. Furthermore, before using the data of the data set, the Z-Transformation were used to standardize the data in the same range. Hence, the data was classified into two groups to visualize them in a readability format. A decision tree was built, and graphical data is displayed where clearly is easy to see the results and the factors' influence in these graphics. The definitions of these methods are described, as well as the descriptions of the results. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are presented related to the released results that our research showed making it easier to apply these algorithms using a customized data set.

Keywords: Algorithms, Data, Transformation, Decision Tree

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3 Using Technology to Deliver and Scale Early Childhood Development Services in Resource Constrained Environments: Case Studies from South Africa

Authors: Sonja Giese, Tess N. Peacock

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South African based Innovation Edge is experimenting with technology to drive positive behavior change, enable data-driven decision making, and scale quality early years services. This paper uses five case studies to illustrate how technology can be used in resource-constrained environments to first, encourage parenting practices that build early language development (using a stage-based mobile messaging pilot, ChildConnect), secondly, to improve the quality of ECD programs (using a mobile application, CareUp), thirdly, how to affordably scale services for the early detection of visual and hearing impairments (using a mobile tool, HearX), fourthly, how to build a transparent and accountable system for the registration and funding of ECD (using a blockchain enabled platform, Amply), and finally enable rapid data collection and feedback to facilitate quality enhancement of programs at scale (the Early Learning Outcomes Measure). ChildConnect and CareUp were both developed using a design based iterative research approach. The usage and uptake of ChildConnect and CareUp was evaluated with qualitative and quantitative methods. Actual child outcomes were not measured in the initial pilots. Although parents who used and engaged on either platform felt more supported and informed, parent engagement and usage remains a challenge. This is contrast to ECD practitioners whose usage and knowledge with CareUp showed both sustained engagement and knowledge improvement. HearX is an easy-to-use tool to identify hearing loss and visual impairment. The tool was tested with 10000 children in an informal settlement. The feasibility of cost-effectively decentralising screening services was demonstrated. Practical and financial barriers remain with respect to parental consent and for successful referrals. Amply uses mobile and blockchain technology to increase impact and accountability of public services. In the pilot project, Amply is being used to replace an existing paper-based system to register children for a government-funded pre-school subsidy in South Africa. Early Learning Outcomes Measure defines what it means for a child to be developmentally ‘on track’ at aged 50-69 months. ELOM administration is enabled via a tablet which allows for easy and accurate data collection, transfer, analysis, and feedback. ELOM is being used extensively to drive quality enhancement of ECD programs across multiple modalities. The nature of ECD services in South Africa is that they are in large part provided by disconnected private individuals or Non-Governmental Organizations (in contrast to basic education which is publicly provided by the government). It is a disparate sector which means that scaling successful interventions is that much harder. All five interventions show the potential of technology to support and enhance a range of ECD services, but pathways to scale are still being tested.

Keywords: Communication, Mobile, Disabilities, Data, Quality, Assessment, Technology, Behavior change, scale

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2 Assessment of the Validity of Sentiment Analysis as a Tool to Analyze the Emotional Content of Text

Authors: Trisha Malhotra

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Sentiment analysis is a recent field of study that computationally assesses the emotional nature of a body of text. To assess its test-validity, sentiment analysis was carried out on the emotional corpus of text from a personal 15-day mood diary. Self-reported mood scores varied more or less accurately with daily mood evaluation score given by the software. On further assessment, it was found that while sentiment analysis was good at assessing ‘global’ mood, it was not able to ‘locally’ identify and differentially score synonyms of various emotional words. It is further critiqued for treating the intensity of an emotion as universal across cultures. Finally, the software is shown not to account for emotional complexity in sentences by treating emotions as strictly positive or negative. Hence, it is posited that a better output could be two (positive and negative) affect scores for the same body of text.

Keywords: Analysis, Data, Mood, Diary, Emotions, sentiment

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1 Consumer Welfare in the Platform Economy

Authors: Prama Mukhopadhyay

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Starting from transport to food, today’s world platform economy and digital markets have taken over almost every sphere of consumers’ lives. Sellers and buyers are getting connected through platforms, which is acting as an intermediary. It has made consumer’s life easier in terms of time, price, choice and other factors. Having said that, there are several concerns regarding platforms. There are competition law concerns like unfair pricing, deep discounting by the platforms which affect the consumer welfare. Apart from that, the biggest problem is lack of transparency with respect to the business models, how it operates, price calculation, etc. In most of the cases, consumers are unaware of how their personal data are being used. In most of the cases, they are unaware of how algorithm uses their personal data to determine the price of the product or even to show the relevant products using their previous searches. Using personal or non-personal data without consumer’s consent is a huge legal concern. In addition to this, another major issue lies with the question of liability. If a dispute arises, who will be responsible? The seller or the platform? For example, if someone ordered food through a food delivery app and the food was bad, in this situation who will be liable: the restaurant or the food delivery platform? In this paper, the researcher tries to examine the legal concern related to platform economy from the consumer protection and consumer welfare perspectives. The paper analyses the cases from different jurisdictions and approach taken by the judiciaries. The author compares the existing legislation of EU, US and other Asian Countries and tries to highlight the best practices.

Keywords: Data, Consumer, Competition, Platform

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