Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

damage detection Related Abstracts

19 Detection of Concrete Reinforcement Damage Using Piezoelectric Materials: Analytical and Experimental Study

Authors: C. P. Providakis, G. M. Angeli, M. J. Favvata, N. A. Papadopoulos, C. E. Chalioris, C. G. Karayannis

Abstract:

An effort for the detection of damages in the reinforcement bars of reinforced concrete members using PZTs is presented. The damage can be the result of excessive elongation of the steel bar due to steel yielding or due to local steel corrosion. In both cases the damage is simulated by considering reduced diameter of the rebar along the damaged part of its length. An integration approach based on both electro-mechanical admittance methodology and guided wave propagation technique is used to evaluate the artificial damage on the examined longitudinal steel bar. Two actuator PZTs and a sensor PZT are considered to be bonded on the examined steel bar. The admittance of the Sensor PZT is calculated using COMSOL 3.4a. Fast Furrier Transformation for a better evaluation of the results is employed. An effort for the quantification of the damage detection using the root mean square deviation (RMSD) between the healthy condition and damage state of the sensor PZT is attempted. The numerical value of the RSMD yields a level for the difference between the healthy and the damaged admittance computation indicating this way the presence of damage in the structure. Experimental measurements are also presented.

Keywords: Experimental Measurements, Concrete Reinforcement, Guided Waves, damage detection, Finite Element Method, electromechanical admittance, PZT

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18 Detection of Concrete Reinforcement Damage Using Piezoelectric Materials: Analytical and Experimental Study

Authors: C. P. Providakis, G. M. Angeli, M. J. Favvata, N. A. Papadopoulos, C. E. Chalioris, C. G. Karayannis

Abstract:

An effort for the detection of damages in the reinforcement bars of reinforced concrete members using PZTs is presented. The damage can be the result of excessive elongation of the steel bar due to steel yielding or due to local steel corrosion. In both cases the damage is simulated by considering reduced diameter of the rebar along the damaged part of its length. An integration approach based on both electromechanical admittance methodology and guided wave propagation technique is used to evaluate the artificial damage on the examined longitudinal steel bar. Two actuator PZTs and a sensor PZT are considered to be bonded on the examined steel bar. The admittance of the Sensor PZT is calculated using COMSOL 3.4a. Fast Furrier Transformation for a better evaluation of the results is employed. An effort for the quantification of the damage detection using the root mean square deviation (RMSD) between the healthy condition and damage state of the sensor PZT is attempted. The numerical value of the RSMD yields a level for the difference between the healthy and the damaged admittance computation indicating this way the presence of damage in the structure. Experimental measurements are also presented.

Keywords: Experimental Measurements, Concrete Reinforcement, Guided Waves, damage detection, Finite Element Method, electromechanical admittance, PZT

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17 Post-Earthquake Damage Detection Using System Identification with a Pair of Seismic Recordings

Authors: Lotfi O. Gargab, Ruichong R. Zhang

Abstract:

A wave-based framework is presented for modeling seismic motion in multistory buildings and using measured response for system identification which can be utilized to extract important information regarding structure integrity. With one pair of building response at two locations, a generalized model response is formulated based on wave propagation features and expressed as frequency and time response functions denoted, respectively, as GFRF and GIRF. In particular, GIRF is fundamental in tracking arrival times of impulsive wave motion initiated at response level which is dependent on local model properties. Matching model and measured-structure responses can help in identifying model parameters and infer building properties. To show the effectiveness of this approach, the Millikan Library in Pasadena, California is identified with recordings of the Yorba Linda earthquake of September 3, 2002.

