Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

damping factor Related Abstracts

2 Portuguese Guitar Strings Characterization and Comparison

Authors: A. Ribeiro, V. Infante, P. Serrão, E. Costa


The characteristic sonority of the Portuguese guitar is in great part what makes Fado so distinguishable from other traditional song styles. The Portuguese guitar is a pear-shaped plucked chordophone with six courses of double strings. This study compares the two types of plain strings available for Portuguese guitar and used by the musicians. One is stainless steel spring wire, the other is high carbon spring steel (music wire). Some musicians mention noticeable differences in sound quality between these two string materials, such as a little more brightness and sustain in the steel strings. Experimental tests were performed to characterize string tension at pitch; mechanical strength and tuning stability using the universal testing machine; dimensional control and chemical composition analysis using the scanning electron microscope. The string dynamical behaviour characterization experiments, including frequency response, inharmonicity, transient response, damping phenomena and were made in a monochord test set-up designed and built in-house. Damping factor was determined for the fundamental frequency. As musicians are able to detect very small damping differences, an accurate a characterization of the damping phenomena for all harmonics was necessary. With that purpose, another improved monochord was set and a new system identification methodology applied. Due to the complexity of this task several adjustments were necessary until obtaining good experimental data. In a few cases, dynamical tests were repeated to detect any evolution in damping parameters after break-in period when according to players experience a new string sounds gradually less dull until reaching the typically brilliant timbre. Finally, each set of strings was played on one guitar by a distinguished player and recorded. The recordings which include individual notes, scales, chords and a study piece, will be analysed to potentially characterize timbre variations.

Keywords: Portuguese guitar, damping factor, music wire, string dynamics

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1 Studies on Organic and Inorganic Micro/Nano Particle Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: Jiri Militky, Daniel Karthik, Vijay Baheti, Sundaramurthy Palanisamy


Fibre based nano particles are presently considered as one of the potential filler materials for the improvement of mechanical and physical properties of polymer composites. Due to high matrix-filler interfacial area there will be uniform and homogeneous dispersion of nanoparticles. In micro/nano filler reinforced composites, resin material is usually tailored by organic or inorganic nanoparticles to have improved matrix properties. The objective of this study was to compare the potential of reinforcement of different organic and inorganic micro/nano fillers in epoxy composites. Industrial and agricultural waste of fibres like Agave Americana, cornhusk, jute, basalt, carbon, glass and fly ash was utilized to prepare micro/nano particles. Micro/nano particles were obtained using high energy planetary ball milling process in dry condition. Milling time and ball size were kept constant throughout the ball milling process. Composites were fabricated by hand lay method. Particle loading was kept constant to 3% wt. for all composites. In present study, loading of fillers was selected as 3 wt. % for all composites. Dynamic mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films were performed in three-point bending mode with gauge length and sample width of 50 mm and 10 mm respectively. The samples were subjected to an oscillating frequency of 1 Hz, 5 Hz and 10 Hz and 100 % oscillating amplitude in the temperature ranges of 30°C to 150°C at the heating rate of 3°C/min. Damping was found to be higher with the jute composites. Amongst organic fillers lowest damping factor was observed with Agave Americana particles, this means that Agave americana fibre particles have betters interface adhesion with epoxy resin. Basalt, fly ash and glass particles have almost similar damping factors confirming better interface adhesion with epoxy.

Keywords: ball milling, damping factor, matrix-filler interface, particle reinforcements

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