Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Data Envelopment Analysis Related Abstracts

37 Efficiency of the Slovak Commercial Banks Applying the DEA Window Analysis

Authors: Iveta Repkova


The aim of this paper is to estimate the efficiency of the Slovak commercial banks employing the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) window analysis approach during the period 2003-2012. The research is based on unbalanced panel data of the Slovak commercial banks. Undesirable output was included into analysis of banking efficiency. It was found that most efficient banks were Postovabanka, UniCredit Bank and Istrobanka in CCR model and the most efficient banks were Slovenskasporitelna, Istrobanka and UniCredit Bank in BCC model. On contrary, the lowest efficient banks were found Privatbanka and CitiBank. We found that the largest banks in the Slovak banking market were lower efficient than medium-size and small banks. Results of the paper is that during the period 2003-2008 the average efficiency was increasing and then during the period 2010-2011 the average efficiency decreased as a result of financial crisis.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Efficiency, Slovak banking sector, window analysis

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36 Measurement of Operational and Environmental Performance of the Coal-Fired Power Plants in India by Using Data Envelopment Analysis

Authors: Vijay Kumar Bajpai, Sudhir Kumar Singh


In this study, the performance analyses of the twenty five coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) used for electricity generation are carried out through various data envelopment analysis (DEA) models. Three efficiency indices are defined and pursued. During the calculation of the operational performance, energy and non-energy variables are used as input, and net electricity produced is used as desired output. CO2 emitted to the environment is used as the undesired output in the computation of the pure environmental performance while in Model-3 CO2 emissions is considered as detrimental input in the calculation of operational and environmental performance. Empirical results show that most of the plants are operating in increasing returns to scale region and Mettur plant is efficient one with regards to energy use and environment. The result also indicates that the undesirable output effect is insignificant in the research sample. The present study will provide clues to plant operators towards raising the operational and environmental performance of CFPPs.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Environmental Performance, operational performance, coal fired power plants

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35 An Evaluation of Medical Waste in Health Facilities through Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Method: Turkey-Amasya Public Hospitals Union Model

Authors: Murat Iskender Aktaş, Sadi Ergin, Rasime Acar Aktaş


In the light of fast-paced changes and developments in the health sector, the Ministry of Health started a new structuring with decree law numbered 663 within the scope of the Project of Transformation in Health. Accordingly, hospitals should ensure patient satisfaction through more efficient, more effective use of resources and sustainable finance by placing patients in the centre and should operate to increase efficiency to its maximum level while doing these. Within this study, in order to find out how efficient the hospitals were in terms of medical waste management between the years 2011-2014, the data from six hospitals of Amasya Public Hospitals Union were evaluated separately through Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method. First of all, input variables were determined. Input variables were the number of patients admitted to polyclinics, the number of inpatients in clinics, the number of patients who were operated and the number of patients who applied to the laboratory. Output variable was the cost of medical wastes in Turkish liras. Each hospital’s total medical waste level before and after public hospitals union; the amounts of average medical waste per patient admitted to polyclinics, per inpatient in clinics, per patient admitted to laboratory and per operated patient were compared within each group. In addition, average medical waste levels and costs were compared for Turkey in general and Europe in general. Paired samples t-test was used to find out whether the changes (increase-decrease) after public hospitals union were statistically significant. The health facilities that were unsuccessful in terms of medical waste management before and after public hospital union and the factors that caused this failure were determined. Based on the results, for each health facility that was ineffective in terms of medical waste management, the level of improvement required for each input was determined. The results of the study showed that there was an improvement in medical waste management applications after the health facilities became a member of public hospitals union; their medical waste levels were lower than the average of Turkey and Europe while the averages of cost of disposal were the highest.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Medical Waste Management, cost of medical waste, public hospitals

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34 Assessment of Social Vulnerability of Urban Population to Floods – a Case Study of Mumbai

Authors: Sherly M. A., Varsha Vijaykumar, Subhankar Karmakar, Terence Chan, Christian Rau


