Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

dairy cow Related Abstracts

9 Biological Organic or Inorganic Sulfur Sources Feeding Effects on Intake and Some Blood Metabolites of Close-Up Holstein Cows

Authors: Mehdi Kazemi-Bonchenari, Esmaeil Manidari, Vahid Keshavarz


This study was carried out to investigate the effects of increased level of sulfur by supplementing magnesium sulfate with or without biologically organic source in dairy cow close-up diets on dry matter intake (DMI) and some blood metabolites. The 24 multiparous close-up Holstein cows averaging body weight 687.94 kg and days until expected calving date 21.89 d were allocated in three different treatments (8 cows per each) in a completely randomized design. The first treatment (T1) has contained 0.21% sulfur (DM basis), the second treatment (T2) has contained 0.41% sulfur which entirely supplied through magnesium sulfate and the third treatment (T3) has contained 0.41% sulfur which supplied through combination of magnesium sulfate and an organic source of sulfur. All the cows were fed same diet after parturition until 21 d. The DMI for both pre-calving (P < 0.001) and post-calving was affected by treatments (P < 0.004) and T2 showed the lowest DMI among treatments. Among the blood metabolites, glucose, calcium, and copper were decreased in T2 (P < 0.05). However, blood concentrations of BHBA, NEFA, urea, CPK, and AST were increased in T2 (P < 0.05). The results of the present study indicate that although magnesium sulfate has negative effect on dairy cow health and performance, a combination of magnesium sulfate and biological organic source of sulfur in close-up diets could have positive effects on DMI and performance of Holstein dairy cows.

Keywords: organic sulfur, dairy cow, intake, blood metabolites

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8 Influence of Probiotics on Dairy Cows Diet

Authors: V. Endo, V. A. Vieira, M. P. Sforcini, G. C. Magioni, M. D. S. Oliveira


The main goal of this paper was evaluate the effect of diets containing different levels of probiotic on performance and milk composition of lactating cows. Eight Holstein cows were distributed in two 4x4 Latin square. The diets were based on corn silage, concentrate and the treatment (0, 3, 6 or 9 grams of probiotic/animal/day). It was evaluated the dry matter intake of nutrients, milk yield and composition. The use of probiotics did not affect the nutrient intake (p>0.05) neither the daily milk production or corrected to 4% fat (p>0.05). However, it was observed that there was a significant fall in milk composition with higher levels of probiotics supplementation. These results emphasize the need of further studies with different experimental designs or improve the number of Latin square with longer periods of adaptation.

Keywords: Probiotics, Milk Composition, dairy cow, daily milk production

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7 Effects of Specific Essential Oil Compounds on, Feed Intake, Milk Production, and Ruminal Environment in Dairy Cows during Heat Exposure

Authors: Kamran Reza-Yazdi, Mohammad Fallah, Mahdi Khodaparast, Farshad Kateb, Morteza Hosseini-Ghaffari


The objective of this study was to determine effect of dietary essential oil (EO) compounds, which contained cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, peppermint, coriander, cumin, lemongrass, and an organic carrier on feed intake, milk composition, and rumen fermentation of dairy cows during heat exposure. Thirty-two Holstein cows (days in milk= 60 ± 5) were assigned to one of two treatment groups: a Control and EO fed. The experiment lasted 28 days. Dry matter intake (DMI) was measured daily while and milk production was measured weekly. Our result showed that DMI and milk yield was decreased (P < 0.01) in control cows relative to EO cows. Furthermore, supplementation with EO was associated with a decrease in the molar proportion of propionate (P < 0.05) and increase (P < 0.05) in acetate to propionate ratio. In conclusion, EO supplementations in diets can be useful nutritional modification to alleviate for the decrease DMI and milk production during heat exposure in lactating dairy cows.

Keywords: eugenol, plant extract, dairy cow, feed additive

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6 The Possibility of Increase UFA in Milk by Adding of Canola Seed in Holstein Dairy Cow Diets

Authors: A. Aghazadeh, K. Nazeradl, H. Mansoori Yarahmadi


This study was done to evaluate the effects of feeding canola seed for enrichment of UFA and milk performance of early lactation dairy cows. Twelve multi parous Holstein cows (635.3±18 kg BW and 36±9 DIM) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1- Control (CON) without canola seed, 2- 7.5% raw canola seed (CUT), and 3- 7.5% Heat-treated canola seed (CHT) of the total ration. Diets contained same crude protein, but varied in net energy. Diets were composed by basis of corn silage and alfalfa. Cows were milked twice daily for 4 wk. The inclusion of canola seed did not alter DM intake, weight gain, or body condition score of cows. Milk fat from CHT cows had greater proportions of UFA and MUFA (P < 0.05). Feeding CUT increased PUFA without significant difference. Milk fat from CHT had a greater proportion of C18 UFA and tended to have a higher proportion of other UFA. FCM milk yields, milk fat and protein percentages and total yield of these components were similar between treatments. Milk urea nitrogen was lower in cows fed CON and CHT. Feeding canola seed to lactating dairy cows resulted in milk fat with higher proportions of healthful fatty acids without adverse affecting milk yield or milk composition.