Keywords: System Identification, damage detection, continuous-discrete mass modeling, post-earthquake

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16 Structural Health Monitoring of the 9-Story Torre Central Building Using Recorded Data and Wave Method

Authors: Tzong-Ying Hao, Mohammad T. Rahmani

Abstract:

The Torre Central building is a 9-story shear wall structure located in Santiago, Chile, and has been instrumented since 2009. Events of different intensity (ambient vibrations, weak and strong earthquake motions) have been recorded, and thus the building can serve as a full-scale benchmark to evaluate the structural health monitoring method developed. The first part of this article presents an analysis of inter-story drifts, and of changes in the first system frequencies (estimated from the relative displacement response of the 8th-floor with respect to the basement from recorded data) as baseline indicators of the occurrence of damage. During 2010 Chile earthquake the system frequencies were detected decreasing approximately 24% in the EW and 27% in NS motions. Near the end of shaking, an increase of about 17% in the EW motion was detected. The structural health monitoring (SHM) method based on changes in wave traveling time (wave method) within a layered shear beam model of structure is presented in the second part of this article. If structural damage occurs the velocity of wave propagated through the structure changes. The wave method measures the velocities of shear wave propagation from the impulse responses generated by recorded data at various locations inside the building. Our analysis and results show that the detected changes in wave velocities are consistent with the observed damages. On this basis, the wave method is proven for actual implementation in structural health monitoring systems.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, damage detection, earthquake response, Chile earthquake, impulse response, layered shear beam, Torre Central building, wave method, wave travel time

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15 Structural Health Monitoring of Buildings–Recorded Data and Wave Method

Authors: Tzong-Ying Hao, Mohammad T. Rahmani

Abstract:

This article presents the structural health monitoring (SHM) method based on changes in wave traveling times (wave method) within a layered 1-D shear beam model of structure. The wave method measures the velocity of shear wave propagating in a building from the impulse response functions (IRF) obtained from recorded data at different locations inside the building. If structural damage occurs in a structure, the velocity of wave propagation through it changes. The wave method analysis is performed on the responses of Torre Central building, a 9-story shear wall structure located in Santiago, Chile. Because events of different intensity (ambient vibrations, weak and strong earthquake motions) have been recorded at this building, therefore it can serve as a full-scale benchmark to validate the structural health monitoring method utilized. The analysis of inter-story drifts and the Fourier spectra for the EW and NS motions during 2010 Chile earthquake are presented. The results for the NS motions suggest the coupling of translation and torsion responses. The system frequencies (estimated from the relative displacement response of the 8th-floor with respect to the basement from recorded data) were detected initially decreasing approximately 24% in the EW motion. Near the end of shaking, an increase of about 17% was detected. These analysis and results serve as baseline indicators of the occurrence of structural damage. The detected changes in wave velocities of the shear beam model are consistent with the observed damage. However, the 1-D shear beam model is not sufficient to simulate the coupling of translation and torsion responses in the NS motion. The wave method is proven for actual implementation in structural health monitoring systems based on carefully assessing the resolution and accuracy of the model for its effectiveness on post-earthquake damage detection in buildings.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, damage detection, earthquake response, shear wave velocity, Chile earthquake, Torre Central building, wave method, impulse response function, shear beam model

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14 Structural Damage Detection via Incomplete Model Data Using Output Data Only

Authors: Ahmed Noor Al-Qayyim, Barlas Ozden Caglayan

Abstract:

Structural failure is caused mainly by damage that often occurs on structures. Many researchers focus on obtaining very efficient tools to detect the damage in structures in the early state. In the past decades, a subject that has received considerable attention in literature is the damage detection as determined by variations in the dynamic characteristics or response of structures. This study presents a new damage identification technique. The technique detects the damage location for the incomplete structure system using output data only. The method indicates the damage based on the free vibration test data by using “Two Points - Condensation (TPC) technique”. This method creates a set of matrices by reducing the structural system to two degrees of freedom systems. The current stiffness matrices are obtained from optimization of the equation of motion using the measured test data. The current stiffness matrices are compared with original (undamaged) stiffness matrices. High percentage changes in matrices’ coefficients lead to the location of the damage. TPC technique is applied to the experimental data of a simply supported steel beam model structure after inducing thickness change in one element. Where two cases are considered, the method detects the damage and determines its location accurately in both cases. In addition, the results illustrate that these changes in stiffness matrix can be a useful tool for continuous monitoring of structural safety using ambient vibration data. Furthermore, its efficiency proves that this technique can also be used for big structures.