This study aims at proposing an indicator-based framework for assessing social vulnerability of any coastal megacity to floods. The final set of indicators of social vulnerability are chosen from a set of feasible and available indicators which are prepared using a Geographic Information System (GIS) framework on a smaller scale considering 1-km grid cell to provide an insight into the spatial variability of vulnerability. The optimal weight for each individual indicator is assigned using data envelopment analysis (DEA) as it avoids subjective weights and improves the confidence on the results obtained. In order to de-correlate and reduce the dimension of multivariate data, principal component analysis (PCA) has been applied. The proposed methodology is demonstrated on twenty four wards of Mumbai under the jurisdiction of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM). This framework of vulnerability assessment is not limited to the present study area, and may be applied to other urban damage centers.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Vulnerability, Principal Component Analysis, urban floods

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33 Livestock Production in Vietnam: Technical Efficiency and Productivity Performance Based on Regional Differences

Authors: Diep Thanh Tung


This study aims to measure technical efficiency and examine productivity performance of livestock production in regions of Vietnam based on a panel data of 2008–2012. After four years, although there are improvements in efficiency of some regions, low technical efficiency, poor performance of productivity and its compositions are dominant features in almost regions. Households which much depend on livestock income in agricultural income or agricultural income in total income are more vulnerable than the others in term of livestock production.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Livestock production, technical efficiency, meta-frontier, Malmquist

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32 Measuring Environmental Efficiency of Energy in OPEC Countries

Authors: Bahram Fathi, Seyedhossein Sajadifar, Naser Khiabani


Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has recently gained popularity in energy efficiency analysis. A common feature of the previously proposed DEA models for measuring energy efficiency performance is that they treat energy consumption as an input within a production framework without considering undesirable outputs. However, energy use results in the generation of undesirable outputs as byproducts of producing desirable outputs. Within a joint production framework of both desirable and undesirable outputs, this paper presents several DEA-type linear programming models for measuring energy efficiency performance. In addition to considering undesirable outputs, our models treat different energy sources as different inputs so that changes in energy mix could be accounted for in evaluating energy efficiency. The proposed models are applied to measure the energy efficiency performances of 12 OPEC countries and the results obtained are presented.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Energy Efficiency, undesirable outputs

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31 Measuring Energy Efficiency Performance of Mena Countries

Authors: Bahram Fathi, Azam Mohammadbagheri


DEA has become a very popular method of performance measure, but it still suffers from some shortcomings. One of these shortcomings is the issue of having multiple optimal solutions to weights for efficient DMUs. The cross efficiency evaluation as an extension of DEA is proposed to avoid this problem. Lam (2010) is also proposed a mixed-integer linear programming formulation based on linear discriminate analysis and super efficiency method (MILP model) to avoid having multiple optimal solutions to weights. In this study, we modified MILP model to determine more suitable weight sets and also evaluate the energy efficiency of MENA countries as an application of the proposed model.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, discriminate analysis, cross efficiency, MILP model

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30 Onmanee Prajuabjinda, Pakakrong Thondeeying, Jipisute Chunthorng-Orn, Bhanuz Dechayont, Arunporn Itharat

Authors: Ekrem Erdem, Can Tansel Tugcu


Improved resource efficiency of production is a key requirement for sustainable growth, worldwide. In this regards, by considering the energy and tourism as the extra inputs to the classical Coub-Douglas production function, this study aims at investigating the efficiency changes in the North African countries. To this end, the study uses panel data for the period 1995-2010 and adopts the Malmquist index based on the data envelopment analysis. Results show that tourism increases technical and scale efficiencies, while it decreases technological and total factor productivity changes. On the other hand, when the production function is augmented by the energy input, technical efficiency change decreases, while the technological change, scale efficiency change and total factor productivity change increase. Thus, in order to satisfy the needs for sustainable growth, North African governments should take some measures for increasing the contribution that the tourism makes to economic growth and some others for efficient use of resources in the energy sector.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, economic efficiency, Sustainable Growth, North African countries