Keywords: Milk, dairy cow, fatty acid, canola seed

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5 Effects of a Simulated Power Cut in Automatic Milking Systems on Dairy Cows Heart Activity

Authors: Anja Gräff, Stefan Holzer, Manfred Höld, Jörn Stumpenhausen, Heinz Bernhardt


In view of the increasing quantity of 'green energy' from renewable raw materials and photovoltaic facilities, it is quite conceivable that power supply variations may occur, so that constantly working machines like automatic milking systems (AMS) may break down temporarily. The usage of farm-made energy is steadily increasing in order to keep energy costs as low as possible. As a result, power cuts are likely to happen more frequently. Current work in the framework of the project 'stable 4.0' focuses on possible stress reactions by simulating power cuts up to four hours in dairy farms. Based on heart activity it should be found out whether stress on dairy cows increases under these circumstances. In order to simulate a power cut, 12 random cows out of 2 herds were not admitted to the AMS for at least two hours on three consecutive days. The heart rates of the cows were measured and the collected data evaluated with HRV Program Kubios Version 2.1 on the basis of eight parameters (HR, RMSSD, pNN50, SD1, SD2, LF, HF and LF/HF). Furthermore, stress reactions were examined closely via video analysis, milk yield, ruminant activity, pedometer and measurements of cortisol metabolites. Concluding it turned out, that during the test only some animals were suffering from minor stress symptoms, when they tried to get into the AMS at their regular milking time, but couldn´t be milked because the system was manipulated. However, the stress level during a regular “time-dependent milking rejection” was just as high. So the study comes to the conclusion, that the low psychological stress level in the case of a 2-4 hours failure of an AMS does not have any impact on animal welfare and health.

Keywords: dairy cow, heart activity, power cut, stable 4.0

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4 Milk Production and Milk Composition of Dairy Cows in Response to Calcium Salt of Palm Oil Fatty Acids Supplementation

Authors: Wisitiporn Suksombat, Tanawat Phonkert, Chayapol Meeprom


The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of calcium salt of palm oil fatty acids (Ca-POFA) supplementation on milk production and milk composition of dairy cows. Twenty-four early lactating crossbred Holstein Friesian 87.5% cows (15.4 ± 3.75 kg of milk/d; 93 ± 27 DIM; 369 ± 6 kg of BW), were assigned into 3 treatments in an RCBD. All dairy cows were fed 15.4% CP total mixed ration (TMR). The first group (control) received a basal diet and no supplement. The second group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 150 g/d calcium salt of palm oil fatty acids (Ca-POFA), and the last group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 300 g/d Ca-POFA. The experiment lasted 40 days with the first 10 days is an adaptation period, and measurements were made during the last 30 days in 6 periods with 5-days in each period for milk sample collection. The results found that supplemented calcium salt of palm oil fatty acid had no effect on milk yield, milk composition, milk composition yield, live weight and live weight change. However, Ca-POFA decreased milk protein percentage (P < 0.05).

Keywords: milk production, Milk Composition, dairy cow, calcium salt of palm oil fatty acid

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3 Effects of the Supplementation of Potassium Humate at Different Levels to the Dairy Cows' Concentrated Mix during Dry Period on Early Lactation Yield Parameters and Dam/Calf Immunity

Authors: Ismail Bayram, Cangir Uyarlar, E. Eren Gultepe, I. Sadi Cetingul


This study was conducted to investigate the effect of humic acid (Potassium Humate) at different levels on rations on the effects of both maternal and offspring health, metabolic parameters and immunity levels in transition dairy cows. For this purpose, 50 Holstein dairy cows divided 5 trial groups. Experimental groups were designed as follows: A) Control (0% Humas); B) 0.5 Humas (0,5% in concentrated diet); C) 1 Humas (1% in concentrated diet), D) 1,5 Humas (1,5% in concentrated diet), E) 2 Humas (2% in concentrated diet), respectively. The study lasted from the first day of the dry period to postpartum 30th day. Diets were prepared as isocaloric and isonitrogenic. In the experiment, the day on which the animals gave birth was accepted as ‘0 (zero)’ and blood was taken from tail vein (v. coccygea) at -60, -53, -46, -39, -32, -25, -18, -11, -4, 0, ; Colostrum samples were taken on days 0, 1 and 2; Blood samples were taken on days 0, 1, 2, 15 and 30 from the juguler vein (v. jugularis) of the new born calves. Total blood leukocyte, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, granulocytes, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MWC, RDW, PLT, MPV, PDW, PCT, NEFA, BHBA, Glucose, Total Cholesterol , Triglyceride, LDL, HDL, VLDL, ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and Total IgG levels and colostrum IgG levels were determined in this experiment. The results suggest that although the supplementation of humic acid at 2% level adversely affected to production parameters, the addition of humic acid (potassium humate) to the concentrate mix during the dry period (particularly 0.5 and 1% levels) may provide an increasing on mother and the offspring immunity, some improving on serum metabolism parameters and enhancing the milk production.