Keywords: Optimization, Structural health monitoring, damage detection, Signals Processing, two points–condensation

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13 A Single-Channel BSS-Based Method for Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructure under Environmental Variations

Authors: Yanjie Zhu, André Jesus, Irwanda Laory

Abstract:

Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), involving data acquisition, data interpretation and decision-making system aim to continuously monitor the structural performance of civil infrastructures under various in-service circumstances. The main value and purpose of SHM is identifying damages through data interpretation system. Research on SHM has been expanded in the last decades and a large volume of data is recorded every day owing to the dramatic development in sensor techniques and certain progress in signal processing techniques. However, efficient and reliable data interpretation for damage detection under environmental variations is still a big challenge. Structural damages might be masked because variations in measured data can be the result of environmental variations. This research reports a novel method based on single-channel Blind Signal Separation (BSS), which extracts environmental effects from measured data directly without any prior knowledge of the structure loading and environmental conditions. Despite the successful application in audio processing and bio-medical research fields, BSS has never been used to detect damage under varying environmental conditions. This proposed method optimizes and combines Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) together to separate structural responses due to different loading conditions respectively from a single channel input signal. The ICA is applying on dimension-reduced output of EEMD. Numerical simulation of a truss bridge, inspired from New Joban Line Arakawa Railway Bridge, is used to validate this method. All results demonstrate that the single-channel BSS-based method can recover temperature effects from mixed structural response recorded by a single sensor with a convincing accuracy. This will be the foundation of further research on direct damage detection under varying environment.

Keywords: damage detection, independent component analysis (ICA), principal component analysis (PCA), ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), environmental variations, structural health monitoring (SHM)

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12 Non-Destructive Static Damage Detection of Structures Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Amir Abbas Fatemi, Zahra Tabrizian, Kabir Sadeghi

Abstract:

To find the location and severity of damage that occurs in a structure, characteristics changes in dynamic and static can be used. The non-destructive techniques are more common, economic, and reliable to detect the global or local damages in structures. This paper presents a non-destructive method in structural damage detection and assessment using GA and static data. Thus, a set of static forces is applied to some of degrees of freedom and the static responses (displacements) are measured at another set of DOFs. An analytical model of the truss structure is developed based on the available specification and the properties derived from static data. The damages in structure produce changes to its stiffness so this method used to determine damage based on change in the structural stiffness parameter. Changes in the static response which structural damage caused choose to produce some simultaneous equations. Genetic Algorithms are powerful tools for solving large optimization problems. Optimization is considered to minimize objective function involve difference between the static load vector of damaged and healthy structure. Several scenarios defined for damage detection (single scenario and multiple scenarios). The static damage identification methods have many advantages, but some difficulties still exist. So it is important to achieve the best damage identification and if the best result is obtained it means that the method is Reliable. This strategy is applied to a plane truss. This method is used for a plane truss. Numerical results demonstrate the ability of this method in detecting damage in given structures. Also figures show damage detections in multiple damage scenarios have really efficient answer. Even existence of noise in the measurements doesn’t reduce the accuracy of damage detections method in these structures.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, damage detection, Finite Element Method, static data, non-destructive

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11 Structural Health Monitoring of Offshore Structures Using Wireless Sensor Networking under Operational and Environmental Variability

Authors: Srinivasan Chandrasekaran, Thailammai Chithambaram, Shihas A. Khader

Abstract:

The early-stage damage detection in offshore structures requires continuous structural health monitoring and for the large area the position of sensors will also plays an important role in the efficient damage detection. Determining the dynamic behavior of offshore structures requires dense deployment of sensors. The wired Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems are highly expensive and always needs larger installation space to deploy. Wireless sensor networks can enhance the SHM system by deployment of scalable sensor network, which consumes lesser space. This paper presents the results of wireless sensor network based Structural Health Monitoring method applied to a scaled experimental model of offshore structure that underwent wave loading. This method determines the serviceability of the offshore structure which is subjected to various environment loads. Wired and wireless sensors were installed in the model and the response of the scaled BLSRP model under wave loading was recorded. The wireless system discussed in this study is the Raspberry pi board with Arm V6 processor which is programmed to transmit the data acquired by the sensor to the server using Wi-Fi adapter, the data is then hosted in the webpage. The data acquired from the wireless and wired SHM systems were compared and the design of the wireless system is verified.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, Wireless Sensor Network, damage detection, Structural Response, Condition Assessment

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10 Damage Detection in a Cantilever Beam under Different Excitation and Temperature Conditions

Authors: A. Kyprianou, A. Tjirkallis

Abstract:

Condition monitoring of structures in service is very important as it provides information about the risk of damage development. One of the essential constituents of structural condition monitoring is the damage detection methodology. In the context of condition monitoring of in service structures a damage detection methodology analyses data obtained from the structure while it is in operation. Usually, this means that the data could be affected by operational and environmental conditions in a way that could mask the effects of a possible damage on the data. This, depending on the damage detection methodology, could lead to either false alarms or miss existing damages. In this article a damage detection methodology that is based on the Spatio-temporal continuous wavelet transform (SPT-CWT) analysis of a sequence of experimental time responses of a cantilever beam is proposed. The cantilever is subjected to white and pink noise excitation to simulate different operating conditions. In addition, in order to simulate changing environmental conditions, the cantilever is subjected to heating by a heat gun. The response of the cantilever beam is measured by a high-speed camera. Edges are extracted from the series of images of the beam response captured by the camera. Subsequent processing of the edges gives a series of time responses on 439 points on the beam. This sequence is then analyzed using the SPT-CWT to identify damage. The algorithm proposed was able to clearly identify damage under any condition when the structure was excited by white noise force. In addition, in the case of white noise excitation, the analysis could also reveal the position of the heat gun when it was used to heat the structure. The analysis could identify the different operating conditions i.e. between responses due to white noise excitation and responses due to pink noise excitation. During the pink noise excitation whereas damage and changing temperature were identified it was not possible to clearly identify the effect of damage from that of temperature. The methodology proposed in this article for damage detection enables the separation the damage effect from that due to temperature and excitation on data obtained from measurements of a cantilever beam. This methodology does not require information about the apriori state of the structure.

Keywords: damage detection, data normalization, spatiotemporal continuous wavelet transform, varying temperature

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9 A Detection Method of Faults in Railway Pantographs Based on Dynamic Phase Plots

Authors: G. Santamato, M. Solazzi, A. Frisoli

Abstract:

Systems for detection of damages in railway pantographs effectively reduce the cost of maintenance and improve time scheduling. In this paper, we present an approach to design a monitoring tool fitting strong customer requirements such as portability and ease of use. Pantograph has been modeled to estimate its dynamical properties, since no data are available. With the aim to focus on suspensions health, a two Degrees of Freedom (DOF) scheme has been adopted. Parameters have been calculated by means of analytical dynamics. A Finite Element Method (FEM) modal analysis verified the former model with an acceptable error. The detection strategy seeks phase-plots topology alteration, induced by defects. In order to test the suitability of the method, leakage in the dashpot was simulated on the lumped model. Results are interesting because changes in phase plots are more appreciable than frequency-shift. Further calculations as well as experimental tests will support future developments of this smart strategy.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, damage detection, pantograph models, phase plots

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8 [Keynote Speech]: Bridge Damage Detection Using Frequency Response Function

Authors: Ahmed Noor Al-Qayyim

Abstract:

During the past decades, the bridge structures are considered very important portions of transportation networks, due to the fast urban sprawling. With the failure of bridges that under operating conditions lead to focus on updating the default bridge inspection methodology. The structures health monitoring (SHM) using the vibration response appeared as a promising method to evaluate the condition of structures. The rapid development in the sensors technology and the condition assessment techniques based on the vibration-based damage detection made the SHM an efficient and economical ways to assess the bridges. SHM is set to assess state and expects probable failures of designated bridges. In this paper, a presentation for Frequency Response function method that uses the captured vibration test information of structures to evaluate the structure condition. Furthermore, the main steps of the assessment of bridge using the vibration information are presented. The Frequency Response function method is applied to the experimental data of a full-scale bridge.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Health monitoring, damage detection, Bridge Assessment, frequency response function (FRF), structure identification

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7 Kernel Parallelization Equation for Identifying Structures under Unknown and Periodic Loads

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi

Abstract:

This paper presents a Kernel parallelization equation for damage identification in structures under unknown periodic excitations. Herein, the dynamic differential equation of the motion of structure is viewed as a mapping from displacements to external forces. Utilizing this viewpoint, a new method for damage detection in structures under periodic loads is presented. The developed method requires only two periods of load. The method detects the damages without finding the input loads. The method is based on the fact that structural displacements under free and forced vibrations are associated with two parallel subspaces in the displacement space. Considering the concept, kernel parallelization equation (KPE) is derived for damage detection under unknown periodic loads. The method is verified for a case study under periodic loads.

Keywords: damage detection, kernel, unknown periodic load, Kernel parallelization equation

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6 Structural Damage Detection Using Modal Data Employing Teaching Learning Based Optimization

Authors: Subhajit Das, Nirjhar Dhang

Abstract:

Structural damage detection is a challenging work in the field of structural health monitoring (SHM). The damage detection methods mainly focused on the determination of the location and severity of the damage. Model updating is a well known method to locate and quantify the damage. In this method, an error function is defined in terms of difference between the signal measured from ‘experiment’ and signal obtained from undamaged finite element model. This error function is minimised with a proper algorithm, and the finite element model is updated accordingly to match the measured response. Thus, the damage location and severity can be identified from the updated model. In this paper, an error function is defined in terms of modal data viz. frequencies and modal assurance criteria (MAC). MAC is derived from Eigen vectors. This error function is minimized by teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) algorithm, and the finite element model is updated accordingly to locate and quantify the damage. Damage is introduced in the model by reduction of stiffness of the structural member. The ‘experimental’ data is simulated by the finite element modelling. The error due to experimental measurement is introduced in the synthetic ‘experimental’ data by adding random noise, which follows Gaussian distribution. The efficiency and robustness of this method are explained through three examples e.g., one truss, one beam and one frame problem. The result shows that TLBO algorithm is efficient to detect the damage location as well as the severity of damage using modal data.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, damage detection, teaching learning based optimization, finite element model updating, modal assurance criteria

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5 Performance and Damage Detection of Composite Structural Insulated Panels Subjected to Shock Wave Loading

Authors: Anupoju Rajeev, Joanne Mathew, Amit Shelke

Abstract:

In the current study, a new type of Composite Structural Insulated Panels (CSIPs) is developed and investigated its performance against shock loading which can replace the conventional wooden structural materials. The CSIPs is made of Fibre Cement Board (FCB)/aluminum as the facesheet and the expanded polystyrene foam as the core material. As tornadoes are very often in the western countries, it is suggestable to monitor the health of the CSIPs during its lifetime. So, the composite structure is installed with three smart sensors located randomly at definite locations. Each smart sensor is fabricated with an embedded half stainless phononic crystal sensor attached to both ends of the nylon shaft that can resist the shock and impact on facesheet as well as polystyrene foam core and safeguards the system. In addition to the granular crystal sensors, the accelerometers are used in the horizontal spanning and vertical spanning with a definite offset distance. To estimate the health and damage of the CSIP panel using granular crystal sensor, shock wave loading experiments are conducted. During the experiments, the time of flight response from the granular sensors is measured. The main objective of conducting shock wave loading experiments on the CSIP panels is to study the effect and the sustaining capacity of the CSIP panels in the extreme hazardous situations like tornados and hurricanes which are very common in western countries. The effects have been replicated using a shock tube, an instrument that can be used to create the same wind and pressure intensity of tornado for the experimental study. Numerous experiments have been conducted to investigate the flexural strength of the CSIP. Furthermore, the study includes the damage detection using three smart sensors embedded in the CSIPs during the shock wave loading.

Keywords: damage detection, flexural strength, sandwich structures, composite structural insulated panels, shock wave loading

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4 A Procedure for Post-Earthquake Damage Estimation Based on Detection of High-Frequency Transients

Authors: Aleksandar Zhelyazkov, Daniele Zonta, Helmut Wenzel, Peter Furtner

Abstract:

In the current research structural health monitoring is considered for addressing the critical issue of post-earthquake damage detection. A non-standard approach for damage detection via acoustic emission is presented - acoustic emissions are monitored in the low frequency range (up to 120 Hz). Such emissions are termed high-frequency transients. Further a damage indicator defined as the Time-Ratio Damage Indicator is introduced. The indicator relies on time-instance measurements of damage initiation and deformation peaks. Based on the time-instance measurements a procedure for estimation of the maximum drift ratio is proposed. Monitoring data is used from a shaking-table test of a full-scale reinforced concrete bridge pier. Damage of the experimental column is successfully detected and the proposed damage indicator is calculated.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, damage detection, acoustic emission, shaking table test

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3 Bridge Damage Detection and Stiffness Reduction Using Vibration Data: Experimental Investigation on a Small Scale Steel Bridge

Authors: Mirco Tarozzi, Giacomo Pignagnoli, Andrea Benedetti

Abstract:

The design of planning maintenance of civil structures often requires the evaluation of their level of safety in order to be able to choose which structure, and in which measure, it needs a structural retrofit. This work deals with the evaluation of the stiffness reduction of a scaled steel deck due to the presence of localized damages. The dynamic tests performed on it have shown the variability of its main frequencies linked to the gradual reduction of its rigidity. This deck consists in a steel grillage of four secondary beams and three main beams linked to a concrete slab. This steel deck is 6 m long and 3 m wide and it rests on two abutments made of concrete. By processing the signals of the accelerations due to a random excitation of the deck, the main natural frequencies of this bridge have been extracted. In order to assign more reliable parameters to the numerical model of the deck, some load tests have been performed and the mechanical property of the materials and the supports have been obtained. The two external beams have been cut at one third of their length and the structural strength has been restored by the design of a bolted plate. The gradual loss of the bolts and the plates removal have made the simulation of localized damage possible. In order to define the relationship between frequency variation and loss in stiffness, the identification of its natural frequencies has been performed, before and after the occurrence of the damage, corresponding to each step. The study of the relationship between stiffness losses and frequency shifts has been reported in this paper: the square of the frequency variation due to the presence of the damage is proportional to the ratio between the rigidities. This relationship can be used to quantify the loss in stiffness of a real scale bridge in an efficient way.