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29 A Review on the Comparison of EU Countries Based on Research and Development Efficiencies

Authors: Yeliz Ekinci, Raife Merve Ön


Nowadays, technological progress is one of the most important components of economic growth and the efficiency of R&D activities is particularly essential for countries. This study is an attempt to analyze the R&D efficiencies of EU countries. The indicators related to R&D efficiencies should be determined in advance in order to use DEA. For this reason a list of input and output indicators are derived from the literature review. Considering the data availability, a final list is given for the numerical analysis for future research.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Economic growth, EU countries, R&D efficiency

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28 Ranking All of the Efficient DMUs in DEA

Authors: Elahe Sarfi, Esmat Noroozi, Farhad Hosseinzadeh Lotfi


One of the important issues in Data Envelopment Analysis is the ranking of Decision Making Units. In this paper, a method for ranking DMUs is presented through which the weights related to efficient units should be chosen in a way that the other units preserve a certain percentage of their efficiency with the mentioned weights. To this end, a model is presented for ranking DMUs on the base of their superefficiency by considering the mentioned restrictions related to weights. This percentage can be determined by decision Maker. If the specific percentage is unsuitable, we can find a suitable and feasible one for ranking DMUs accordingly. Furthermore, the presented model is capable of ranking all of the efficient units including nonextreme efficient ones. Finally, the presented models are utilized for two sets of data and related results are reported.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Efficiency, weight, ranking

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27 Efficiency of DMUs in Presence of New Inputs and Outputs in DEA

Authors: Elahe Sarfi, Esmat Noroozi, Farha Hosseinzadeh Lotfi


Examining the impacts of data modification is considered as sensitivity analysis. A lot of studies have considered the data modification of inputs and outputs in DEA. The issues which has not heretofore been considered in DEA sensitivity analysis is modification in the number of inputs and (or) outputs and determining the impacts of this modification in the status of efficiency of DMUs. This paper is going to present systems that show the impacts of adding one or multiple inputs or outputs on the status of efficiency of DMUs and furthermore a model is presented for recognizing the minimum number of inputs and (or) outputs from among specified inputs and outputs which can be added whereas an inefficient DMU will become efficient. Finally the presented systems and model have been utilized for a set of real data and the results have been reported.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Efficiency, Sensitivity Analysis, input, out put

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26 Non-Parametric, Unconditional Quantile Estimation of Efficiency in Microfinance Institutions

Authors: Komlan Sedzro


We apply the non-parametric, unconditional, hyperbolic order-α quantile estimator to appraise the relative efficiency of Microfinance Institutions in Africa in terms of outreach. Our purpose is to verify if these institutions, which must constantly try to strike a compromise between their social role and financial sustainability are operationally efficient. Using data on African MFIs extracted from the Microfinance Information eXchange (MIX) database and covering the 2004 to 2006 periods, we find that more efficient MFIs are also the most profitable. This result is in line with the view that social performance is not in contradiction with the pursuit of excellent financial performance. Our results also show that large MFIs in terms of asset and those charging the highest fees are not necessarily the most efficient.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, microfinance institutions, quantile estimation of efficiency, social and financial performance

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25 Multivariate Control Chart to Determine Efficiency Measurements in Industrial Processes

Authors: J. J. Vargas, N. Prieto, L. A. Toro


Control charts are commonly used to monitor processes involving either variable or attribute of quality characteristics and determining the control limits as a critical task for quality engineers to improve the processes. Nonetheless, in some applications it is necessary to include an estimation of efficiency. In this paper, the ability to define the efficiency of an industrial process was added to a control chart by means of incorporating a data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. In depth, a Bayesian estimation was performed to calculate the posterior probability distribution of parameters as means and variance and covariance matrix. This technique allows to analyse the data set without the need of using the hypothetical large sample implied in the problem and to be treated as an approximation to the finite sample distribution. A rejection simulation method was carried out to generate random variables from the parameter functions. Each resulting vector was used by stochastic DEA model during several cycles for establishing the distribution of each efficiency measures for each DMU (decision making units). A control limit was calculated with model obtained and if a condition of a low level efficiency of DMU is presented, system efficiency is out of control. In the efficiency calculated a global optimum was reached, which ensures model reliability.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, multivariate control chart, DEA, rejection simulation method