Keywords: Immunity, Humic Acid , Calf, dairy cow

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2 The Evaluation of Superiority of Foot Local Anesthesia Method in Dairy Cows

Authors: Samaneh Yavari, Christiane Pferrer, Elisabeth Engelke, Alexander Starke, Juergen Rehage


Background: Nowadays, bovine limb interventions, especially any claw surgeries, raises selection of the most qualified and appropriate local anesthesia technique applicable for any superficial or deep interventions of the limbs. Currently, two local anesthesia methods of Intravenous Regional Anesthesia (IVRA), as well as Nerve Blocks, have been routine to apply. However, the lack of studies investigating the quality and duration as well as quantity and onset of full (complete) local anesthesia, is noticeable. Therefore, the aim of our study was comparing the onset and quality of both IVRA and our modified NBA at the hind limb of dairy cows. For this abstract, only the onset of full local anesthesia would be consider. Materials and Methods: For that reason, we used six healthy non pregnant non lactating Holestein Frisian cows in a cross-over study design. Those cows divided into two groups to receive IVRA and our modified four-point NBA. For IVRA, 20 ml procaine without epinephrine was injected into the vein digitalis dorsalis communis III and for our modified four-point NBA, 10-15 ml procaine without epinephrine preneurally to the nerves, superficial and deep peroneal as well as lateral and medial branches of metatarsal nerves. For pain stimulation, electrical stimulator Grass S48 was applied. Results: The results of electrical stimuli revealed the faster onset of full local anesthesia (p < 0.05) by application of our modified NBA in comparison to IVRA about 10 minutes. Conclusion and discussion: Despite of available references showing faster onset of foot local anesthesia of IVRA, our study demonstrated that our modified four point NBA not only can be well known as a standard foot local anesthesia method applicable to desensitize the hind limb of dairy cows, but also, selection of this modified validated local anesthesia method can lead to have a faster start of complete desensitization of distal hind limb that is remarkable in any bovine limb interventions under time constraint.

Keywords: dairy cow, IVRA, four point NBA, hind limb, full onset

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1 Assessment of the Electrical, Mechanical, and Thermal Nociceptive Thresholds for Stimulation and Pain Measurements at the Bovine Hind Limb

Authors: Samaneh Yavari, Christiane Pferrer, Elisabeth Engelke, Alexander Starke, Juergen Rehage


Background: Three nociceptive thresholds of thermal, electrical, and mechanical thresholds commonly use to evaluate the local anesthesia in many species, for instance, cow, horse, cat, dog, rabbit, and so on. Due to the lack of investigations to evaluate and/or validate such those nociceptive thresholds, our plan was the comparison of two-foot local anesthesia methods of Intravenous Regional Anesthesia (IVRA) and our modified four-point Nerve Block Anesthesia (NBA). Materials and Methods: Eight healthy nonpregnant nondairy Holstein Frisian cows in a cross-over study design were selected for this study. All cows divided into two different groups to receive two local anesthesia techniques of IVRA and our modified four-point NBA. Three thermal, electrical, and mechanical force and pinpricks were applied to evaluate the quality of local anesthesia methods before and after local anesthesia application. Results: The statistical evaluation demonstrated that our four-point NBA has a qualification to select as a standard foot local anesthesia. However, the recorded results of our study revealed no significant difference between two groups of local anesthesia techniques of IVRA and modified four-point NBA related to quality and duration of anesthesia stimulated by electrical, mechanical and thermal nociceptive stimuli. Conclusion and discussion: All three nociceptive threshold stimuli of electrical, mechanical and heat nociceptive thresholds can be applied to measure and evaluate the efficacy of foot local anesthesia of dairy cows. However, our study revealed no superiority of those three nociceptive methods to evaluate the duration and quality of bovine foot local anesthesia methods. Veterinarians to investigate the duration and quality of their selected anesthesia method can use any of those heat, mechanical, and electrical methods.

Keywords: Thermal, Mechanical, dairy cow, IVRA, hind limb, electrical threshold, NBA

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