Keywords: Operational modal analysis, damage detection, steel bridge, dynamic test, frequency shifts

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2 Vibration Based Damage Detection and Stiffness Reduction of Bridges: Experimental Study on a Small Scale Concrete Bridge

Authors: Mirco Tarozzi, Giacomo Pignagnoli, Andrea Benedetti

Abstract:

Structural systems are often subjected to degradation processes due to different kind of phenomena like unexpected loadings, ageing of the materials and fatigue cycles. This is true especially for bridges, in which their safety evaluation is crucial for the purpose of a design of planning maintenance. This paper discusses the experimental evaluation of the stiffness reduction from frequency changes due to uniform damage scenario. For this purpose, a 1:4 scaled bridge has been built in the laboratory of the University of Bologna. It is made of concrete and its cross section is composed by a slab linked to four beams. This concrete deck is 6 m long and 3 m wide, and its natural frequencies have been identified dynamically by exciting it with an impact hammer, a dropping weight, or by walking on it randomly. After that, a set of loading cycles has been applied to this bridge in order to produce a uniformly distributed crack pattern. During the loading phase, either cracking moment and yielding moment has been reached. In order to define the relationship between frequency variation and loss in stiffness, the identification of the natural frequencies of the bridge has been performed, before and after the occurrence of the damage, corresponding to each load step. The behavior of breathing cracks and its effect on the natural frequencies has been taken into account in the analytical calculations. By using a sort of exponential function given from the study of lot of experimental tests in the literature, it has been possible to predict the stiffness reduction through the frequency variation measurements. During the load test also crack opening and middle span vertical displacement has been monitored.

Keywords: Operational modal analysis, damage detection, dynamic test, frequency shifts, concrete bridge

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1 Experimental-Numerical Inverse Approaches in the Characterization and Damage Detection of Soft Viscoelastic Layers from Vibration Test Data

Authors: Alaa Fezai, Anuj Sharma, Wolfgang Mueller-Hirsch, André Zimmermann

Abstract:

Viscoelastic materials have been widely used in the automotive industry over the last few decades with different functionalities. Besides their main application as a simple and efficient surface damping treatment, they may ensure optimal operating conditions for on-board electronics as thermal interface or sealing layers. The dynamic behavior of viscoelastic materials is generally dependent on many environmental factors, the most important being temperature and strain rate or frequency. Prior to the reliability analysis of systems including viscoelastic layers, it is, therefore, crucial to accurately predict the dynamic and lifetime behavior of these materials. This includes the identification of the dynamic material parameters under critical temperature and frequency conditions along with a precise damage localization and identification methodology. The goal of this work is twofold. The first part aims at applying an inverse viscoelastic material-characterization approach for a wide frequency range and under different temperature conditions. For this sake, dynamic measurements are carried on a single lap joint specimen using an electrodynamic shaker and an environmental chamber. The specimen consists of aluminum beams assembled to adapter plates through a viscoelastic adhesive layer. The experimental setup is reproduced in finite element (FE) simulations, and frequency response functions (FRF) are calculated. The parameters of both the generalized Maxwell model and the fractional derivatives model are identified through an optimization algorithm minimizing the difference between the simulated and the measured FRFs. The second goal of the current work is to guarantee an on-line detection of the damage, i.e., delamination in the viscoelastic bonding of the described specimen during frequency monitored end-of-life testing. For this purpose, an inverse technique, which determines the damage location and size based on the modal frequency shift and on the change of the mode shapes, is presented. This includes a preliminary FE model-based study correlating the delamination location and size to the change in the modal parameters and a subsequent experimental validation achieved through dynamic measurements of specimen with different, pre-generated crack scenarios and comparing it to the virgin specimen. The main advantage of the inverse characterization approach presented in the first part resides in the ability of adequately identifying the material damping and stiffness behavior of soft viscoelastic materials over a wide frequency range and under critical temperature conditions. Classic forward characterization techniques such as dynamic mechanical analysis are usually linked to limitations under critical temperature and frequency conditions due to the material behavior of soft viscoelastic materials. Furthermore, the inverse damage detection described in the second part guarantees an accurate prediction of not only the damage size but also its location using a simple test setup and outlines; therefore, the significance of inverse numerical-experimental approaches in predicting the dynamic behavior of soft bonding layers applied in automotive electronics.

Keywords: damage detection, dynamic characterization, inverse approaches, vibration testing, viscoelastic layers

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