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24 Performance of Environmental Efficiency of Energy Iran and Other Middle East Countries

Authors: Bahram Fathi, Mahdi Khodaparast Mashhadi, Masuod Homayounifar


According to 1404 forecasting documentation, among the most fundamental ways of Iran’s success in competition with other regional countries are innovations, efficiency enhancements and domestic productivity. Therefore, in this study, the energy consumption efficiency of Iran and the neighbor countries has been measured in the period between 2007-2012 considering the simultaneous economic activities, CO2 emission, and consumption of energy through data envelopment analysis of undesirable output. The results of the study indicated that the energy efficiency changes in both Iran and the average neighbor countries has been on a descending trend and Iran’s energy efficiency status is not desirable compared to the other countries in the region.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Environmental, Energy Efficiency, undesirable output

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23 The Measurement of the Multi-Period Efficiency of the Turkish Health Care Sector

Authors: Erhan Berk


The purpose of this study is to examine the efficiency and productivity of the health care sector in Turkey based on four years of health care cross-sectional data. Efficiency measures are calculated by a nonparametric approach known as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Productivity is measured by the Malmquist index. The research shows how DEA-based Malmquist productivity index can be operated to appraise the technology and productivity changes resulted in the Turkish hospitals which are located all across the country.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Health Care, Efficiency, malmquist index

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22 Performance of Environmental Efficiency of Energy Consumption in OPEC Countries

Authors: Bahram Fathi, Mahdi Khodaparast Mashhadi, Masuod Homayounifar


Global awareness on energy security and climate change has created much interest in assessing energy efficiency performance. A number of previous studies have contributed to evaluate energy efficiency performance using different analytical techniques among which data envelopment analysis (DEA) has recently received increasing attention. Most of DEA-related energy efficiency studies do not consider undesirable outputs such as CO2 emissions in their modeling framework, which may lead to biased energy efficiency values. Within a joint production frame work of desirable and undesirable outputs, in this paper we construct energy efficiency performance index for measuring energy efficiency performance by using environmental DEA model with CO2 emissions. We finally apply the index proposed to assess the energy efficiency performance in OPEC over time.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Environmental, Energy Efficiency, OPEC

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21 Two-Stage Hospital Efficiency Analysis Including Qualitative Evidence: A Greek Case

Authors: Panos Xenos, Milton Nektarios, John Yfantopoulos


Background: Policy makers, professional organizations and payers have introduced a variety of initiatives and reforms for the health systems worldwide, aimed at improving hospital efficiency. Their efforts are concentrated in two main categories: to constrain increasing healthcare costs and to enhance quality of services provided. Research Objectives: This study examines the efficiency of 112 Greek public hospitals for the year 2009, evaluates the importance of bootstrapping techniques and investigates the effect of contextual factors on hospital efficiency. Furthermore, the effect of qualitative evidence, on hospital efficiency is explored using data from 28 large hospitals. Methods: We applied Data Envelopment Analysis, augmented by bootstrapping techniques, to estimate efficiency scores. In order to measure the effect of environmental factors on hospital efficiency we used Tobit regression analysis. The significance of our models is evaluated using statistical tests to compare distributions. Results: The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test between the original and the bootstrap-corrected efficiency indicates that their distributions are significantly different (p-value<0.01). The environmental factors, that seem to influence efficiency, are Occupancy Rating and the ratio between Outpatient Visits and Inpatient Days. Results indicate that the inclusion of the quality variable in DEA modelling generates statistically significant variations in efficiency scores (p-value<0.05). Conclusions: The inclusion of quality variables and the use of bootstrap resampling in efficiency analysis impose a statistically significant effect on the distribution of efficiency scores. As a policy conclusion we highlight the importance of these methods on hospital efficiency analysis and, by implication, on healthcare resource allocation.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Quality, Efficiency, hospitals, Greek public hospital sector

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20 Analysis of the Simulation Merger and Economic Benefit of Local Farmers' Associations in Taiwan

Authors: Lu Yung-Hsiang, Chang Kuming, Dai Yi-Fang, Liao Ching-Yi


According to Taiwan’s administrative division of future land planning may lead farmer association and service areas facing recombination or merger. Thus, merger combination and the economic benefit of the farmer association are worth to be discussed. The farmer association in the merger, which may cause some then will not be consolidated, or consolidate two, or ever more to one association. However, under what condition to merge is greatest, as one of observation of this study. In addition, research without using simulation methods and only on the credit department rather whole farmer association. Therefore, this paper will use the simulation approach, and examine both the merge of farmer association and the condition under which the benefits are the greatest. The data of this study set include 266 farmer associations in Taiwan period 2012 to 2013. Empirical results showed that the number of the farmer association optimal simulation combination is 108.After the merger from the first stage can be reduced by 60% of the farmers’ association. The cost saving effects of the post-merger is not different. The cost efficiency of the farmers’ association improved it. The economies of scale and scope would decrease by the merger. The research paper hopes the finding will benefit the future merger of the farmers’ association.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, simulation merger, farmer association, assurance region

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19 Fuzzy Total Factor Productivity by Credibility Theory

Authors: Trilok Mathur, Shivi Agarwal


This paper proposes the method to measure the total factor productivity (TFP) change by credibility theory for fuzzy input and output variables. Total factor productivity change has been widely studied with crisp input and output variables, however, in some cases, input and output data of decision-making units (DMUs) can be measured with uncertainty. These data can be represented as linguistic variable characterized by fuzzy numbers. Malmquist productivity index (MPI) is widely used to estimate the TFP change by calculating the total factor productivity of a DMU for different time periods using data envelopment analysis (DEA). The fuzzy DEA (FDEA) model is solved using the credibility theory. The results of FDEA is used to measure the TFP change for fuzzy input and output variables. Finally, numerical examples are presented to illustrate the proposed method to measure the TFP change input and output variables. The suggested methodology can be utilized for performance evaluation of DMUs and help to assess the level of integration. The methodology can also apply to rank the DMUs and can find out the DMUs that are lagging behind and make recommendations as to how they can improve their performance to bring them at par with other DMUs.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, credibility theory, chance-constrained programming, fuzzy data, Malmquist productivity index

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18 Dynamic vs. Static Bankruptcy Prediction Models: A Dynamic Performance Evaluation Framework

Authors: Mohammad Mahdi Mousavi


Bankruptcy prediction models have been implemented for continuous evaluation and monitoring of firms. With the huge number of bankruptcy models, an extensive number of studies have focused on answering the question that which of these models are superior in performance. In practice, one of the drawbacks of existing comparative studies is that the relative assessment of alternative bankruptcy models remains an exercise that is mono-criterion in nature. Further, a very restricted number of criteria and measure have been applied to compare the performance of competing bankruptcy prediction models. In this research, we overcome these methodological gaps through implementing an extensive range of criteria and measures for comparison between dynamic and static bankruptcy models, and through proposing a multi-criteria framework to compare the relative performance of bankruptcy models in forecasting firm distress for UK firms.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Bankruptcy prediction, performance measures, performance criteria

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17 Detection Efficient Enterprises via Data Envelopment Analysis

Authors: S. Turkan


In this paper, the Turkey’s Top 500 Industrial Enterprises data in 2014 were analyzed by data envelopment analysis. Data envelopment analysis is used to detect efficient decision-making units such as universities, hospitals, schools etc. by using inputs and outputs. The decision-making units in this study are enterprises. To detect efficient enterprises, some financial ratios are determined as inputs and outputs. For this reason, financial indicators related to productivity of enterprises are considered. The efficient foreign weighted owned capital enterprises are detected via super efficiency model. According to the results, it is said that Mercedes-Benz is the most efficient foreign weighted owned capital enterprise in Turkey.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Logistic Regression, financial ratios, super efficiency

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16 Modelling the Education Supply Chain with Network Data Envelopment Analysis

Authors: Sourour Ramzi, Claudia Sarrico


Little has been done on network DEA in education, and nobody has attempted to model the whole education supply chain using network DEA. As such the contribution of the present paper is to propose a model for measuring the efficiency of education supply chains using network DEA. First, we use a general survey of data envelopment analysis (DEA) to establish the emergent themes for research in DEA, and focus on the theme of Network DEA. Second, we use a survey on two-stage DEA models, and Network DEA to write a state of the art on Network DEA, particularly applied to supply chain management. Third, we use a survey on DEA applications to establish the most influential papers on DEA education applications, in order to establish the state of the art on applications of DEA in education, in general, and applications of DEA to education using network DEA, in particular. Finally, we propose a model for measuring the performance of education supply chains of different education systems (countries or states within a country, for instance). We then use this model on some empirical data.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Education, Data Envelopment Analysis, network DEA

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15 A Comparation Analysis of Islamic Bank Efficiency in the United Kingdom and Indonesia during Eurozone Crisis Using Data Envelopment Analysis

Authors: Fatin Fadhilah Hasib, Puji Sucia Sukmaningrum, Achsania Hendratmi, Nisful Laila


The purpose of this study is to determine and comparing the level of efficiency of Islamic Banks in Indonesia and United Kingdom during eurozone sovereign debt crisis. This study using a quantitative non-parametric approach with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) VRS assumption, and a statistical tool Mann-Whitney U-Test. The samples are 11 Islamic Banks in Indonesia and 4 Islamic Banks in England. This research used mediating approach. Input variable consists of total deposit, asset, and the cost of labour. Output variable consists of financing and profit/loss. This study shows that the efficiency of Islamic Bank in Indonesia and United Kingdom are varied and fluctuated during the observation period. There is no significant different the efficiency performance of Islamic Banks in Indonesia and United Kingdom.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Efficiency, Islamic bank, eurozone crisis

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14 Searching the Efficient Frontier for the Coherent Covering Location Problem

Authors: Felipe Azocar Simonet, Luis Acosta Espejo


In this article, we will try to find an efficient boundary approximation for the bi-objective location problem with coherent coverage for two levels of hierarchy (CCLP). We present the mathematical formulation of the model used. Supported efficient solutions and unsupported efficient solutions are obtained by solving the bi-objective combinatorial problem through the weights method using a Lagrangean heuristic. Subsequently, the results are validated through the DEA analysis with the GEM index (Global efficiency measurement).

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, coherent covering location problem, efficient frontier, lagragian relaxation

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13 Analysis of Eco-Efficiency and the Determinants of Family Agriculture in Southeast Spain

Authors: Laura Piedra-Muñoz, Ángeles Godoy-Durán, Emilio Galdeano-Gómez, Juan C. Pérez-Mesa


Eco-efficiency is receiving ever-increasing interest as an indicator of sustainability, as it links environmental and economic performances in productive activities. In agriculture, these indicators and their determinants prove relevant due to the close relationships in this activity between the use of natural resources, which is generally limited, and the provision of basic goods to society. In this context, various analyses have focused on eco-efficiency by considering individual family farms as the basic production unit. However, not only must the measure of efficiency be taken into account, but also the existence of a series of factors which constitute socio-economic, political-institutional, and environmental determinants. Said factors have been studied to a lesser extent in the literature. The present work analyzes eco-efficiency at a micro level, focusing on small-scale family farms as the main decision-making units in horticulture in southeast Spain, a sector which represents about 30% of the fresh vegetables produced in the country and about 20% of those consumed in Europe. The objectives of this study are a) to obtain a series of eco-efficiency indicators by estimating several pressure ratios and economic value added in farming, b) to analyze the influence of specific social, economic and environmental variables on the aforementioned eco-efficiency indicators. The present work applies the method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which calculates different combinations of environmental pressures (water usage, phytosanitary contamination, waste management, etc.) and aggregate economic value. In a second stage, an analysis is conducted on the influence of the socio-economic and environmental characteristics of family farms on the eco-efficiency indicators, as endogeneous variables, through the use of truncated regression and bootstrapping techniques, following Simar-Wilson methodology. The results reveal considerable inefficiency in aspects such as waste management, while there is relatively little inefficiency in water usage and nitrogen balance. On the other hand, characteristics, such as product specialization, the adoption of quality certifications and belonging to a cooperative do have a positive impact on eco-efficiency. These results are deemed to be of interest to agri-food systems structured on small-scale producers, and they may prove useful to policy-makers as regards managing public environmental programs in agriculture.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Horticulture, Eco-Efficiency, family farms, socioeconomic features

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12 Performance Evaluation and Planning for Road Safety Measures Using Data Envelopment Analysis and Fuzzy Decision Making

Authors: Tom Brijs, Hamid Reza Behnood, Esmaeel Ayati, Mohammadali Pirayesh Neghab


Investment projects in road safety planning can benefit from an effectiveness evaluation regarding their expected safety outcomes. The objective of this study is to develop a decision support system (DSS) to support policymakers in taking the right choice in road safety planning based on the efficiency of previously implemented safety measures in a set of regions in Iran. The measures considered for each region in the study include performance indicators about (1) police operations, (2) treated black spots, (3) freeway and highway facility supplies, (4) speed control cameras, (5) emergency medical services, and (6) road lighting projects. To this end, inefficiency measure is calculated, defined by the proportion of fatality rates in relation to the combined measure of road safety performance indicators (i.e., road safety measures) which should be minimized. The relative inefficiency for each region is modeled by the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique. In a next step, a fuzzy decision-making system is constructed to convert the information obtained from the DEA analysis into a rule-based system that can be used by policy makers to evaluate the expected outcomes of certain alternative investment strategies in road safety.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Decision Support System, Road Safety, Performance Indicators, fuzzy reasoning

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11 Classifying and Predicting Efficiencies Using Interval DEA Grid Setting

Authors: Yiannis G. Smirlis


The classification and the prediction of efficiencies in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is an important issue, especially in large scale problems or when new units frequently enter the under-assessment set. In this paper, we contribute to the subject by proposing a grid structure based on interval segmentations of the range of values for the inputs and outputs. Such intervals combined, define hyper-rectangles that partition the space of the problem. This structure, exploited by Interval DEA models and a dominance relation, acts as a DEA pre-processor, enabling the classification and prediction of efficiency scores, without applying any DEA models.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, interval DEA, efficiency classification, efficiency prediction

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10 Welding Process Selection for Storage Tank by Integrated Data Envelopment Analysis and Fuzzy Credibility Constrained Programming Approach

Authors: Rahmad Wisnu Wardana, Eakachai Warinsiriruk, Sutep Joy-A-Ka


Selecting the most suitable welding process usually depends on experiences or common application in similar companies. However, this approach generally ignores many criteria that can be affecting the suitable welding process selection. Therefore, knowledge automation through knowledge-based systems will significantly improve the decision-making process. The aims of this research propose integrated data envelopment analysis (DEA) and fuzzy credibility constrained programming approach for identifying the best welding process for stainless steel storage tank in the food and beverage industry. The proposed approach uses fuzzy concept and credibility measure to deal with uncertain data from experts' judgment. Furthermore, 12 parameters are used to determine the most appropriate welding processes among six competitive welding processes.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, storage tank, welding process selection, fuzzy credibility constrained programming

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9 Valuing Social Sustainability in Agriculture: An Approach Based on Social Outputs’ Shadow Prices

Authors: Amer Ait Sidhoum


Interest in sustainability has gained ground among practitioners, academics and policy-makers due to growing stakeholders’ awareness of environmental and social concerns. This is particularly true for agriculture. However, relatively little research has been conducted on the quantification of social sustainability and the contribution of social issues to the agricultural production efficiency. This research's main objective is to propose a method for evaluating prices of social outputs, more precisely shadow prices, by allowing for the stochastic nature of agricultural production that is to say for production uncertainty. In this article, the assessment of social outputs’ shadow prices is conducted within the methodological framework of nonparametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). An output-oriented directional distance function (DDF) is implemented to represent the technology of a sample of Catalan arable crop farms and derive the efficiency scores the overall production technology of our sample is assumed to be the intersection of two different sub-technologies. The first sub-technology models the production of random desirable agricultural outputs, while the second sub-technology reflects the social outcomes from agricultural activities. Once a nonparametric production technology has been represented, the DDF primal approach can be used for efficiency measurement, while shadow prices are drawn from the dual representation of the DDF. Computing shadow prices is a method to assign an economic value to non-marketed social outcomes. Our research uses cross sectional, farm-level data collected in 2015 from a sample of 180 Catalan arable crop farms specialized in the production of cereals, oilseeds and protein (COP) crops. Our results suggest that our sample farms show high performance scores, from 85% for the bad state of nature to 88% for the normal and ideal crop growing conditions. This suggests that farm performance is increasing with an improvement in crop growth conditions. Results also show that average shadow prices of desirable state-contingent output and social outcomes for efficient and inefficient farms are positive, suggesting that the production of desirable marketable outputs and of non-marketable outputs makes a positive contribution to the farm production efficiency. Results also indicate that social outputs’ shadow prices are contingent upon the growing conditions. The shadow prices follow an upward trend as crop-growing conditions improve. This finding suggests that these efficient farms prefer to allocate more resources in the production of desirable outputs than of social outcomes. To our knowledge, this study represents the first attempt to compute shadow prices of social outcomes while accounting for the stochastic nature of the production technology. Our findings suggest that the decision-making process of the efficient farms in dealing with social issues are stochastic and strongly dependent on the growth conditions. This implies that policy-makers should adjust their instruments according to the stochastic environmental conditions. An optimal redistribution of rural development support, by increasing the public payment with the improvement in crop growth conditions, would likely enhance the effectiveness of public policies.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Social Sustainability, Sustainable Farming, shadow prices

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8 Examination of Public Hospital Unions Technical Efficiencies Using Data Envelopment Analysis and Machine Learning Techniques

Authors: Songul Cinaroglu


Regional planning in health has gained speed for developing countries in recent years. In Turkey, 89 different Public Hospital Unions (PHUs) were conducted based on provincial levels. In this study technical efficiencies of 89 PHUs were examined by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and machine learning techniques by dividing them into two clusters in terms of similarities of input and output indicators. Number of beds, physicians and nurses determined as input variables and number of outpatients, inpatients and surgical operations determined as output indicators. Before performing DEA, PHUs were grouped into two clusters. It is seen that the first cluster represents PHUs which have higher population, demand and service density than the others. The difference between clusters was statistically significant in terms of all study variables (p ˂ 0.001). After clustering, DEA was performed for general and for two clusters separately. It was found that 11% of PHUs were efficient in general, additionally 21% and 17% of them were efficient for the first and second clusters respectively. It is seen that PHUs, which are representing urban parts of the country and have higher population and service density, are more efficient than others. Random forest decision tree graph shows that number of inpatients is a determinative factor of efficiency of PHUs, which is a measure of service density. It is advisable for public health policy makers to use statistical learning methods in resource planning decisions to improve efficiency in health care.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Efficiency, random forest, public hospital unions

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